Who. When . What and other updates

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When was paper invented ?

History of paper-making

Who invented paper?  … Before the invention of paper, Chinese kept written records on tortoise shells, bones, metals, stones, bamboo slips, wooden tablets and silk.

In A.D. 105  Cai Lun  presented the Emperor with a fine quality paper ( in Western Han Dynasty).   The inner bark of mulberry tree was used for fibre.  Later they found that the fibres good for paper-making could be obtained by pounding rags, hemp rope, and old fishing nets into a pulp.

In the 7th century the technique of paper making found its way to Japan through Korea.  Then to Europe via Iraq and Arabia in  the 8th century.  Spain and France set up their first paper mills in the 12th century.  Later paper-making spread westward to Mexico.   In America the first paper mill was built in Pennsylvania USA in A.D.1690.

From the 18th century the manufacturing of paper was by machinery instead of by hand.  Nowadays most commercial papers begin with shredded wood pulp, but superior papers still include the use of fabric rags.

In 1973 and 1978 more evidence shown that paper was invented over 2000 years ago by the Chinese.  Specimens of hemp paper were found in Shanxi  of China backdated to 49 B.C.  

When was paper folding started?

Nobody knows the exact time.

What is the meaning of origami?

The art of paper folding.

Who chose the new name for paperfolding which is now well known as  "origami"  ?

 Lillian Oppenheimer   in USA

Interesting records in history

  1. AD 1914-1918  Strangers on the Western Front ---  Chinese Workers in the Great War Xu Guoqi  -Harvard University Press 2011

  1. AD 1872 - 120 boys - from China to USA



 Happy brain comes from busy hands 


How busy hands can alter our brain chemistry --- by Amy Wall

Are you the kind of person who actually likes washing dishes? How about folding laundry? Yardwork?  What all these have in common, of course, is they occupy our hands. And as it turns out, some researchers think that may be key to making our brains very happy.

"I made up this term called 'behaviorceuticals,' instead of pharmaceuticals, in the sense that when we move and when we engage in activities, we change the neurochemistry of our brain in ways that a drug can change the neurochemistry of our brain," said Kelly Lambert, a neuroscientist at the University of Richmond……

Which is why, Lambert said, in the 19th century doctors used to prescribe knitting to women who were overwrought with anxiety, "because they sensed that it calmed them down some. And it sounds, 'Oh, that's simplistic.' But when you think about, OK, repetitive movement is increasing certain neurochemicals. And then if you produce something -- a hat or a scarf -- there's the reward."

Of course, working with your hands is not always easy, as Matthew Crawford, a part-time mechanic from Richmond, Virginia, can attest…….

In the garage, using his hands, Crawford finds that his mind goes into high gear. "There are times when I crack some nut that way where I'll, like, run over and kick the garbage can just out of elation," he smiled.

It was such a revelation, he wrote a bestselling book on the subject -- "Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Inquiry into the Value of Work" (Penguin) -- ……

Lambert said, "If you're making something and painting or cooking and putting things together, and you're using both hands in a little bit more creative way, that's going to be more engaging for the brain." ……

As of 2015, jobs requiring social and analytical skills -- desk jobs -- had increased 94% from 1980, while jobs requiring physical skills went up a mere 12%.

And that has Kelly Lambert concerned: "We just sit there. And we press buttons. And you start to lose a sense of control over your environment."

She's been using rodents to study the hand-brain connection. Lambert said that rats made to dig for a reward showed greater signs of mental health, when compared to what she calls her "trust fund rats," who got a pass on doing any physical work.

"So, when we took an animal that was really in tune with the environment and we just gave them their rewards, without having to work for them, their stress hormones went up high -- they lost all their benefits," Kelly Lambert said

For more info: 

·        Dr. Kelly Lambert, University of Richmond, Richmond, Va.

·        "Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Inquiry into the Value of Work" by Matthew B. Crawford (Penguin);         Available via Amazon