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Antigonus 60–66

 Citations / parallels in other classical sources

Cross-references Summary

60(a) Aristotle HA IX 3 611a 4–6 — Pliny VIII 203 — Plutarch de soll. an. 21 974f
(b) Lycus fr. 13 J — cf Pliny VIII 44
61 Aristotle HA I 1 487a 28–32 — Par. Vat. 4.1
62 Aristotle: HA I 1 489a 5–7 — PA III 8 671a 8–16 — Par. Vat. 4.2
63 Aristotle: HA I 4 489a 32–34 — HA I 5 490a 33 — Par. Vat. 5
64 Aristotle: HA I 5 489a 35–b1 — HA I 6 490b 25–27 — GA V 3 781b 32–33
65 Aristotle: HA I 11 492b 23–24 — PA IV 11 691b 5–7 — Herodotus II 68 — Pliny: VIII 89 — XI 159
66 Aristotle: HA II 1 499b 12–13 — HA II 1 499b 18–21 — MA 68.2 — Pliny XI 255

Cross-references Text

Aristotle GA 781b 32–33

Practically all the animals which are internally viviparous have hair; I say "all," because the spines which some of them have on the body must be considered as being a kind of hair, e.g., the spines of the hedgehog and any other such viviparous creature. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle HA 487a 28–32

Of animals that live on dry land some take in air and emit it, which phenomena are termed ‘inhalation’ and ‘exhalation’; as, for instance, man and all such land animals as are furnished with lungs. Others, again, do not inhale air, yet live and find their sustenance on dry land; as, for instance, the wasp, the bee, and all other insects. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [487a]

Aristotle HA 489a 5–7

In other words, an animal has a bowel or intestine if it have a bladder; but an animal may have a bowel and be without a bladder. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [489a]

Aristotle HA 489a 32–34

Again, some animals are supplied with blood, as man, the horse, and all such animals as are, when full-grown, either destitute of feet, or two-footed, or four-footed; other animals are bloodless, such as the bee and the wasp, and, of marine animals, the cuttle-fish, the crawfish, and all such animals as have more than four feet. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [489a]

Aristotle HA 489a 35–b1

Again, some animals are viviparous, others oviparous, others vermiparous or ‘grub-bearing’. Some are viviparous, such as man, the horse, the seal, and all other animals that are hair-coated, and, of marine animals, the cetaceans, as the dolphin, and the so-called Selachia. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [489a]

Aristotle HA 490a 33

Bloodless and many footed animals, whether furnished with wings or feet, move with more than four points of motion; [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [490a]

Aristotle HA 490b 25–27

Serpents in general are oviparous; the adder, an exceptional case, is viviparous: for not all viviparous animals are hair-coated, and some fishes also are viviparous. All animals, however, that are hair-coated are viviparous. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [490b]

Aristotle HA 492b 23–24

All animals move the lower jaw, with the exception of the river crocodile; this creature moves the upper jaw only. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [492b]

Aristotle HA 499b 12–13

Swine are either cloven-footed or uncloven-footed; for there are in Illyria and in Paeonia and elsewhere solid-hooved swine. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [499b]

Aristotle HA 499b 18–21

But a few animals are known to be singled-horned and single-hooved, as the Indian ass; and one, to wit the oryx, is single horned and cloven-hooved. Of all solid-hooved animals the Indian ass alone has an astragalus or huckle-bone; for the pig, as was said above, is either solid-hooved or cloven-footed, and consequently has no well-formed huckle-bone. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [499b]

Aristotle HA 611a 4–6

When the sun turns early towards its setting, the goats are said to lie no longer face to face, but back to back. [Trans. Thompson, via University of Adelaide] [611a]

Aristotle PA 671a 8–16

This shows us why all animals which have blood in their lung possess a bladder too. As for those whose lung is spongy and which therefore drink little, or which take fluids not as something to drink but as food (e.g. insects and fishes), or which are covered with feathers or scales or scaly plates, not one of these has a bladder, owing to the small amount of fluid which they take and owing to the fact that the surplus residue goes to form feathers or scales or scaly plates, as the particular case may be. Exceptions to this are the Tortoises: though scaly-plated they have a bladder. In them the natural formation has simply been stunted. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Aristotle PA 691b 5–7

All these animals, then, move the lower jaw — with one exception, the river crocodile, which moves the upper jaw, and the reason for this is that his feet are no use for seizing and holding things: they are too small altogether. [Trans. Peck, via Internet Archive]

Herodotus II 68

... [3] It has eyes like pigs' eyes, and long, protruding teeth. It is the only animal that has no tongue. It does not move the lower jaw, but brings the upper jaw down upon the lower, uniquely among beasts. ... [Trans. Godley, via Perseus]

MA 68.2

[1] In Cyrene they say that frogs are entirely voiceless; [2] and in Macedonia, in the country of the Emathiotae, that pigs are solid-hooved. [Trans. Hett] [68]

Par. Vat. 4.1

Aristotle says in his Animals that all land animals breathe that have lungs, but that the wasp and bee do not breathe.

