B. A Plan of the New Townships on the Grand or Ottawa River, 1813

A. L'aspect formel de la carte

La carte "A Plan of the new townships on the Grand or Ottawa River" est originalement publiée en deux formats. Cette carte est de 320 X 138 cm. L’échelle est indiquée en milles (3 milles = un pouce). Elle identifie les limites administratives des cantons. Elle précise les limites exactes des surfaces bâties. Il officialise le partage des cantons qui est dessiné conformément au cadastre d’origine. Le plan offre une vision synthétique du développement du Bas-Canada au début du XIXe siècle. Elle renseigne sur la mise en valeur du sol. Elle rapporte de précieuses indications sur les toponymes de l’époque et la langue d’usage officielle de la langue anglaise. Elle informe aussi sur les techniques géographiques de l’époque.

LE CANTON DE HULL

Wright, ses associés et leurs familles arrivèrent pendant l'hiver de 1800 pour s'établir dans le canton de Hull, à 80 miles en amont de la colonie la plus rapprochée sur la rivière des Outaouais. Dans le cadre de revendications territoriales, Wright demanda en mars de la même année que l'on effectue l'arpentage de canton. En 1802, aux frais de Wright, Joseph Bouchette, arpenteur général du Bas-Canada, procéda à l'arpentage du canton de Hull en 28 terres agricoles de 200 acres chacune. Les terres du domaine de la Couronne et celles réservées au clergé furent réparties dans tout le canton (...).

Abstract - Letters Patent -

"Erecting the Township of Hull and granting certain lands wherin to Philemon Wright and others,

Dated 3rd January 1806"

Joseph Bouchette, Arpenteur général du Bas-Canada (1802)

Diane Aldred,

Page 14.

Le plan A Plan of the new townships on the Grand or Ottawa River est une des premières cartes produites par Bouchette en 1813 alors qu’il est arpenteur général du Bas-Canada. Le plan fournit de précieuses informations sur le milieu biophysique, les divisions administratives de l'époque, l'habitat, les activités humaines et la valeur spéculative des cantons[1]. Joseph Bouchette souhaite réaliser une carte topographique de toutes les régions établies, et il juge que la Grand River est une des plus intéressantes de la Province du Bas-Canada.

Ottawa or Grand River. — This magnificent and important river is so amply described in the first volume, that a reference to the pages that contain a description of its more remarkable features is aU that is necessary in this place. These places are annexed in alphabetical order as follow :

  • Chenaux, les, p. 189.
  • Coulange Fort, p. 188.
  • Grand Calumet, p. 188.
  • Lac des Chats, p. 189—201.
  • Lake Chaudière,-p. 191.
  • Long Sault, p. 193.
  • Mondion's Point, p. 190.
  • Ottawa, p. 187, et seq.
  • Point Fortune, p. 197-
  • Portage du Fort, p. 188.
  • Rapide du Fort, p. 189.
  • Union Bridges, p. 192.

Éléments d'intérêt

Les éléments d’intérêts sont nombreux sur le plan de 1813. Le plan explique la géographie du Bas-Canada au nord de la Grand River. Le plan laisse voir sans trop d’information les toponymes des cantons sur la rive sud au Haut-Canada. Le réseau hydrographique est de teinte grise. Le plan se restreint aux principaux cours d’eau. Ils sont marqués d’un trait noirci plus large.

Le rang 1 du canton de Hull

Le plan révèle aussi les formes majeures du terrain. Les premiers rangs des cantons se trouvent au sud de la carte et ils sont limités par la Grand Ottawa River. Les lots sont rectangulaires et ils suivent le tracé des rangs faisant face à la rivière. Les lots concédés sont indiqués par des hachures. Cette marque démontre qu’il y a la présence d’une demande entérinée d’un bail. Le couvert forestier illustré par de petits arbres indique aussi les terres en friche et les distingue avec celles mises en valeur. Les lots coloriés sont les terres réservées au clergé protestant ou à la couronne.

Le rang un se limite à une pointe au sud du canton de Hull à l’ouest des entreprises Philemon Wright & Sons situé à la hauteur des chutes de la Chaudière sur le rang 3. La limite nord-est identifiée par le premier tracé est parallèle à la rivière. Il se dénote que le premier rang ne compte que 12 lots dont un seul qui a des titres d’enregistrement foncier auprès des instances coloniales. Le plan identifie aussi le lot 15 contesté sur la terre du clergé teinte en vert. Il se remarque aussi facilement que le chef du canton est installé au troisième rang à l’ouest du premier rang. Joseph Bouchette révèle que "lot 14 in the range also affords an advantageous site for a village, which might be built at the junction of two roads, near which there is a saw-mill and also a tolerably well-cultivated farm" (Bouchette, 1832- Voir l'extrait dans son contexte ci-dessous). Ainsi il se dénote qu'à la croisé des deux chemins menant vers le Lake Chaudière (Lac Deschênes) et l'autre vers les lots à l'ouest du lac sur le rang 2 (Aylmer), se trouve un endroit propice pour établir le village du canton de Hull.

