Globe Model

Source: www.google.com

      The "Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness" (GLOBE) Research Program was conceived in 1991 by Robert J. House (1932-2011) of the Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania.


        GLOBE takes findings from Hofstede’s study in culture within a nation and expands it to consider the role of leadership in culture in order to identify traits that are universally accepted versus culturally specific (Deresky, 2008). “To summarize, GLOBE decided that it is time to move beyond Hofstede's approach and to design constructs and scales that are more comprehensive, cross-culturally developed, theoretically sound, and empirically verifiable” (Javidan et al., 2006, p. 899).

    Leung et al. (2005) mentions a second aspect of GLOBE separating itself from Hofstede’s research, by looking at the cultures and practices of a nation (as cited in Javidan et al., 2006, p. 899). House et al., (2004) states “the GLOBE project defines culture as shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and the interpretation or meaning of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives that are transmitted across generations” (as cited in Kats et al. 2010, p. 404).

      

       GLOBE adding four additional dimensions to his theory (Magnusson et al., 2008 p 186; Parboteeah et al., 2005, p. 125-126):

1.  Uncertainty avoidance. The extent uncertainty is avoided by relying on established social norms

2. Power distance. The extent and acceptance of unequal distribution of power

3. Institutional collectivism. The degree collective distribution of resources is rewarded

4. In-group collectivism. The degree individuals express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in society

5. Gender egalitarianism. The degree the society minimizes gender role differences

6. Assertiveness. The degree individuals are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in social relationships

7. Future orientation. The degree the society engages in future planning, investing, and delaying gratification

8. Performance orientation. The degree individuals are rewarded for performance improvements

9. Humane orientation. The degree individuals are rewarded for being fair, altruistic, friendly, and kind 


    GLOBE also continues to develop and refine its theory, including work from researchers around the world to help ensure material remains relevant. “GLOBE is a large-scale program involving over 160 researchers from many parts of the world and a support staff of three administrators”.
 (Javidan et al., 2006, p 897).



1. Uncertainty Avoidance is defined as the extent to which members of an organization or society strive to avoid uncertainty by reliance on social norms, rituals, and bureaucratic practices to alleviate the unpredictability of future events.
With high Uncertainty Avoidance the staff tends to use formality in interaction with others but with low uncertainty avoidance the staff use informally in interaction with others


2. Power Distance is defined as the degree to which members of an organization or society expect and agree that power should be unequally shared.
This usually happens in Asia country where the subordinate should respect the boss because the boss is the one who have power and making the final or difficult decision.


3. Collectivism I: Societal Collectivism reflects the degree to which organizational and societal institutional practices encourage and reward collective distribution of resources and collective action.
Mostly happens in Asia because Asian always spread the work or project to one particular department.


4. Collectivism II: In-Group Collectivism reflects the degree to which individuals express pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their organizations or families.
Mostly happens in European and American country because they always spread the work to one individual person.


5. Gender egalitarianism. The degree the society minimizes gender role differences
Whether a man or a woman, with different characteristics, age, and race but as long as has same qualification in an interview for the job. If they qualified enough they will get the job. Like in a job position for a Receptionist usually they prefer a woman but man also has a chance to get that job


6. Assertiveness is the degree to which individuals in organizations or societies are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in social relationships.
Always expressing your own feelings like if there is a friend that always ask to help some small thing. You don’t need to always agreed and felt it was selfish to say "no". It can affect yourself become more stressed because of the lack of time to relax.


7. Future Orientation is the degree to which individuals in organizations or societies engage in future-oriented behaviours such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification
Propensity to save now for the future. Saving for retirement obviously requires a future orientation, and many people manage to do something in this. Emphasize working for long-term success.


8. Performance Orientation refers to the extent to which an organization or society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence. This dimension includes the future oriented component of the dimension called Confucian Dynamism by Hofstede and Bond 1988).
The company gives more training to improve the staff skill and also develop a new thing or skill to encourage them performs better than before. It also can be a reward for example like bonus money.


9. Finally, Humane Orientation is the degree to which individuals in organizations or societies encourage and reward individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, and kind to others. This dimension is similar to the dimension labelled Kind Heartedness by Hofstede and Bond 1988).
People now are urged to be sensitive to all forms of racial discrimination; all people want to be treated fairly so they won’t differ a person anymore.

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