Par. Vat. 4.2

Those [animals] that have bladders also have intestines, but not all that have intestines have bladders.

Par. Vat. 5

Many animals are bloodless, but in general those who have more than four feet.

Pliny VIII 44

Aristotle, however, gives a different account; a man of whom I think that I ought here to make some further mention, seeing that upon these subjects, I intend, in a great measure, to make him my guide. Alexander the Great, being inflamed with a strong desire to become acquainted with the natures of animals, entrusted the prosecution of this design to Aristotle, a man who held the highest rank in every branch of learning; for which purpose he placed under his command some thousands of men in every region of Asia and Greece, and comprising all those who followed the business of hunting, fowling, or fishing, or who had the care of parks, herds of cattle, the breeding of bees, fish-ponds, and aviaries, in order that no creature that was known to exist might escape his notice. By means of the information which he obtained from these persons, he was enabled to compose some fifty volumes, which are deservedly esteemed, on the subject of animals; of these I purpose to give an epitome, together with other facts with which Aristotle was unacquainted; and I beg the kind indulgence of my readers in their estimate of this work of mine, as by my aid they hastily travel through all the works of nature, and through the midst of subjects with which that most famous of all kings so ardently desired to be acquainted. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny VIII 89

The Nile produces the crocodile also, a destructive quadruped, and equally dangerous on land and in the water. This is the only land animal that does not enjoy the use of its tongue, and the only one that has the upper jaw moveable, and is capable of biting with it; and terrible is its bite, for the rows of its teeth fit into each other, like those of a comb. Its length mostly exceeds eighteen cubits. It produces eggs about the size of those of the goose, and, by a kind of instinctive foresight, always deposits them beyond the limit to which the river Nile rises, when at its greatest height. There is no animal that arrives at so great a bulk as this, from so small a beginning. It is armed also with claws, and has a skin, that is proof against all blows. It passes the day on land, and the night in the water, in both instances on account of the warmth. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny VIII 203

It is said also, that [goats] have the power of seeing by night as well as in the day, for which reason those persons who are called Nyctalopes, recover the power of seeing in the evening, by eating the liver of the he-goat. In Cilicia, and in the vicinity of the Syrtes, the inhabitants shear the goat for the purpose of clothing themselves. It is said that the she-goats in the pastures will never look at each other at sun-set, but lie with their backs towards one another, while at other times of the day they lie facing each other and in family groups. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 159

It is from the 'labia,' or lips, that the Brocchi have received the surname of Labeo. All animals that are viviparous have a mouth that is either well-formed, or harshly defined, as the case may be. Instead of lips and mouth, the birds have a beak that is horny and sharp at the end. With birds that live by rapine, the beak is hooked inwards, but with those which gather and peck only, it is straight: those animals, again, which root up grass or puddle in the mud, have the muzzle broad, like swine. The beasts of burden employ the mouth in place of hands in gathering their food, while those which live by rapine and slaughter have it wider than the rest. No animal, with the exception of man, has either chin or cheek-bones. The crocodile is the only animal that has the upper jaw-bone moveable; among the land quadrupeds it is the same as with other animals, except that they can move it obliquely. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Pliny XI 255

The horn of the hoof grows again in no animals except beasts of burden. The swine in some places in Illyricum have solid hoofs. Nearly all the horned animals are cloven-footed, no animal having solid hoofs and two horns. The Indian ass is only a one-horned animal, and the oryx is both one-horned and cloven-footed. The Indian ass is the only solid-hoofed animal that has pastern-bones. As to swine, they are looked upon as a sort of mongrel race, with a mixture of both kinds, and hence it is that their ankle-bones are so misshapen. Those authors who have imagined that man has similar pastern-bones, are easily to be confuted. The lynx is the only one among the animals that have the feet divided into toes, that has anything bearing a resemblance to a pastern-bone; while with the lion it is more crooked still. The great pastern-bone is straight, and situate in the joints of the foot; it projects outwards in a convex protuberance, and is held fast in its vertebration by certain ligaments. [Trans. Bostock and Riley, via Perseus]

Plutarch de soll. an. 21 974f

The Libyans laugh at the Egyptians for telling a fabulous tale about the oryx, that it lets out a cry at that very day and hour when the star rises that they call Sothis, which we call the Dog Star or Sirius. At any rate, when this star rises flush with the sun, practically all the goats turn about and look toward the east; and this is the most certain sign of its return and agrees most exactly with the tables of mathematical calculation. [Trans. Cherniss and Helmbold, via LacusCurtius]