La carte dans son contexte de production

A Plan of the new townships on the Grand or Ottawa River illustre alors l’organisation territoriale sur le canton de la rivière des Outaouais. Elle démontre clairement les principes de cette organisation. Le producteur, Joseph Bouchette, est un administrateur et un géographe détenant un poste clé dans l’administration publique du Canada, Il est l’arpenteur général du Bas-Canada en 1804-1841. Il est aussi reconnu comme étant le géographe endossant le plus complètement l’idéologie britannique. Il détient un poste lui attirant des opinions favorables à ses demandes dans l’administration coloniale. Il est l’auteur des œuvres les plus reconnues : la Description topographique de la Province du Bas-Canada produite en 1815 et son guide d’accompagnement présenté au Régent en 1816 le Topographical Dictionary of the Province of Lower Canada de 1832.

Ces deux ouvrages sont rédigés avec l’intention d’illustrer le développement colonial. Il s’agit d’un projet précipité par la transformation du territoire foncier du Bas-Canada. En somme, «le premier de ces ouvrages se présente sous la forme d'un inventaire partiellement illustré, réalisé au fil des observations[2] ». L’urgence repose selon Bouchette que la colonie ne dispose pas des cartes topographiques bien à jour permettant d’avoir regard sur les terres de Sa Majesté britannique. Les arguments insistent sur le fait que l’intérieur du pays est mal connu, que la guerre canado-américaine retarde l’établissement définitif des frontières et que les terres font objet de spéculation dans les cantons. D’autant plus, l’administration coloniale a besoin d’un outil de bonne gestion, une meilleure connaissance du milieu et une vue d’ensemble pour favoriser une meilleure mise en valeur des ressources.

La carte et son contenu

Le contenu de la carte demeure une des sources cartographiques les plus importantes dans l’étude du territoire québécois au début au 19e siècle. La rareté de ces documents explique surement son grand usage dans l’historiographie du Bas-Canada. Serge Courville nous met cependant en garde au sujet des limites des plans produits par l’arpenteur général du Bas-Canada. « Mais il nous faut constater cependant qu'ils ont suscité peu de critiques de la part des chercheurs. Tout au plus trouvons-nous ici et là quelques indications, insuffisantes généralement à nous mettre en garde contre les nombreuses contradictions qu'ils recèlent, tant au plan de l'information écrite que cartographique[3] ». Courville poursuit en notant que les plans Bouchette exigent des sources indirectes telles les histoires locales, le dictionnaire topographique de Bouchette, les collections de cartes anciennes, les cartes cadastrales et les cartes des seigneuries du Service québécois du cadastre (Courville, 1981)[4]. Il s’agit ainsi d’avoir un cumul d'indications des autres sources pour suffire à circonscrire le périmètre de l'établissement recherché[5]. Les éléments cartographiés sont trop simplifiés pour utilisation dans la microhistoire. Il demeure que le contenu de la carte permet délimiter les lots du rang I et d’en reconnaître les caractéristiques des lots. Vous n’avez qu’à “cliquer” sur l’image pour voir les détails inscrits sur cette carte révélatrice des débuts du peuplement sur l’Outaouais en 1813.

Joseph Bouchette, A Plan of the new townships on the Grand or Ottawa River, 1813,

Collection des cartes et plans de la BAnQ, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec.

Sur cette aquarelle, il est possible de percevoir le développement agricole décrit par Bouchette en 1832 :

" A road from Chaudiere Lake, cutting at right angles the Britannia Road, leads into the back settlements, where, of course, no good roads can at present be expected : on this road few settlements are to be seen beyond the 4th and 5th ranges, from which to the 3rd range the farms progressively increase and towards the Chaudiere Lake the road passes apparently through an old-settled country" (Bouchard, 1832).

The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028898926

TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY THE PROVINCE LOWER CANADA.

BY JOSEPH BOUCHETTE, ESQ.

H. M.'S SURVEVOR-GENERAL OF LOWER CANADA, LIEUT. COL. C. M.,

V. p. OF THE LIT. AND HIST. SOC. OF QUEBEC, AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOC. OF ARTS

AND SCIENCES, LONDON.

