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Tupuxuara


Tupuxuara is a crested and toothless genus of pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. Three species have been recognized, all from the same Santana Formation: T. longicristatus, T. leonardii and T. deliradamus. Females and males have slightly different crest indicating sexual dimorphism and is a mark of adulthood as juveniles are crestless (Martill & Naish, 2006). Tupuxuara, judging by the wing wing proportions and the general environment where it lived, as well as the lack of any adaptations to piscivory, was most likely a terrestrial generalist, much like other azhdarchids and modern secretary birds and seriemas.




Name


Tupuxuara longicristatus


Authority
   

Kellner & Campos, 1988


Meaning of the generic name


"Familiar spirit" — A name in Tupi Indian mythology



Size


Skull length: , Wingspan:


Remains


Partial skeleton.


Age and Distribution


Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian) Ceará, Brazil.


Classification


Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea

  Further Reading

  Kellner, A. W. A. & Campos, D. A. 1988, Sobre un novo pterossauro com crista sagital da Bacia do Araripe, Cretaceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil. (Pterosauria, Tupuxuara, Cretaceo, Brasil) Anais de Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 60, 459–469.

  Synonyms  





Name


Tupuxuara leonardii


Authority
   

Kellner & Campos, 1994


Meaning of the generic name


"Familiar spirit" — A name in Tupi Indian mythology



Size


Skull length: 900 mm, Wingspan: 4.5 m


Remains


Partial skeletons including a complete skull.


Age and Distribution


Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian) Ceará, Brazil.


Classification


Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea

  Further Reading

  Kellner, A. W. A. & Campos, D. A.  1994, A new species of Tupuxuara (Pterosauria, Tapejaridae) from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc. 66, 467–473.

  Synonyms  





Name


Tupuxuara deliradamus


Authority
   

Witton, 2009


Meaning of the generic name


"Familiar spirit" — A name in Tupi Indian mythology



Size


Skull length: 850 mm, Wingspan:


Remains


Two partial skulls.


Age and Distribution


Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian) Ceará, Brazil.


Classification


Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea

  Further Reading

  Witton, M.P. 2009. A new species of Tupuxuara (Thalassodromidae, Azhdarchoidea)  from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil, with a note on the  nomenclature of Thalassodromidae. Cretaceous Research.

  Synonyms  


Further reference:
Martill, D. M. & Naish, D. 2006. Cranial crest development in the azhdarchoid pterosaur Tupuxuara, with a review of the genus and tapejarid monophyly. Palaeontology 49, 925-941.




Illustration by D. Bogdanov



Skull materials for Tupuxuara. From top to bottom: T. longicristatus (holotype, fragmentary rostrum, MN 6591-V), T. leonardii (complete skull and mandible, IMCF 1052), T. deliradamus (cranium and mandible with rostrum restored, KPMNH DL 84). From Witton, 2009. Scale bar is 100 mm.
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