Revelation of the Pyramids
| ||“The pyramids themselves, doting with age, have forgotten the names of their founders.”
–– Thomas Fuller
|Revelation of the Pyramids
“The pyramids themselves, doting with age, have forgotten the names of their founders.”
For centuries, the Great Pyramids have fascinated Mankind; every year
brings a batch of new theories, from the plausible to the absolutely
The shape of a pyramid is thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred to solar luminescence.
One lone seeker, after more than thirty-seven years of study
and research, has at last managed first to understand and then to prove
what lies behind this greatest of archaeological mysteries, a message of
paramount importance for all mankind, through time and space. Its key
and its heart are the Great Pyramids of Egypt.
From China to Peru, from
Egypt to Mexico, throughout the Middle East –– through the world's
oldest, most enigmatic and often most beautiful sites the director has
spent six years of investigation, guided by his anonymous informant,
verifying his discoveries one by one, and meeting the planet's most
eminent scientific and technical specialists.
The result will shake the
history of mankind as it is taught to its very core, and revolutionize
A great odyssey along a breathtaking route rich in
staggering imagery, an extraordinary scientific leap and finally a
revelation as unexpected as it is spectacular. The message bequeathed to
future generations by these mysterious builders.
There have been many hypotheses about the Egyptian pyramid construction techniques. These techniques seem to have developed over time; later pyramids were not built the same way as earlier ones.
Most of the construction hypotheses are based on the idea that huge stones were carved with copper chisels from stone quarries, and these blocks were then dragged and lifted into position.
Disagreements chiefly concern the methods used to move and place the stones. There is also another hypothesis that they were built out of geopolymer cement, otherwise known as cast stone.
In addition to the many unresolved arguments about the construction techniques, there have been disagreements as to the kind of workforce used. The Greeks, many years after the event, believed it must have been built by slave labor.
Archaeologists now believe that the Great Pyramid of Giza (at least) was built by tens of thousands of skilled workers who camped near the pyramids and worked for a salary or as a form of tax payment (levee) until the construction was completed, pointing to worker's cemeteries discovered in 1990 by archaeologists Zahi Hawass and Mark Lehner.
For the Middle Kingdom Pyramid of Amenemhat II, there is evidence from the annal stone of the king that foreigners from Palestine were used.
Some research suggests alternate estimates to the accepted workforce size. For instance, mathematician Kurt Mendelssohn calculated that the workforce may have been 50,000 men at most, while Ludwig Borchardt and Louis Croon placed the number at 36,000.
Pyramid - Beyond Imagination
According to Miroslav Verner, a workforce of no more than 30,000 was needed in the Great Pyramid's construction.
A construction management study (testing) carried out by the firm Daniel, Mann, Johnson, & Mendenhall in association with Mark Lehner and other Egyptologists, estimates that the total project required an average workforce of 14,567 people and a peak workforce of 40,000.
Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they used critical path analysis to suggest the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years.
Their study estimates that the number of blocks used in construction was between 2 and 2.8 million (an average of 2.4 million), but settles on a reduced finished total of 2 million after subtracting the estimated volume of the hollow spaces of the chambers and galleries.
Most sources agree on this number of blocks somewhere above 2.3 million.
Their calculations suggest the workforce could have sustained a rate of 180 blocks per hour (3 blocks/minute) with ten hour work days for putting each individual block in place. They derived these estimates from modern third-world construction projects that did not use modern machinery, but conclude it is still unknown exactly how the Great Pyramid was built.