(LONDON)

PUBLISHED BY

LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMAN,

PATERNOSTER- ROW.

1832.

TO

HIS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY,

KING WILLIAM IV.

THIS TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY

GREAT BRITAIN'S MOST HAPPY AND FLOURISHING COLONIES, IS, WITH HIS MAJESTY'S SPECIAL PERMISSION, MOST BESPECTrULLY DEDICATED

BY

HIS MAJESTY'S

MOST GRATEFUL AND DEVOTED

CANADIAN SUBJECT AND SERVANT,

JOS. BOUCHETTE.

PREFACE.

Antecedently to the year 1759, the dominion of North America was divided almost exclusively between the Kings of England and France ; the former possessing the immense Atlantic seaboard of the continent, the latter the territories along the borders of the gigantic " Fleuve du Canada," or River St. Lawrence. But the conquest, gallantly achieved by Wolfe on the memorable plains of Abr'am, near Quebec, left, subsequently to that event, but a slender footing to the French crown in America, whilst it at once extended the empire of Great Britain from the Atlantic Ocean to the shores of the Pacific, and rendered it almost co-extensive with the whole northern division of the New World. England continued in the undisputed possession of these her immense dominions, for a period of nearly sixteen years, when those revolutionary discontents broke out in the old colonies, which ended in the declaration of their independence, and their recognition as a free and independent state, by the treaty of Paris, 3rd of September, 1783.

Whether the reduction of Canada accelerated the separation of the original British North American Plantations, by removing the check vphich the relative geographical position of the surrounding French possessions was calculated to produce upon the colonists, it is difficult to say; but it is, perhaps, less problematical whether England would this day have had to boast of her valuable transatlantic dominions, had not the victory of the British hero, who fell in the consummation of the conquest of Canada, preceded the birth of the United States of America, as one of the independent nations of the world. Certain it is, however, that the severe consequences of the loss of the British plantations were greatly mitigated by Wolfe's victory, and the accession of the French colonies to the British empire, to which, not only from their intrinsic worth, but because of the political power and the commercial advantages incidental to the possession of them, they have since become important appendages.

In the war waged by the colonies against the mother country, the people of Canada, although so recently become British subjects, resisted with fidelity every attempt that was made to seduce them from their new allegiance, and with bravery repulsed every endeavour to subdue them. Such devotedness was highly appreciated ; and England, at the termination of the revolutionary war, directed her attention towards giving increased consequence to her remaining possessions, with the design of drawing from them some of the supplies she had been accustomed to receive from the countries recently dismembered from the empire. It was some time, however, before the efforts of the mother country were attended with any degree of success, and a new order of things established, by which the languor that marked the growth of the colonies as French plantations, gradually gave place to a

system of more vigour in the agricultural improvement of the country, and a more active development of its commercial resources.

If the British dominions in North America be viewed merely in relation to their vast superficies, which exceeds 4,000,000 of geographical square miles, their importance will become apparent; more especially when the manifold advantages of their geographical position are properly estimated. Glancing at the map, we see British sovereignty on the shores of the Atlantic, commanding the mouth of the most splendid river on the globe ; and, sweeping across the whole continent of America, we find it again on the coasts of the Pacific Ocean, thus embracing an immense section of the New World in the northern hemisphere, reaching at some points as far south as 41° of north latitude, and stretching northward, thence, to the polar regions. But the importance of these possessions should be estimated less by their territorial extent than by the resources they offer, their capabilities of improvement, the great increase of which their commerce is susceptible, and the extensive field they present for emigration.

The British North American provinces occupy but a comparatively small portion of the aggregate superficies of the whole of the British dominions in the western hemisphere ; yet they cover about 500,000 geographical square miles, and contain a population which in round numbers amounts to nearly a million and a half of souls. Of the above superficies, the province of Lower Canada embraces almost one half, whilst its population absorbs nearly an equal proportion of the whole population of the North American Colonies. The inhabitants of Lower Canada are chiefly Catholics, the number of that persuasion being about 7-Sths of the totality. Of the remaining eighth, rather more than 2-3rds belong to the Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches, and somewhat less than l-3rd comprises all other denominations.

In point of local advantages, situation and fertility, Lower Canada is decidedly one of the most valuable and interesting sections of the British Colonial Empire ; and although its climate is rigorous during part of the year, the clearness and wholesomeness of the atmosphere, atones, on the one hand, for its severity,whilst the abundance of snow that falls in winter, contributes, on the other, to the vigour of vegetation in summer.

