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Antigonus 67–77

 Citations / parallels in other classical sources

Cross-references Summary

67 Aristotle HA II 1 500b 24–25 — Pliny XI 261
68 Aristotle HA II 3 501b 20–21 — Pliny: VII 71 — XI 167
69 Aristotle: HA II 15 506a 9–10 — PA III 4 666b 19–21 — Pliny XI 183 — Galen de usu part. VI 19 p.445 H
70 Aristotle HA II 15 506a 23–24
71 Aristotle: HA II 17 507a 27–30 — PA III 14 675a 9 — Par. Vat. 6
72 Aristotle HA II 17 508b 3–7 — Pliny XI 207 — Aelian NA II 3 — Par. Vat. 7
Aristotle GA IV 6 774b 31–32 — Pliny: VIII 98 — XXV 89
73 Aristotle: HA II 17 508b 11–12 — PA III 14 675a 4
74 Aristotle: HA III 7 516b 10–12 — PA II 9 655a 14–16 — Pliny XI 214 — Aelian NA IV 34 — Par. Vat. 8
75 Aristotle HA III 9 517a 28–29 — Pliny XI 125 — Aelian NA II 20
76 Aristotle HA III 10 517b 4–5 — Pliny XI 228
77 Aristotle: HA III 11 518a 14–15 — GA V 4 784a 25–27

Cross-references Text

Aelian NA II 3

With other birds the hen is mounted by the cock, so they say; not so Swallows: their manner of coupling is the reverse. Nature alone knows the reason for this. But the common explanation is that the hens are afraid of Tereus, and fear lest one day he steal secretly upon them and enact a fresh tragedy. Now in my opinion the most valuable gift that Nature has bestowed upon the Swallow is this, that if it chance to be blinded with a brooch-pin, it regains its sight. Why then do we continue to sing the praises of Teiresias, even though he was the wisest of men not only on earth but also in Hades, as Homer tells us [Od. 10.493]? [Trans. Scholfield, via Internet Archive]

Aelian NA II 20

All Bulls have inflexible and rigid horns, and this is why, just as a man puts passion into his weapons, so a bull puts passion into its horns. But the oxen of Erythrae can move their horns as they do their ears. [Trans. Scholfield, via Internet Archive]

Aelian NA IV 34

The neck of a Lion consists of a single bone and not of a number of vertebrae. And if a man cuts through the bones of a Lion fire leaps forth, but they are devoid of marrow, nor are they hollow like tubes. There is no season of the year in which it abstains from coupling, and the Lioness is pregnant for two months. Five times does she give birth, at the first birth to five cubs, at the second to four, after that to three, after that to two, and finally to one. The cubs when new-born are small and, like puppies, blind, and they begin to walk when they have completed two months from birth. But the account which says that they scratch through the womb is a fable. To encounter a Lion when famished is dangerous, but when he has eaten his fill he is extremely gentle they even say that at that time he is playful. A Lion will never turn his back and flee, but withdraws, looking you straight in the face, and by degrees. But when he begins to age he visits folds and huts and spots where shepherds lodge in caves; which is to be expected, because he no longer has the spirit for hunting on the mountains. He has a horror of fire. Any Lion that inclines to roundness and a compact figure, and that has too shaggy a mane, appears to be lacking in spirit and daring; whereas the beast that attains a good length and has a straight mane is regarded as bolder and fiercer. Possessing a ravenous appetite he will, they say, devour and swallow whole limbs. So when he has taken his fill of them he will often not eat for the space of three days until his former meal has been gradually absorbed and digested. He drinks but little. [Trans. Scholfield, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle GA 774b 31–32

And on this account, if the eyes of a swallow are deliberately put out while the bird is still young, they recover, because the injury is inflicted during the process of their formation and not after its completion; that is why they grow and spring up afresh. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle GA 784a 25–27

In man, however, this reason operates only in the case of the greyness of the hair due to disease (as when the hair becomes white during leprosy), not that due to old age, and if the hair is white, the whiteness does not derive from the skin. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle HA 500b 24–25

In other cases, the organ is composed of fibrous tissue, as with the camel and the deer; in other cases it is bony, as with the fox, the wolf, the marten, and the weasel; for this organ in the weasel has a bone. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [500b]

