|Strange Events Associated with Earthquakes
Sudden Release of Energy in the Earth's Crust Creating Seismic Waves
In Norse mythology, earthquakes were explained as the
violent struggling of the god Loki.
An earthquake is a seismic event which can occur naturally or caused by humans. There are roughly 500,000 earthquakes that occur each year but only 100,000 of those can be felt.
While earthquakes are generally a naturally occurring event, many people do not realize that there are other strange events which some claim are associated with earthquakes.
Some of these events associated with earthquakes are true such as tsunamis, but other claims of strange events are not yet proven.
When Loki, god of mischief and
strife, murdered Baldr, god of beauty and light, he was punished by
being bound in a cave with a poisonous serpent placed above his head
Loki's wife Sigyn stood by him with a bowl to catch the poison, but
whenever she had to empty the bowl the poison dripped on Loki's face,
forcing him to jerk his head away and thrash against his bonds, which
caused the earth to tremble.
In Greek mythology, Poseidon was the cause and god of earthquakes. When
he was in a bad mood, he struck the ground with a trident, causing
earthquakes and other calamities. He also used earthquakes to punish and
inflict fear upon people as revenge.
In Japanese mythology, Namazu is a giant catfish who causes earthquakes.
Namazu lives in the mud beneath the earth, and is guarded by the god
Kashima who restrains the fish with a stone.
When Kashima lets his guard
fall, Namazu thrashes about, causing violent earthquakes.
Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane.
The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance.
Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface.
This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy.
This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake.
This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy.
Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction.
Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior.
Earthquake weather is a type of weather popularly believed to precede earthquakes.
From the ancient histories of Herodotus to the modern writings of David Lance Goines, the notion that weather can somehow foreshadow coming seismic activity has been the topic of much discussion and debate.
Geologist Russell Robinson has described earthquake weather as one of the more common pseudoscientific methods of predicting earthquakes.
The USGS website states that, In the 4th century B.C., Aristotle proposed that earthquakes were caused by winds trapped in subterranean caves.
Small tremors were thought to have been caused by air pushing on the cavern roofs, and large ones by the air breaking the surface. This theory led to a belief in earthquake weather, that because a large amount of air was trapped underground, the weather would be hot and calm before an earthquake.
A later theory stated that earthquakes occurred in calm, cloudy conditions, and were usually preceded by strong winds, fireballs, and meteors. A modern theory proposes that certain cloud formations may be used to predict earthquakes, however, this idea is rejected by most geologists.
Geologists maintain that there is no connection between weather and earthquakes. They are the result of geologic processes within the earth and can happen in any weather and at any time during the year. Earthquakes originate miles underground.
Wind, precipitation, temperature, and barometric pressure changes affect only the surface and shallow subsurface of the Earth. Earthquakes are focused at depths well out of the reach of weather, and the forces that cause earthquakes are much larger than the weather forces.
Earthquakes occur in all types of weather, in all climate zones, in all seasons of the year, and at any time of day.
Moments before China was devastated by the earthquake, strange lights and colorful cloud formations were seen all over China.
Could this be a
signal of impending doom, or perhaps caused by increases tectonic
Earthquake clouds are clouds claimed to be signs of imminent earthquakes.
They have been described in antiquity: In chapter 32 of his work Brihat Samhita, Indian scholar Varahamihira (505–587) discussed a number of signs warning of earthquakes, including extraordinary clouds occurring a week before the earthquake.
In modern times, a few scientists claim to have observed clouds associated with a seismic event, sometimes more than 50 days in advance of the earthquake.
Some have even claimed to accurately predict earthquake occurrences by observing clouds. However, these claims have very little support in the scientific community.
An earthquake light is an unusual luminous aerial phenomenon that reportedly appears in the sky at or near areas of tectonic stress, seismic activity, or volcanic eruptions.
Once commonly challenged, it was not until photographs were taken during the Matsushiro earthquake swarm in Nagano, Japan (which occured from 1965 through 1967) that the seismology community acknowledged their occurrence.