The general features of the country are bold and imposing. The St. Lawrence, in its greatest amplitude, flows majestically through the heart of the province, receiving, on both its banks, the ample waters of many a fine river, opening convenient natural avenues to the collateral parts of the country. Upon a rocky and commanding eminence, 400 miles from the Gulf and about 650 from the sea, stands Quebec, the capital of those colonies and the key of the country, with a seaport calculated to harbour first-rate line-of-battle ships; 180 miles further up the St. Lawrence is the flourishing city of Montreal, which yields to Quebec in the strength of position, only. It enjoys an excellent seaport, also, and, being the emporium of the American and Upper Canada trade with the province, is rapidly increasing in commercial opulence and population. The following statement of the recent imports and exports at Quebec, much of the latter of which had passed through Montreal, will convey some idea of the activity of commercial business at the principal seaport in the province.

(...)

HULL

Columbia Farm two roads branch off in different directions. One, passing along the edge of Columbia Pond, leads to the Gatineau Farm, remarkable as being the spot selected by Mr. Ph. Wright in 1801 for his first and original habitation, and as such is not divested of interest, being, as it were, the parent of the actual flourishing settlement of Hull. The other road directing its course w. winds suddenly at lot No. 8, and rejoins the main front road; meanwhile the Columbia Road continues towards the n. until it meets the River Gatineau in the 7th range, where Mr. Christopher Wright's new farm is situated. A road from Chaudiere Lake, cutting at right angles the Britannia Road, leads into the back settlements, where, of course, no good roads can at present be expected : on this road few settlements are to be seen beyond the 4th and 5th ranges, from which to the 3rd range the farms progressively increase and towards the Chaudiere Lake the road passes apparently through an old-settled country.

The road communication from Hull to Montreal is bad and in 1821 was impracticable for any horse or team. A road, 16 ft. wide, has been cut by the government commissioners, over 64 miles, to the head of Long Sault and 71 bridges built. There are 4 places where either ferries must be established or large bridges built and the ravines or gullies filled up to enable teams to pass. The remaining 60 miles to Montreal are passable. Mr. Ruggles Wright, the postmaster of this t., in his evidence as to this road, said, that the inhabitants and travellers of every description have suffered great inconvenience for the want of a road, that there have been several mails lost and horses drowned by attempting to transport the mail on the ice early in the fall and late in the spring (there being no land road), and that not a year has passed for the last twenty-five years back that accidents have not occurred either in the loss of property or men's lives, as there are about four weeks at these seasons of the year, between the opening and closing of the boat navigation, when the river is not passable, owing to the ice at the Chaudiere breaking up 15 days earlier than it does 60 miles below, and that this is the only possible communication they have to and from a market. Mr. Wright has, with some assistance, opened all the roads to make it possible for his people to pass and repass. One stone causeway,inparticular,costhim above £1000. The total sum expended by him and some of his neighbours upon these roads, during the 20 years after he first obtained the property, amounted to £2211 17s. 6d. besides £955 expended by the government commissioners making a total of £3166 17s. 6d. The extent of roads made with this money is about thirty miles.

This t. abounds with excellent timber, which is chiefly beech, birch, maple, pine, elm and some oak, basswood and hemlock ; the oak is fit for naval purposes and much of the pine for masts of large dimensions. Of the oak there are 4 species : the white, rock, scarlet and red. Of the pine kind there are 10 : the white spruce fir, balsam fir, shrub pine, hemlock spruce, yellow pine, American larch or tamarack, black spruce fir, pitch pine, red or Norway pine and white pine. Of the birch 5 sorts : the yellow, black canoe, white and dwarf birch. Of the maple 6 : the soft or white maple, black sugar maple, red or hard maple, sugar maple, striped maple or morsewood, and another species for which there is no English name. Of the beech 2 species, and also of the ash 2 species, the white and black. The walnut, the hickory and the butternut, a species of the walnut, and red and white cedar. Of the cherry there are 3 kinds ; of the willow 6; of the basswood 2; of the elm 2, the common and slippery elm: &c. There are in all, as far as have been observed, 42 species of forest trees and upwards of 60 shrubs.

Hull is abundantly watered by rivers, lakes and numerous tributary streams ; the Gatineau is the principal river, and in a large and rapid stream runs diagonally through the t. from n. e. to s. w. and is only navigable for canoes. In the chain of highlands are a great many lakes, some of which are exceedingly beautiful and abound with excellent trout. The principal lake lies in a transverse position from lot 23 in the 11th range to the commencement of lot 28 in the 13th range; it is 3 m. in length by |- m. in breadth and forms a narrow pass of about 16 chains wide on the division line between the Jlth and 12th ranges, which intersects a small island situate about midway from shore to shore ; its shape is extremely irregular and at lot 28 it branches offintoEardley ; its waters discharge into the Gatineau at the line between the 15th and 16th ranges, thus running in a contrary direction to the current of that river — a singularity

occasioned by the highlands which stretch across the 8th, 9th and 10th ranges, and form a natural division of the waters flowing north and south.