Aristotle HA 501b 20–21

Males have more teeth than females in the case of men, sheep, goats, and swine; [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [501b]

Aristotle HA 506a 9–10

In other words, there is one species of ox where, though not in all cases, a bone is found inside the heart. And, by the way, the horse’s heart also has a bone inside it. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [506a]

Aristotle HA 506a 23–24

Of deer those that are called Achainae appear to have gall in their tail, [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [506a]

Aristotle HA 507a 27–30

For, by the way, as has been observed, most fishes have no oesophagus, but the stomach is united directly with the mouth, so that in some cases when big fish are pursuing little ones, the stomach tumbles forward into the mouth. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [507a]

Aristotle HA 508b 3–7

Their ribs are as numerous as the days of the month; in other words, they are thirty in number. Some affirm that the same phenomenon is observable with serpents as with swallow chicks; in other words, they say that if you prick out a serpent’s eyes they will grow again. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [508b]

Aristotle HA 508b 11–12

For in some cases the stomach is gut-shaped, as with the scarus, or parrot-fish; which fish, by the way, appears to be the only fish that chews the cud. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [508b]

Aristotle HA 516b 10–12

The bones of the lion are exceptionally hard; so hard, in fact, that if they are rubbed hard against one another they emit sparks like flint-stones. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [516b]

Aristotle HA 517a 28–29

Horns attach rather to the skin than to the bone; which will account for the fact that there are found in Phrygia and elsewhere cattle that can move their horns as freely as their ears. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [517a]

Aristotle HA 517b 4–5

All viviparous animals furnished with feet have hair; all oviparous animals furnished with feet have horn-like tessellates; fishes, and fishes only, have scales-that is, such oviparous fishes as have the crumbling egg or roe. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [517b]

Aristotle HA 518a 14–15

In the eruptive malady called the white-sickness all the hairs get grey; and instances have been known where the hair became grey while the patients were ill of the malady, whereas the grey hairs shed off and black ones replaced them on their recovery. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [518a]

Aristotle PA 655a 14–16

Hence, the bones of males are harder than the bones of females, and those of carnivorous animals than those of herbivorous, because the carnivorous have to fight for their food. An example is the Lion: it has such hard bones that when they are struck fire is kindled as it is from stones. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle PA 666b 19–21

In all cases that we have examined the heart is boneless, except in horses and a certain kind of ox. In these, owing to its great size, the heart has a bone for a support, just as the whole body is supported by bones. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle PA 675a 4

The tribe of fishes have teeth: practically all have saw-teeth. There is one small group to which this does not apply, e.g. the Scarus, as it is called, and it seems reasonable to suppose that this is why it alone ruminates, for horned animals which have no teeth in the upper jaw also ruminate. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle PA 675a 9

Furthermore, some fishes have no gullet at all, others have a short one; [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Galen de usu part. VI 19 p.445 H

Par. Vat. 6

Fish do not have a gullet: because of this, if a smaller one is chased by a larger, {it brings its stomach beneath its mouth}.

Par. Vat. 7

[1] Snakes have thirty ribs. [2] Their eyes, if someone pricks them out, grow back again, as do those of swallows.

Par. Vat. 8

The bones of lions are so hard that when struck repeatedly they kindle fire.

Pliny VII 71

In addition to this, it is generally supposed that we may form prognostics from the teeth. The number of teeth allotted to all men, with the exception of the nation of the Turduli, is thirty-two; those persons who have a greater number, are thought to be destined to be long-lived. Women have fewer teeth than men. Those females who happen to have two canine teeth on the right side of the upper jaw, have promise of being the favourites of fortune, as was the case with Agrippina, the mother of Domitius Nero: when they are on the left side, it is just the contrary. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny VIII 98

The swallow has shown us that the chelidonia is very serviceable to the sight, by the fact of its employing it for the cure of its young, when their eyes are affected. The tortoise recruits its powers of effectually resisting serpents, by eating the plant which is known as cunile bubula; and the weasel feeds on rue, when it fights with the serpent in the pursuit of mice. The stork cures itself of its diseases with wild marjoram, and the wild boar with ivy, as also by eating crabs, and more particularly those that have been thrown up by the sea. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 125

