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Peer Reviewed Journal Articles
  1. Liu, O.L., Brew, C., Blackmore, J., Gerard, L., & Madhok, J. (in press, early view). Automated scoring for inquiry science assessment: Prospects and obstacles. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. DOI:10.1111/emip.12028
  2. Linn, M.C., Gerard, L., Kihyun, R., McElhaney, K., Liu, O.L., & Rafferty, A.N. (2014). Computer-guided inquiry to improve science learning. Science, 344, 155-156.
  3. Rios, J., Liu, O.L., & Bridgeman, B. (Invited, in press, 2014). Identifying unmotivated examinees on student learning outcomes assessment: A comparison of two approaches. New Directions for Institutional Research.
  4. Lee, H.S., Liu, O. L., Pallant, A., Crotts, K., Pryputniewicz, S., & Buck, Z. (2014). Assessment of uncertainty-infused scientific argumentation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(5), 581-605.
  5. Shen, J., Liu, O.L. & Sung, S. (in press, early view). Assessing college students' interdisciplinary understanding in sciences. International Journal of Science Education. DOI:10.1080/09500693.2013.879224
  6. Liu, O. L, Lee, H.S., Law, N. & Lee, Y. (2013). Generation vs. selection: Comparison between U.S. and Hongkong students. Peking University Education Review, 11(1), 11-28.
  7. Liu, O. L., Bridgeman, B. & Adler, R. M. (2012). Measuring learning outcomes assessment in higher education: Motivation matters. Educational Researcher, 41(9), 352 - 362.
  8. Liu, O. L. (2012). Student evaluation of instruction: In a new paradigm of distance education. Research in Higher Education, 53(4), 471-486.
  9. Lakin, J.M., Elliott, D.C., & Liu, O.L. (2012). Investigating ESL students’ performance on outcomes assessments in higher education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 72(5), 734-753. 
  10. Turkan, S. & Liu*, O. L. (2012). Differential performance by ELLs on an inquiry-based science assessment. International Journal of Science Education, 12, 1-27. (*corresponding author)
  11. Liu, O.L., Lee, H.S., & Linn, M.C. (2011). Measuring knowledge integration: Validation of four-year assessments. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(9), 1079-1107.
  12. Liu, O. L., Lee, H.S. & Linn, M.C. (2011). A comparison among multiple-choice, constructed- response and explanation multiple-choice items. Educational Assessment, 16, 164-184.
  13. Liu, O. L. (2011). Outcomes assessment in higher education: Challenges and future research in the context of Voluntary System of Accountability. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(3), 2-9.
  14. Liu, O. L. (2011). Does major field of study and cultural familiarity affect TOEFL® iBT reading performance? A confirmatory approach to differential item functioning. Applied Measurement in Education, 24(5), 235-255.
  15. Liu, O. L. (2011). Value-added assessment in higher education: A comparison of two methods. Higher Education, 61(4), 445-461.
  16. Liu, O.L. (2011). Measuring value-added in higher education: Conditions and caveats. Results from using the Measure of Academic Proficiency and Progress (MAPP™). Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(1), 81-94.
  17. Lee, H.S., Liu, O. L., & Linn, M.C. (2011). Validating measurement of knowledge integration in science using multiple-choice and explanation items. Applied Measurement in Education, 24, 115-136.
  18. Lee, H.-S., Liu, O. L., Price, C. A., & Kendall, A. (2011). College students' temporal magnitude recognition ability associated with durations of scientific changes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(3), 317-335.
  19. Liu, O.L., Lee, H.S., & Linn, M.C. (2010). An investigation of teacher impact on student inquiry science performance using a hierarchical linear model. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(7), 807-819.
  20. Liu, O.L., Lee, H.S., & Linn, M.C. (2010). Evaluating inquiry-based science modules using a hierarchical linear model. Educational Assessment, 15(2), 69-86.
  21. Lee, H. S. & Liu, O. L. (2010). Assessing learning progression of energy concepts across middle school grades: The knowledge integration perspective. Science Education, 94(4), 665-688.
  22. Lee, H.S., Varma, K., Linn, M.C., & Liu, O. L. (2010). Impact of visualization-based inquiry science experience on classroom learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(1), 71-90.  
  23. Liu, O. L., & Wilson, M. (2010). Sources of self-efficacy belief: Development and validation of two scales. Journal of Applied Measurement, 11(1), 24-37.
  24. Liu, O. L. (2010). Outcomes-oriented evaluation of higher education in the United States. China Examinations, 8(5), 31-36.
  25. Liu, O. L. (2009). Penalized by high confidence or rewarded by high anxiety? Results from United States and Hong Kong on PISA 2003 Mathematics. International Journal of Testing, 9, 215-237.
  26. Liu, O. L. (2009). Measuring learning strategies for middle school students: A three-factor model. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(4), 312-322.
  27. Liu, O.L., Rijmen, F, MacCann, C., & Roberts, R. (2009). Measuring time management abilities for middle school students. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 174-179.
  28. Liu, O.L. & Wilson, M. (2009). Gender differences in large-scale mathematics assessments: PISA trend 2000 & 2003. Applied Measurement in Education, 22(2), 164-184.