The Columbia Pond is a small lake lying at the extremity of the 5th range; its waters fall into the Ottawa a little south of the estuary of the Gatineau.

An iron bed of great richness has been discovered in the township but it has never been worked. There is also a lead-mine on the Gatineau River, known only to the Indians, who have brought down quantities of it ; but the situation has not been precisely ascertained, owing to the reluctance which the Indians have to communicate discoveries of this nature. Marble of the finest quality is abundant : there is a very fine bed of this mineral on the Gatineau River, near the first rapid, about 400 yards above the still water, where a steam-boat may float with ease and safety. This bed of marble is supposed to be of immense extent ; it appears in the neighbourhood of the iron-mine and the Lac des Chats abounds with it ; that which appears at the surface is of inferior quality : this quarry forms a precipice one mile in length and 60 or 70 ft. high and is of a remarkably white appearance ; it is a fair species of white marble without vein. There is limestone of the best quality on the borders of the Gatineau, and also a lead-mine in the 10th or 12th range. Granite is found in the interior, on the ranges of rocks or mountains.

In this t. are several excellent and well-cultivated farms, and Mr. Wright has from 5 to 6,000 acres under cultivation ;his son, Mr. T. Wright, has two establishments in the 7th and 8th ranges on the b. bank of the Gatineau ; his lands are advantageously situated and in a high state of culture, affording excellent pasture.

The Columbia Farm is situated in the 4th range, about 14- mile from the Ottawa and w. of Mr. Wright's house. The extent, position, and culture of this farm deserve to be particularly commended. The convenient and judicious subdivision and economy exhibited in the management of this farm are truly meritorious, and reflect great credit upon the enterprise and judgment of the proprietor. All kinds of grain are produced in abundance and hemp and flax may be cultivated with great success. Mr.Wright one year raised a very considerable quantity of hemp and sent a very fine .specimen, measuring 14 ft. in length, to the Hemp Committee of Montreal; he also sent two samples of the seed with two bundles of the hemp to the Society of Arts at Quebec, and was complimented in return with a silver medal; from a certificate which he received from the Hemp Committee it appeared that he raised, that year, 11 parts out of 13 of the total raised in the province. Although this is a very fine country for the growth of hemp, Mr. Wright was obliged to discontinue growing it on a large scale on account of the expense of preparing it for market, the hemp-peelers charging him one dollar per day, or one bushel of wheat, labourers being very scarce : he saved nearly 100 bushels of seed, which he sold in Montreal at a fair price, and was obliged to send the hemp to Halifax in Nova Scotia for sale. He now grows only small quantities for his own use.

The expense and process of clearing and fencing an acre of wild land, its usual produce, and the process of clearing, according to Mr. Wright's evidence before the Committee,are as follow :

The process of clearing consists in three things : cutting down the under brush at 7*. 6d. per acre ; chopping down the wood in rows, two rods wide, at 25*. per acre ; firing; burning, and branding fit for the harrow, at 27*. 6d. per acre, after which the work is done. The total expense of clearing is therefore £ .3 per acre, and the common price of putting in the crop is 10s. per acre. The poorer settlers find themselves occasionally constrained to adopt a more imperfect mode of clearing : they first cut out the brush and small trees, leaving the larger trees standing, which shade the land so that they do not get more than half a crop. The produce per acre is from 2 to 400 bush, of potatoes, 25 bush, of oats or wheat, 30 bush, of Indian corn, 200 bush, of turnips. — Mr. Wright's constant aim to improve the breeds of cattle has been attended with much success; he brought over from England, many years past, at great expense, some of the best Herefordshire and Devon breeds, by way of experiment; these cattle crossed produced a breed justly celebrated, which also, crossed with the Canadian breed, produce excellent cattle.

