CIA LSD Experiment on Psychosis
Project MKULTRA - Secret Documentary Film
|CIA LSD Experiment on Psychosis
Project MKULTRA - Secret Documentary Film
have been numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the
United States that have been considered unethical, and were often
performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent
of the test subjects.
Many types of experiments have been performed including
the deliberate infection of people with deadly or debilitating
diseases, exposure of people to biological and chemical weapons, human
radiation experiments, injection of people with toxic and radioactive
chemicals, surgical experiments, interrogation/torture experiments,
tests involving mind-altering substances, and a wide variety of others.
of these tests were performed on children and mentally disabled
individuals. In many of the studies, a large portion of the subjects
were poor racial minorities or prisoners.
Often, subjects were sick or
disabled people, whose doctors told them that they were receiving
"medical treatment", but instead were used as the subjects of harmful
and deadly experiments.
Many of these experiments were funded by
the United States government, especially the Central Intelligence
Agency, United States military and federal or military corporations.
human research programs were usually highly secretive, and in many
cases information about them was not released until many years after the
studies had been performed.
The ethical, professional, and legal
implications of this in the United States medical and scientific
community were quite significant, and led to many institutions and
policies that attempted to ensure that future human subject research in
the United States would be ethical and legal.
Public outcry over
the discovery of government experiments on human subjects led to
numerous congressional investigations and hearings, including the Church
Committee, Rockefeller Commission, and Advisory Committee on Human
Radiation Experiments, amongst others.
1950, the CIA initiated Project Bluebird, later renamed Project
Artichoke, whose stated purpose was to develop "the means to control
individuals through special interrogation techniques", "way[s] to
prevent the extraction of information from CIA agents", and "offensive
uses of unconventional techniques, such as hypnosis and drugs."
LSD has been used on humans as a form of testing to see if mind control was possible. In many cases these subjects were part of an experiment without their knowledge or consent and in some cases the consequences were horrifying.
The very governments which were appointed to protect the people were actually hurting them.
Could LSD be the next drug in your doctor's arsenal? New experiments have a few researchers believing that this trippy drug could become a pharmaceutical of the future.
The purpose of the project was outlined in a memo dated January 1952 that stated, "Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self preservation?"
The project studied the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction and subsequent forced withdrawal, and the use of other chemicals, among other methods, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects.
In order to "perfect techniques for the abstraction of information from individuals, whether willing or not", Project Bluebird researchers experimented with a wide variety of psychoactive substances, including LSD, heroin, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, mescaline, and ether.
Project Bluebird researchers dosed over 7,000 U.S. military personnel with LSD, without their knowledge or consent, at the Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. More than 1,000 of these soldiers suffered from several psychiatric illnesses, including depression and epilepsy, as a result of the tests. Many of them tried to commit suicide.
In 1952, professional tennis player Harold Blauer died when injected with a fatal dose of a mescaline derivative at the New York State Psychiatric Institute of Columbia University, by Dr. James Cattell. The United States Department of Defense, which sponsored the injection, worked in collusion with the Department of Justice, and the New York State Attorney General to conceal evidence of its involvement for 23 years.
Cattell claimed that he did not know what the army had given him to inject into Blauer, saying: "We didn't know whether it was dog piss or what we were giving him."
In 1953, the CIA placed several of its interrogation and mind-control programs under the direction of a single program, known by the code name MKULTRA, after CIA director Allen Dulles complained about not having enough "human guinea pigs to try these extraordinary techniques."
The MKULTRA project was under the direct command of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb of the Technical Services Division. The project received over $25 million, and involved hundreds of experiments on human subjects at eighty different institutions.