Much of the claimed history for Christianity - and its relationship with imperial Rome - during the first three centuries of the modern era, derives from texts appearing centuries later; they claim to be copies of texts originally written by:
This character is termed here a "ghost" because he left no footprint in the historical record; that is, looking at the cultural layers of the period in which he is supposed to have inhabited, there is no mention, or any other mark of him. As a prime example, archaeological study of the site in which he is supposed to have his episcopate (the see of a bishop) shows further how there was no Christian church there at that time and no Christian congregation.
In short, this character did not exist and could not have existed. Further, the very earliest texts attributed to this fictional character appear at least two centuries late. Note: the textual tradition, as with sacred texts, are very largely undated by any scientific, or reliable method; Christians try continually to move them back in time towards these "ghosts"; very possibly, the textual tradition is (much) more recent than claimed.
From 6 CE this port city was the centre of Roman administration in Judea:
Right: the Pilate Stone - (replica casting on display in Caesarea Maritima) - the name given to a damaged block of carved limestone with a partially intact inscription attributed to, and mentioning, Pontius Pilate; a Prefect of the Roman-controlled province of Judea from 26–36 CE. The translation from Latin to English for the inscription reads:
The Christian, textual tradition for this imperial, Roman centre:
This site has been studied extensively by archaeologists;
We see how this Roman centre was manned by Roman troops and administrators right through the period claimed by the Christian, textual tradition; whatever religions were practised there, they did not include Christianity (though Chrestianity, with its links to the Herodian monarchy and imperial Rome must be a strong possibility).
In 1998 we excavated in two areas underwater, N and K, located within or adjacent to the main basin of King Herod's great harbor, and in two areas on land, area LL, located on the north side of the Inner Harbor basin, and area TP, the Temple Platform, site of Herod's temple to Roma and Augustus.
The Temple Platform, where Farland Stanley supervises, is the site overlooking the harbor where King Herod built his temple to Roma and Augustus, mentioned by Josephus. Avraham Negev of the Hebrew University cleared the site of modern buildings and excavated there in the early 1960s but discovered little. We began excavating in 1989, after Yoram Tsafrir and I recognized the foundations of an Early Christian church among the remains that Negev left. The church, it turned out, was built squarely on the foundations of the temple. Clearly, the site has much to teach us about the process of Christianizing Caesarea, and the Roman Empire.
In TP25 and elsewhere, we likewise exposed further foundations of the octagonal church, in part heavily robbed. (32) The line of these foundations was already known, however, so other discoveries were more important. (33) In 1998 we exposed and studied a group of enigmatic foundations in TP19/23, TP1/2, and in TP25. (34) It is now clear that these foundations lay above remains of the temple and below the floors of the church. Thus the temple had been largely or completely destroyed up to a century before the church was built. Pottery and coins found below these foundations dates them to about 400-450, and we now think the church was built about 480-500. Nevertheless, numerous stones of the temple were incorporated into church (47), so many that we can say they shared the same fabric. From what we have recovered so far of the intermediate structure, or structures, there is no sign that they formed a monumental building, such as an intervening church.
(Combined Caesarea Expeditions: 1998 Summer Season by: Kenneth G. Holum, Project Director. Copy added below) Empasis added.
To summarise the chronology:
The archaeology makes clear how this Herodian, then imperial Roman centre of power, could not have been a centre of an illegal, covert cult such as claimed in the textual tradition.
The hard archaeological evidence is convincing. On its northwestern flank the church foundations rest directly on the temple foundations--and in fact it may be assumed that the temple foundations survived because the Early Christian builders exploited the Herodian foundations as leveling where the bedrock sloped downward on the northwest of the site. Furthermore, discovery of numerous kurkar architectural fragments from the temple embedded in the structure both of the church and of the staircase that provided access to it from the west makes it clear that the temple still stood--certainly long unused for cult purposes, and perhaps in a ruinous state--until about 500. The bulk of its stones must have survived until then in their original positions. This enabled the church builders to exploit the temple's superstructure as a convenient quarry for the kurkar blocks they needed for the church and staircase.
(From Paganism to Christianity on the Temple Platform by Kenneth G. Holum)
The textual tradition describes "Eusebius of Caesarea" as openly in communication with the imperial court:
And yet he leaves no footprint, no mark at all of his existence? Nobody mentions him - he is a ghost.
The city had no Christian congregation in the first, second, third or fourth centuries; the city had no Christian bishop in that period.
On the other hand, Caesarea Maritima was a perfect location for Chrestians, being first, Herodian, then imperial Roman protected by Roman troops and with a port to link them with the empire.
Reliable archaeology thus expunges this "Eusebius of Caesarea" from the historical record; this tells us how the Christian textual tradition is mostly a fabrication. Most likely, the Chrestian history was remade as Christian, just as Chrest was altered to read Christ in the original New Testament.
The conversion of the emperor Constantine, the Council of Nicea, the Edict of MIlan - so much purported history - is dependent on this character (or others like him). None of these events exist in the historical record, just in the words of an unknown writer centuries later.
This also forces a review of the claimed author "Origen" (see above), as well as the vast number of characters claimed by "Eusebius" as Christian. The purported self-castration of Origen suggests, perhaps, that he was a priest of Cybele.