Wright Village is pleasantly situated at the e. e. angle of the T. occupying the front of lots No. 2, 3 and 4 in the 3rd range ; it contains a handsome church, 68 ft. by 28 ft. with a steeple 121 ft. high, it stands on an eminence facing the river, decorated with much taste and surmounted by a neat spire. Nearly in front of the church, close by the highway, stands a stone house of two stories, where an hotel establishment is carried on, aflPordino' comfortable accommodations. Opposite to these on the other side of the main road and on the bank of the river are the corn and saw-mills a blacksmith's forgBj stores, &c. and a spacious and conspicuous stone edifice with a cupola, often mistaken for a church from its singular construction. The mill-dam projecting out upon the reef of rocks, towards the rapid, is remarkable for its extent and solidity, w. of the mill are the long causeway and bridge, over which the public road is continued. On the first rise of the hill, w. of the bridge, is the handsome and comfortable habitation of Philemon Wright, Esq. There is also a post-office. As the present village is exclusively the property of Mr. Wright and his sons, competition in trade is not so active as perhaps the general interests of the t. require. It might therefore be expedient to establish a government village, open to emigrants settling there ; and lot 21, in the 2nd range, appears to be a very propitious site for that purpose, on account of its contiguity to the Chaudiere Lake, an expansion of the Ottawa; lot 14 in the range also affords an advantageous site for a village, which might be built at the junction of two roads, near which there is a saw-mill and also a tolerably well-cultivated farm.

Mr. Wright carries on the timber trade to great extent and has a large manufactory of pot and pearlashes. His first export of timber was to Montreal, and, in 1807, he arrived at Quebec with the first timljer ever sent there from the hanks of the Ottawa. The expense of conveying timber to Quebec being less than to Montreal is the reason why, in 1823, above 300 common cargoes were sent to Quebec and not one to Montreal through the same channel : in a few years, without doubt, this quantity of timber sent to the Quebec market will be quadrupled, and the exports from this t. of various other articles, such as flour, beef, pork, &c., will be increased in the same ratio.

In this t. are 3 schools attended by about 150 scholars, who are instructed in reading, writing and arithmetic; they are supported by voluntary contributions and two of them are under the patronage of the Royal Institution in Canada.The t. at present consists of one parish, in which are a protestant episcopal church and a methodist episcopal chapel, but there is no parsonage-house.

The population is constantly and rapidly increasing and, with the exception of the rising generation, is almost entirely American. The inhabitants in 1824 were placed under the superintendence of Mr. Wright, who has adopted various means to excite the industry and secure the comfort and happiness of all classes of his little colony; and perhaps in no part of the province will be found more industry and a better understanding among the settlers, for they seem universally to enjoy a degree of ease and comfort seldom to be met with in settlements of such recent date : every thing exhibits a degree of affluence and social prosperity not reasonably to be expected in settlements formed within 30 years ;

neat dwelling-houses, many of them two stories high, extensive bams, &c., well-cultivated fields and enclosures, numerous cattle grazing, large flocks of sheep wandering over a grateful soil and cropping an abundant pasturage, these objects, happily combining the pleasures and advantages of rural and pastoral life, not only delight the occasional visiter, but are calculated to inspire the emulation and encourage the hopes of many a desponding emigrant. The reader will not fail to ask, " From whom are all these benefits derived .'' Whose persevering talent and enterprising spirit first pierced the gloom of these forests and converted a wilderness of trees into fields of corn ? Whose industrious hand first threw into this natural desert the seeds of plenty and prosperity."

The answer is, Mr. Philemon Wright, an humble American from Woburn in the state of Massachusets: through hardships, privations and dangers that would have appalled an ordinary mind, he penetrated an almost inaccessible country, and where he found desolation and solitude he introduced civilization and the useful arts; by his almost unaided skill and indefatigable industry the savage paths of a dreary wilderness have been changed into the cheerful haunts of man ; the gloomy upland forests have given way to smiling corn-fields; the wet and wild savannas, sinking under stunted spruce and cedar, have been cleared and drained into luxuriant meadows ; the perilous waterfall, whose hoarse noise was once the frightful voice of an awful solitude, is rendered obedient to the laws of art, and now converts the majestic tenants of the forest into the habitations of man and grinds his food ; the rivers and lakes, once fruitful in vain, now breed their living produce for the use of human beings, and, with deep and rapid current, transport on their smooth and glassy surface the fruits of his industry ; the deep recesses of the earth are made to expose their mineral treasures, from the birthday of time concealed. In fine, the judicious and persevering industry of one successful adventurer has converted all the rude advantages of primeval nature into the germs of agricultural, manufacturing and commercial prosperity. Mr. Wright, however, has been amply rewarded for his honourable exertions; his private fortune has been increased in proportion to the good he has created, and the liberal conduct of the provincial government towards him has been un- bounded : 9,145 acres have been granted to him and his family in Hull and Lochaber, under letters patent ; 7.000 acres in Hull have been reconveyed to him by his associates and not less than 5,000 acres in Templeton, making altogether 21,145 acres. The proceedings of Mr. Wright in forming the extensive and important settlements of Hull have been detailed by him, and are highly interesting and useful; interesting as developing the successful exertions of an enterprising and indefatigable settler, and useful as being well adapted to guide and encourage others in forming settlements in a country as remote from civilization as from assistance. After having visited the extensive tract which was destined to become the theatre of his exertions and the reward of his useful enterprise, he returned with his two companions to his native home, Woburn, in the state of Massachusets, having determined on the measures proper for him to pursue. After hiring about 25 men and providng himself with mill-irons, axes, scythes, hoes and all other tools thought by him to be the most useful and necessary, together with a number of barrels of clear pork (pork freed from the bones), he commenced his journey with 14 horses, 8 oxen, 7 sleighs and 5 families.