In the oxen of Phrygia, the horns are moveable, like the ears; and among the cattle of the Troglodytæ, they are pointed downwards to the ground, for which reason it is that they are obliged to feed with the head on one side. Other animals, again, have a single horn, and that situate in the middle of the head, or else on the nose, as already stated. Then, again, in some animals the horns are adapted for butting, and in others for goring; with some they are curved inwards, with others outwards, and with others, again, they are fitted for tossing: all which objects are effected in various ways, the horns either lying backwards, turning from, or else towards each other, and in all cases running to a sharp point. In one kind, also, the horns are used for the purpose of scratching the body, instead of hands. In snails the horns are fleshy, and are thus adapted for the purpose of feeling the way, which is also the case with the cerastes; some reptiles, again, have only one horn, though the snail has always two, suited for protruding and withdrawing. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 167

Mucianus has stated that he, himself, saw one Zocles, a native of Samothrace, who had a new set of teeth when he was past his one hundred and fourth year. In addition to these facts, in man males have more teeth than females, which is the case also in sheep, goats, and swine. Timarchus, the son of Nicocles the Paphian, had a double row of teeth in his jaws: the same person had a brother also who never changed his front teeth, and, consequently, wore them to the very stumps. There is an instance, also, of a man having a tooth growing in the palate. The canine teeth, when lost by any accident, are never known to come again. While in all other animals the teeth grow of a tawny colour with old age, with the horse, and him only, they become whiter the older he grows. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 183

Those animals are looked upon as stupid and lumpish which have a hard, rigid heart, while those in which it is small are courageous, and those are timid which have it very large. The heart is the largest, in proportion to the body, in the mouse, the hare, the ass, the stag, the panther, the weasel, the hyæna, and all the animals, in fact, which are timid, or dangerous only from the effects of fear. In Paphlagonia the partridge has a double heart. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 207

Nature has placed the breast, or, in other words, certain bones, around the diaphragm and the organs of life, but not around the belly, for the expansion of which it was necessary that room should be left. Indeed, there is no animal that has any bones around the belly. Man is the only creature that has a broad breast; in all others it is of a carinated shape, in birds more particularly, and most of all, the aquatic birds. The ribs of man are only eight in number; swine have ten, the horned animals thirteen, and serpents thirty. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 214

The marrow seems also to be formed of a similar material; in the young it is of a reddish colour, but it is white in the aged. It is only found in those bones which are hollow, and not in the tibiæ of horses or dogs; for which reason it is, that when the tibia is broken, the bone will not reunite, a process which is effected by the flow of the marrow. The marrow is of a greasy nature in those animals which have fat, and suetty in those with horns. It is full of nerves, and is found only in the vertebral column in those animals which have no bones, fishes, for instance. The bear has no marrow; and the lion has a little only in some few bones of the thighs and the brachia, which are of such extraordinary hardness that sparks may be emitted therefrom, as though from a flint-stone. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 228

Those animals which are viviparous, have hair; those which are oviparous, have feathers, scales, or a shell, like the tortoise; or else a purple skin, like the serpent. The lower part of all feathers is hollow; if cut, they will not grow again, but if pulled out, they will shoot afresh. Insects fly by the aid of a frail membrane; the wings of the fish called the "swallow" are moistened in the sea, while those of the bat which frequents our houses are dry; the wings of this last animal have certain articulations as well. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 261

We have already spoken sufficiently at length of those animals, the males of which have the sexual parts behind. In the wolf, the fox, the weasel, and the ferret, these parts are bony; and it is the genitals of the last-mentioned animal that supply the principal remedies for calculus in the human bladder. It is said also that the genitals of the bear are turned into a horny substance the moment it dies. Among the peoples of the East the very best bow-strings are those which are made of the member of the camel. These parts also, among different nations, are made the object of certain usages and religious observances; and the Galli, the priests of the Mother of the gods, are in the habit of castrating themselves, without any dangerous results. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XXV 89

The brute animals also have been the discoverers of certain plants: among them, we will name chelidonia first of all. It is by the aid of this plant that the swallow restores the sight of the young birds in the nest, and even, as some persons will have it, when the eyes have been plucked out. There are two varieties of this plant; the larger kind has a branchy stem, and a leaf somewhat similar to that of the wild parsnip, but larger. The plant itself is some two cubits in height, and of a whitish colour, that of the flower being yellow. The smaller kind has leaves like those of ivy, only rounder and not so white. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]