humanism
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE NECESSITY OF HUMANISM

 

 

 

 

The intention of this site is to create a network of humanistic and non-political opinions, intended to make mankind of the whole globe aware of the humanistic danger we are all living in in these years. We see politics as a challenge for humanistic thinking and humanistic behaviour. If real humanism does not take over everywhere in the world, mankind will run into extreme danger, ending up with total extinction. Politics as a tool for power and religion is the black side of mankind.

Humanistic thinking cares for all people, no matter what religion and ethnicity they belong to. We all have something in common: freedom, equality, and reason. Through reason we can reach freedom and equality, but reason can lead to misuse of power, and there is only one concept, which can prevent this: The Common Will, The Common Knowledge. Whatever mankind has reached, it dwells in every single person and therefore, The Common Will and The Common Knowledge provides us with responsibility, conscience, and pity for one another, which takes us into a profound consciousness about the conscience, which we have in ourselves. Without being conscious about yourself, you cannot be conscious about other people. Thus, the only way is to bring up and educate children as free human beings. Therefore, schools must be basically changed in their ways of providing humanism. If we do not do it, we risk a breakdown of mankind.

 

 

This site is a debate site for the whole world. If you have opinions on this issue, you can take part in the humanistic debate by mailing an essay or opinion to

 

p4cp4c@gmail.com

 

 

-- and we will publish the texts on the site for everybody to read.

Mark your mail “Timesquare”.

This is done through mail to prevent disturbing texts which can spoil the intention of this site.

 

We do look forward to receiving texts from all over the world.

You can answer in the following languages:

English, German, Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish.

 

Florian Clianthos

 

 

 

Timesquare is a square, in which people of all nationalities, religions, and ethnicities meet in a friendly and humanistic way.

 

 

Links to philosophical sites:

 

www.visionaivity.com

 

www.childrenphilosophy.com

 

 

 

 

 

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This is Linda Clay’s comment:

 

There will always be disparity in mankind. Disparity has its origin in the difference in upbringing and education. Nobody is alike, and nobody should be. Humanistic values appear in the disparity. Thus, every single human being is unique because of disparity, and no humanistic values can appear without the disparity.

Therefore, no religious/political rules or laws can change humanism and the humanistic values, which are the basis of life in any society.

Thus, religious belief is a private matter, which can never interfere with disparity and humanism. This counts for political opinions as well. They are private matters and are not supposed to influence humanistic values.

Humanism is the basis of Life and can never be political or religious. Humanism has philosophical roots, and philosophy is part of The Common Will and The Common Knowledge. Thus, experience and philosophy are the spiritual currents in every human being. We are all mirrors of each other.

 

Linda Clay

 

 

 

Comments can be sent to:

 

p4c33@hotmail.com

 

-- and they will be brought on this site.

 

 

 

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Dette er Peter Hansens tekst.

 

 

Den fælles vilje er jo netop samvittigheden. Samvittighed betyder samviden, altså den fælles vilje, vi alle er ansvarlige overfor. Dette er meget vigtigt, fordi samvittighed og moral oftest opfattes som noget religiøst, men humanismen og filosofien kommer før religionen, der har sit udspring i netop det filosofiske element. Uden filosofien, ingen religion.

Det er fantastisk vigtigt, at vi forstår, hvoraf religion udspringer. Den er netop ikke det oprindeligste, men næste trin i den åndelige udvikling. Humanismen er den samme, hvor på kloden man end lever, og i hvilken kulturkreds man er opvokset. Hvis vi har forstået dette, bliver fx politisk partidannelse noget nonsens, som kun går magtens vej, hvor netop humanisme skal gå ind og stoppe magten, når den misbruges. Samvittigheden er således den humanistiske ledetråd, vi alle har: den fælles vilje og den fælles viden.

 

Peter Hansen.

 

Kommentarer mailes til

 

p4c33@hotmail.com

 

-- hvorefter de lægges ud på denne side.