This emigration took place on the 2nd of Feb. 1800. On the 1 0th of the same month Mr. Wright arrived at Montreal and then proceeded towards Hull, travelling generally among the old settlements only 15 m. a day for the first 3 days, because the sleighs were wider than those used in that country and because it w^as necessary that the horses and oxen should go abreast. During these 3 nights he stopped with the hahitans, and arrived on the 4th day at the foot of the Long Sault, which was the extremity of the travelled roads in that part of Lower Canada. From this place he was still 80 miles from his place of destination ; and there not being any road and the snow deep, he was obliged to halt and alter the teams so as to go singly, while a part of his men proceeded forward to cut a road through the snow. After these necessary preparations he proceeded on for the head of the Long Sault, observing in due time to fix upon some spot near water to en- camp for the night, particularly observing that there were no dry trees to fall upon them, and if there were to cut them down. Then he cleared away the snow and cut down trees for fire for the night, the women and children sleeping in covered sleighs and the menwith blankets round the fire and the cattle made fast to the standing trees ; in this situation about SOpersons spent the night. Before he retired to rest he prepared suflScient food for the next day so as to lose no time when daylight appeared, always observing to keep the axemen forward cutting the road and the foraging team next the axemen, and the families in the rear ; in this way he proceeded on for 3 or 4 days, observing to look out for a good place for the camp, until he arrived at the head of the Long Sault. From that place he travelled the whole of the distance upon the ice until he came to the intended spot, about 65 miles. The guide whom he had taken with him on his first journey was as much unacquainted with the ice as the whole of the party, not one of them having ever travelled up this ice before. Their progress was ver}' slow and impeded by their fear of losing any of the cattle, and the axemen in the front were obliged to try every rod of ice, which, being covered with snow about a foot deep, it was impossible to know whether it was safe without sounding it with the axe. On his journey up the river, the first day, Mr. W. met a savage and his wife drawing a child upon a little bark sleigh, who gazed at the party with astonishment, more especially at the cattle ; as if they had come from some distant part or from the clouds; their astonishment appeared to in- crease as they walked round the teams, the party having halted ; and they tried to hold a conversation concerning the ice, but not a word could be understood. The Indian pointed to the woods, as if giving directions to his squaw to go there and make herself comfortable ; she immediately went off and he proceeded to the head of the company without the promise of fee or reward, with his small axe trying the ice every step he went, as if he had been the proper guide or owner of the property. They passed on until the approach of night ; when, the banks of the river being hio'h, about 20 feet, it was found impossible to ascend them with the sleighs ; they therefore left them on the ice and ascended the banks of the river, and clearing away the snow cut down large trees as usual to make a fire, carefully observing that no stooping or dead trees could fall upon them, and after cooking supper and getting regular refreshment they spread their bedding round the fire and made themselves as comfortable as they could having nothing over them but large trees and the canopy of the heavens. Before daylight they cooked their breakfast and provisions for the day andj as soon as daylight appeared, they were ready to proceed. The Indian, who had behaved with uncommon civility during the night, having taken his regular refreshments, proceeded to the head of the company as he had done the preceding day with uncommon agility. All being under weigh as soon as daylight appeared, they proceeded as usual without meeting with any accident; when night was approaching they did the same as the night before and began their march early in the following morning, the Indian taking the lead as before.