The lights are reported to appear while an earthquake is occurring, although there are reports of lights before or after earthquakes, such as reports concerning the 1975 Kalapana earthquake.
They are reported to have shapes similar to those of the auroras, with a white to bluish hue, but occasionally they have been reported having a wider color spectrum.
The luminosity is reported to be visible for several seconds, but has also been reported to last for tens of minutes. Accounts of viewable distance from the epicenter varies, in the 1930 Idu earthquake, lights were reported up to 70 miles from the epicenter.
Earthquake lights were reportedly spotted in Tianshui, Gansu, approximately 400 km north-northeast of the earthquake's epicenter. The phenomenon was also observed and caught on film during the 2009 L'Aquila and the 2010 Chile earthquakes.
The phenomenon was also reported around the Aimuri Earthquake in New Zealand, that occurred 1 September 1888. The lights were visible in the morning of September 1, in Reefton, and again on the 8th of September.
Journalist Sharon Weinberger called HAARP "the Moby Dick of conspiracy theories" and said the popularity of conspiracy theories often overshadows the benefits HAARP may provide to the scientific community.
The alleged dangers of HAARP were dramatized in popular culture by Marvel Comics, author Tom Clancy, and The X-Files.
A Russian military journal wrote that ionospheric testing would "trigger a cascade of electrons that could flip Earth's magnetic poles."
The European Parliament and the Alaska state legislature held hearings about HAARP, the former citing "environmental concerns." Author of the self-published Angels Don't Play This HAARP, Nick Begich has told lecture audiences that HAARP could trigger earthquakes and turn the upper atmosphere into a giant lens so that "the sky would literally appear to burn."
A 2009 episode of The History Channel series That's Impossible speculated that ionospheric heating from HAARP could theoretically cause localised atmospheric upcurrents that disrupt or "bend" the jet stream and influence regional weather patterns, prompting conspiracy theorists to connect changed weather patterns in the Atlantic Ocean during the 1980s as well as subsequent El Nino events with HAARP.
Conspiracy theorists have linked HAARP to numerous earthquakes. An opinion piece on a Venezuelan state-run television channel's website named HAARP as a cause of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
Skeptic computer scientist David Naiditch called HAARP "a magnet for conspiracy theorists", saying the project has been blamed for triggering catastrophes such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and devastating earthquakes in Pakistan and the Philippines aimed to shake up "terrorists."
Naiditch says HAARP has been blamed for diverse events including major power outages, the downing of TWA Flight 800, Gulf War syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Conspiracy theorists have also suggested links between HAARP and the work of Nikola Tesla (particularly potential combinations of HAARP energy with Tesla's work on pneumatic small-scale earthquake generation) and physicist Bernard Eastlund.
According to Naiditch, HAARP is an attractive target for conspiracy theorists because "its purpose seems deeply mysterious to the scientifically uninformed".HAARP is the subject of numerous conspiracy theories, with individuals ascribing various hidden motives and capabilities to the project.
Tsunamis are a frequent occurrence in Japan; approximately 195 events have been recorded.
Owing to the immense volumes of water and the high energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions.
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), sciorrucks (underwater landslides), glacier calvings and other mass movements, meteorite ocean impacts or similar impact events, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.
The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunami to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and is the subject of ongoing research. Many early geological, geographical, and oceanographic texts refer to tsunamis as "seismic sea waves."
Some meteorological conditions, such as deep depressions that cause tropical cyclones, can generate a storm surge, called a meteotsunami, which can raise tides several metres above normal levels.
The displacement comes from low atmospheric pressure within the centre of the depression. As these storm surges reach shore, they may resemble (though are not) tsunamis, inundating vast areas of land.
The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests.
The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. Tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis.A tsunami, also called a tsunami wave train, and at one time referred to as a tidal wave, is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, though it can occur in large lakes.