 

 

Filosofisk link:

 

www.filosofiiskolen.dk

 www.visionaivity.com

www.childrenphilosophy.com

www.philosophyforchildren.bravehost.com

 

 

 

 

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Here is a piece of a short story for children, which I found on the net.

 

Do read it!!!!!!!

 

I remember what my little brother said the other day. He said, ”Babies cannot do anything evil, because they are totally free. But the first time they are scolded by their parents or somebody else, they can – and a little bit of the freedom is taken away.”

“How old is he?”

“Seven. But he’s right, isn’t he?”

“I guess so. So we are not totally free?”

“No.”

“Can’t you get your freedom back?”

“Well, I don’t think so. Just to make a society work, you have to take some freedom away from the citizens. It’s strange.”

“And dictatorships take all the freedom away.”

“So does democracy. It shouldn’t. I’m dreaming of another world order. But I can’t figure it out. There was a man in the middle aged Italy, who did some new thinking on this area, and recently there was a Brazilian philosopher who wanted to give freedom back to children in school.”

“Yes, I have read about him. But Sebastian, tell me, are we talking politics here?”

“No, not at all. We are talking humanity. Politics always destroys the free will of the people. Humanity does not. Oh God, I have a headache now. This thinking is too heavy a task for my small mind.”

 

Linda Clay

 

www.childrenphilosophy.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thoughts on Timesquare

 

 

Mankind is running through the same steps of development, as every single human being. Thus, we are a mirror of the whole mankind and should understand our inner I as this mirror, Every thought and every feeling, which has been thought and felt through mankind is mirrored in every single human being. From wonder we get language, which leads us to questioning about the issues we wonder about. The answers create reasoning and emotions in our mind. These two concepts are gathered in The Common Knowledge and The Common Will. From the point of reasoning/emotions, issues could be interpreted religiously by our surroundings. If we take that path we choose the easiest and most narrow way and will never reach understanding of oneself as a single and unique person. Therefore, we will never reach empathy, which should be the ruler of mankind.

Religion is there, but must always be a private matter, and it should not prevent the development towards empathy, grown out of The Common Knowledge and The Common Will.

If we do not follow the paths of pure humanism civilization will break down, as power takes over empathy.

 

 

Per Jespersen

 

 

 

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Voltaire

 

 

French writer, satirist, the embodiment of the 18th-century Enlightenment. Voltaire is remembered as a crusader against tyranny and bigotry. Compared to Rousseau's (1712-1778) rebelliousness and idealism, Voltaire's world view was more skeptical. His great contemporary thinker Voltaire disliked, but both of their ideas influenced deeply the French Revolution. In 1761 Voltaire wrote to Rousseau: "One feels like crawling on all fours after reading your work."

"Liberty of thought is the life of the soul." (from Essay on Epic Poetry, 1727)

François-Marie Arouet de Voltaire was born in Paris into a middle-class family. His father was a minor treasury official. Voltaire was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704-11). From 1711 to 1713 he studied law. Before devoting himself entirely to writing, Voltaire worked as a secretary to the French ambassador in Holland. From the beginning, Voltaire had troubles with the authorities, but he energetically attacked the government and the Catholic church. These activities led to numerous imprisonments and exiles. In his early twenties he spent eleven months in the Bastille for writing satiric verses about the aristocracy.

Voltaire did not support the dogmatic theology of institutional religions, his religiosity was anticlerical. The doctrines about the Trinity or the Incarnation he dismissed as nonsense. As a humanist, he advocated religious and social tolerance. When he wrote in his play of Muhammad as a blind and destructive barbarian, everyone knew that he meant the Roman Church. Atheism Voltaire considered not as baleful as fanaticism, but nearly always fatal to virtue.

In 1716 Voltaire was arrested and exiled from Paris for five months. From 1717 to 1718 he was imprisoned in the Bastille for lampoons of the Regency. During this time he wrote the tragedy ŒDIPE, and started to use the name Voltaire. The play brought him fame which did not lessen the number of his enemies at court. With lucky speculation in the Compagnie des Indes he gained wealth in 1726.