Owing to the deepness of the snow, it took them about 6 days in passing up this river, about 64 miles, when they all arrived safe at the township of Hull. After some little trouble in cutting the brush and banks, they ascended the height, which is about 20 feet from the water. The Indian, after he had seen them safe up the bank and spent the night with them, intimated that he must return to his squaw and child ; and after receiving some presents for his great services, he took his departure for his squaw, having to go at least 60 miles. The party thanked him in the best manner they could make him understand, and three times huzzaed him ; and he left in great spirits, being well pleased. Mr. Wright arrived Mar. 7th and immediately, with the assistance of all hands, felled the first tree, for every person who was able to use the axe endeavoured and assisted in cutting; after which they commenced cutting down and clearing a spot for the erection of a house, and continued cutting, clearing and erecting other buildings for the accommodation of the families and men. As soon as they commenced cutting and clearing, the chiefs of two tribes of Indians wlio live at the Lake of the Two Mountains came to them and viewed aU their tools and materials ■with astonishment and would often hoop and laugh, being quite unacquainted with tools or things of that nature. They also viewed with astonishment the manner in which the oxen and horses were harnessed. They seemed to view all things with great pleasure. Some of them fetched their children to see the oxen and horses, having never seen a tame animal before, being brought up near the great lakes to the westward : they would also ask the liberty of using one or two axes to see how they could cut down a tree with them, as their own axes are very small, weighing only half a pound and Mr. Wright's axes weighed from four to five pounds. When they had cut down a tree they would jump, hoop and huzza, being quite pleased with having cut down the tree so quickly. They received a glass of rum each and returned to their sugar-making in the greatest harmony. They continued very friendly to pass backward and forward for about ten days, often receiving small presents, for which they made returns in sugar, venison, &c. Their chiefs assembled together and procured an English interpreter, George Brown, who had an Indian wife and family and who spoke both languages. They requested him to demand of Mr. W. by what authority he was cutting down their wood and taking possession of their land.

To which he answered

— by virtue of authority received at Quebec from their great father, who lived on the other side of the water, and from Sir John Johnston, the agent in the Indian department, through whom they receive their yearly dues from government. They could not be made to believe that their great father or other persons at Quebec would allow them to cut down their timber and clear their land and destroy their sugaries and hunting-ground without consulting them, as they had been in the peaceable and quiet possession of their lands for generations past : and in this part of the country were their chief hunting-grounds, sugaries, fisheiries, &c. ; and they were afraid the settlers would destroy their beaver, their deer and their sugaries. After a long conference, carried on with good temper on both sides, and with sound argument on the side of the "poor Indians, it was agreed to leave the question to the decision of the proper authorities at Quebec, which afterwards decided against the Indians, because their ancestors had been compelled to cede their country for certain annual presents, which the Indians conceived to be an inadequate compensation; they, however, submitted to the decision with good faith and almost without a murmur. They then agreed that Mr. W. should be a brother chief; and if any difficulty occurred, it should be settled among the chiefs. They then proceeded to crown him in their usual manner as a brother chief; after which they dined together and kissed each other's cheeks, and a number of other ceremonies passed too numerous to mention^sucli as burying the hatchet and a number of other usual Indian formalities. After this ceremony the settlers and the Indians often assembled together in the greatest harmony in both villages upon various occasions and always with the greatest friendship and good understanding, without having to revert to one question for the law to decide. The judicious and just eulogium which Mr. Wright has passed on the Indians ought not to be omitted :

— " I must acknowledge that I never was acquainted with any people that more strictly regarded justice and equity than those people have for these twenty years past"

— After having arranged with the Indians, IMr. W. continued cutting down and clearing a spot for the erection of a house and other buildings for the accommodation of the famijies and men.

— Thus were the important settlements of Hull commenced ; and it is to be regretted that the plan and extent of this work will not allow the author to trace their gradual increase and improvement to the present date ; for a more ample account would prove very beneficial to all who are desirous, by imitating Mr. Wright's laudable example, to obtain affluence and happiness through the medium of emigration

— unfortunately so necessary at present to the superabundant population of the mother country.

— Ungranted and unlocated 21,250 acres.

— The following statistical statements, made in the years 1820 and 1828, will show the increasing prosperity of the settlements in Hull.

[1] Serge Courville« Esquisse du développement villageois au Québec : le cas de l’aire seigneuriale entre 1760-1854 », Cahier de géographie du Québec, vol. 28, no 73-74, 1984, p. 25.

[2] Serge Courville« Esquisse du développement villageois au Québec : le cas de l’aire seigneuriale entre 1760-1854 », Cahier de géographie du Québec, vol. 28, no 73-74, 1984, p. 25.

[3] Serge Courville« Esquisse du développement villageois au Québec : le cas de l’aire seigneuriale entre 1760-1854 », Cahier de géographie du Québec, vol. 28, no 73-74, 1984, p. 25.

[4] Serge Courville« Esquisse du développement villageois au Québec : le cas de l’aire seigneuriale entre 1760-1854 », Cahier de géographie du Québec, vol. 28, no 73-74, 1984, p. 29

[5] Serge Courville« Esquisse du développement villageois au Québec : le cas de l’aire seigneuriale entre 1760-1854 », Cahier de géographie du Québec, vol. 28, no 73-74, 1984, p. 29