  29. Liu, O. L. & Wilson, M. (2009). Gender differences and similarities in PISA 2003 Mathematics: A Comparison between the United States and Hong Kong. International Journal of Testing, 9(1), 20-40.
  30. Liu, O. L., Minsky, J., Ling, G.M., & Kyllonen, P. (2009). Using the standardized letter of recommendation in selection: Results from a multidimensional Rasch model. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69 (3), 475-492.
  31. Chien, C., Liu, O. L., & Wang, W. (2009). Using Rasch model in the selection of candidates with the same total scores. Journal of Psychological Testing, 56(2), 129-151.  
  32. Wang, L., MacCann, C., Zhuang, X., Liu, O.L., & Roberts, R. (2009). The assessment of teamwork in high school students: A Multi-method Approach. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 24(2), 108-124.
  33. Liu, O. L., Wilson, M., & Paek, I. (2008). A multidimensional Rasch analysis of gender differences in PISA mathematics. Journal of Applied Measurement, 9 (1), 18-35.
  34. Liu, O. L., Lee, H.S., Hoftstetter, C. & Linn, M.C. (2008). Assessing knowledge integration in science: Construct, Measures, and Evidence. Educational Assessment, 13, 33-55.
  35. Liu, O. L., & Rijmen, F. (2008). A modified procedure for parallel analysis for ordered categorical data. Behavior Research Methods, 40 (2), 556-562.

Peer Reviewed ETS Research Reports

  1. Liu, O.L., Frankel, L. & Roohr, K.C. (in press). Assessing critical thinking in higher education: Current state and directions for next generation assessment. ETS Research Report.
  2. Liu, O.L. (in press). Test taking strategies and TOEFL iBT performance. ETS Research Report.
  3. Liu, O.L. & Crotts, K. (2013). A 10-year analysis of community college students’ performance on learning outcomes assessment. ETS Research Report (RR-13-34), Princeton: NJ.
  4. Hill, Y. & Liu, O. L. (2012). Is there any interaction between background knowledge and language proficiency that affects TOEFL iBT reading performance? ETS TOEFL Research Report (RR-12-22), Princeton: NJ.
  5. Liu, O. L. (2011). Examining American Post-Secondary Education. ETS Research Report Series (RR-11-22). Princeton: NJ.
  6. Klein, S., Liu, O.L., Sconing, J., Bolus, R., Bridgeman, B., Kugelmass, H., Nemeth, A., Robbins, S., & Steedle, J. (September 29, 2009). Test Validity Study (TVS) Report. Supported by the Fund for Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE). Online at: http://www.voluntarysystem.org/index.cfm?page=research.
  7. Liu, O. L., Schedl, M., Malloy, J., & Kong, N. (2009). Does Content Knowledge Affect TOEFL® iBT Reading Performance? A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning. ETS TOEFL Report Series (RR-09-029). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
  8. Liu, O. L. (2009). R&D connections: Measuring learning outcomes in higher education (Report No. RDC-10). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RD_Connections10.pdf
  9. Liu, O.L. (2008). Measuring learning outcomes in higher education using the Measure of Academic Proficiency and Progress (MAPP). ETS Research Report Series (RR-08-047). Princeton: NJ.
  10. Liu, O.L., Jackson, T, & Ling, G. (2008). An Initial Field Trial of an Instrument for Measuring Learning Strategies of Middle School Students. ETS research report series (RR-08-03). Princeton: NJ.
  11. Zhuang, X., MacCann, C., Wang, L., Liu, O.L., & Roberts, R. D. (2008). Development and validity evidence supporting a teamwork and collaboration assessment for high school students. ETS Research Report series (RR-08-50). Princeton, NJ: ETS.
  12. Liu, O. L., Minsky, J., Ling, G., & Kyllonen, P. (2007). Using standardized letter of recommendation. ETS research report series (RR-07-038). Princeton: NJ.
  13. Liu, O. L., Rijmen, F., & Kong, N. (2007). An initial investigation of a modified procedure for parallel analysis. ETS research report series (RR-07-041). Princeton: NJ.
Books and Book Chapters
  1. Liu, O. L., & Wilson, M. (2011). Sources of self-efficacy belief: Development and validation of two scales. In N. Brown, B. Duckor, K. Draney, & M. Wilson (ed.) (pp 419-439). Advances in Rasch Measurement. Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press.
  2. Gerard, L., Liu, O.L., Corliss, S., Varma, K., Spitulnik, M. & Linn, M.C. (in press). Teaching with visualizations: A comparison study. In C. Mouza & N. Lavigne  (Eds.) Emerging Technologies for the Classroom: A Learning Sciences Perspective. New York: Springer
  3. Liu, O.L. (2009). Gender Differences on International Mathematics Assessment: Results from PISA 2000 & 2003. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.
  4. Qian, C.W., Wang, W.C., Chen, C.D., Zhang, W.X., Lin, H.R., & Liu, O.L. (2006). Applications of Rasch analysis on health care. Tainan: Catholic Publisher.