At his 1726 stay at the Bastille, Voltaire was visited by a flow of admirers. Between 1726 and 1729 he lived in exile mainly in England. There he avoided trouble for three years and wrote in English his first essays, ESSAY UPON EPIC POETRY and ESSAY UPON THE CIVIL WARS IN FRANCE, which were published in 1727. After returning to France Voltaire wrote plays, poetry, historical and scientific treatises and became royal historiographer. HISTOIRE DE CHARLES XII (1731) used novelistic technique and rejected the idea that divine intervention guides history. In 1734 appeared Voltaire's Philosophical Letters in which he compared the French system of government with the system he had seen in England. Voltaire stated that he had perceived fewer barriers between occupations in England than in his own country. The book was banned, and Voltaire was forced to flee Paris. The English edition became a bestseller outside France.

"In general, the art of government consists in taking as much money as possible from one class of citizens to give to the other." (from Dictionnaire Philosophique, 1764)

At the age of thirty-nine, Voltraire started his famous sixteen-year liaison with Mme du Châtelet. She was twenty-seven, married, and the mother of three children. "I found, in 1733, a young woman who thought as I did," Voltaire wrote in his memoirs, "and who decided to spend several years in the country, cultivating her mind." The Marquis du Châtelet was well aware of the affair. With madame du Châtelet Voltare lived at the Château de Cirey in 1734-36 and 1737-40. Between the years he took a refuge in Holland (1736-37). In 1740 he was an ambassador-spy in Prussia, then in Brussels (1742-43), and in 1748 he was at the court of King Stanislas in Lunéville. From 1745 to 1750 he was a historiographer to Louis XV and in 1746 he was elected to the French Academy. At the invitation of Fredrick the Great, Voltaire moved in 1750 to Berlin, realizing eventually that the ruler was more enlightened in theory than in practice.

Voltaire settled in 1755 in 1755 in Switzerland, where he lived the rest of his life, apart from trips to France. He had his own château, Les Delices, outside Geneva, and later at nearby Ferney, in France. Anybody of note, from Boswell to Casanova, wanted to visit the place; Voltaire's conversations with visitors were recorded and published and he was flattered by kings and nobility. "Common sense is not so common," Voltaire wrote.

Voltaire's official publishers were Gabriel and Philibert Cramer from Geneve. They operated from Stockholm to Naples, and from Venice to Lisbon and Paris, spreading the ideas of Enlightenment. As an essayist Voltaire defended freedom of speech and religious tolerance. In his DICTIONNAIRE PHILOSOPHIQUE (1764) he defined the ideal religion - it would teach very little dogma but much morality. Voltaire's thoughts were condemned in Paris, Geneva, and Amsterdam. For safety reasons Voltaire denied his authorship.

In his late years Voltaire produced several anti-religious writing. In Ferney he built a chapel with the inscription 'Deo Erexit Voltaire' inscribed on the lintel. He also led campaign to open up a trial, in which the Huguenot merchant Jean Calas was found guilty of murdering his eldest son and executed. The parliament at Paris declared afterwards in 1765 Calas and all his family innocent. - (see also the writer Emile Zola, who defended falsely accused Alfred Dreyfus in his open letter J'accuse in 1898.)

Voltaire died in Paris on May 30, 1778, as the undisputed leader of the Age of Enlightenment. He had suffered throughout his life from poor health, but at the time of his death he was eighty-four. Voltaire left behind him over fourteen thousand known letters and over two thousand books and pamphlets. Among his best-known works is the satirical short story CANDIDE (1759), which reflected the nihilism of Jonathan Swift. In the story the young and innocent hero, Candide, experiences a long series of misfortunes and disastrous adventures. He is kicked out of the castle of Thunder-Ten-Tronckh for making love to the baron's daughter, Cunégonde, in the army he is beaten nearly to death, in Lisbon he experiences the famous earthquake, he is hunted by the Inquisition and Jesuits, and threatened with imprisonment in Paris. Meanwhile Cunégonde's father, mother and brother are hacked to pieces by invaders, and she is raped repeatedly. Eventually Candide marries Cunégonde, who has become an ugly gummy-eyed, flat-chested washerwoman, with wrinkled cheeks."If this is the best of possible worlds," Voltaire wrote, "what then are the others." Finally Candide finds the pleasures of cultivating one's garden - "Il faut cultiver notre jardin."

Candide's world is full of liars, traitors, ingrates, thieves, misers, killers, fanatics, hypocrites, fools and so on. However, Voltaire's outrage is not based on social criticism but on his ironic view of human nature. When Candide asks his friend Martin, does he believe that men have always massacred one another, Martin points out that hawks eat pigeons. "-Well, said Martin, if hawks have always had the same character, why do you suppose that men have changed?" Candide rejects the philosophy of his tutor, the unsuccessfully hanged Doctor Pangloss, who claims that "all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds" (see Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz). Candide was partly inspired by the devastating Lisbon earthquake of 1755, Dr. Pangloss was allegedly a caricature of Leibniz, but it is possible that the real model was Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759), a French philosopher and scientist. The prolific writer produced a number of studies from the physics of Venus to the proof of the existence of God. Voltaire's L'HISTOIRE DU DOCTOEUR AKAKIA ET DU NATIF DE SAINT-MALO (1753) openly ridiculed Maupertuis' ideas. Candide's narrative frame, the education of a young man, was again utilized among others in Stendhal's The Red and the Black and Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain. Leonard Bernstein made Candide a musical comedy in 1957.

In addition to Candide, Voltaire treated the problem of evil in his classic tale ZADIG (1747), set in the ancient Babylon, and in 'Poem of the Lisbon' Earthquake'. "But how conceive a God supremely good," Voltaire asked in the poem, "Who heaps his favours on the sons he loves, / Yet scatters evil with as large a hand?" MICROMÉGAS (1752) was an early science-fiction story, in which two ambassadors from the outer space visit Earth, and witness follies of human thought and behavior. Voltaire possibly wrote the conte already in 1738-39. It has similarities with 'Voyage du Baron Gangan', which he sent to Fredrick the Great.

Voltaire's Dictionnaire Philosophique was burned with the young Chevalier de la Barre, who had neglected to take of his hat while passing a bridge, where a sacred statue was exposed. Later Voltaire introduced his Dictionary as a dialogical book: its short, polemical articles were more useful when "the readers produce the other half". In Essay on the Manner and Spirit of Nations, Voltaire presented the first modern comparative history of civilizations, including Asia. Later he returned to the Chinese philosophy is his Dictionary, praising the teachings of Confucius: "What more beautiful rule of conduct has ever been given man since the world began? Let us admit that there has been no legislator more useful to the human race."

 

 

 

 

Per Jespersen:

 

Basis of Humanism

We all start our lives with a mind, which is blank as a mirror. The mind is blank, but is a mirror. Therefore, the mind can take in the first impression, and exactly the first impression makes us aware of ourselves: I am a person, I am here, and I am only here because of the impression I get from the environments.

The person is beginning to build up itself, and after the few first impressions, the next step is wondering: Who am I, why am I, and what am I compared to the environments?

The key question “Why am I” starts the first mental dialogue, which takes place without words. Therefore, this existentialistic question dwells in the mind in a wordless way. Language is not there, and as we grow up, the wordless WHY is still there, ruling our mind subconsciously.

The next impressions make the person see, still wordlessly, The Common Will, which will stay in the mind forever, expanding every day. From now on The Common Will stays in the mind, forming the basis of The Common Knowledge, which is partly formed by language, having its roots in the subconscious Common Will.

Now language is there, but all impressions go through The Common Knowledge, which creates the frames for morality, common conscience, and equality.

This is the basis of humanism, which rules the conscience and combats misuse of power of any kind. Thus, a humanistic person will be vulnerable to power, as power is against The Common Conscience.

 

 

 

 

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