5) Links to other self balancing projects


Interesting and inspirational projects:
Self-balancing vehicles and models you can potentially buy (not sure if some of them infringe Segway patents though):
e-nuvo power wheel, a self balancing 2 wheeled robot platform: Click here
Beauto Balancer small model robot balances on 2 wheels: Click here
The ewee from Germany: A mini Segway for about 1/4 of the price. Click here
Ewee video clip: Click here
Focus designs unicycle: Click here
I prefer the "enicycle" unicycle though for its clever steering mechanism, although I think he is still seeking a commercial partner: Click here for "Gadget Show" video
Ryno Motors one-wheeled electric motorbike (rider seems to steer not only by shifting weight but moving wheel slightly from side to side
?? as in the eni-cycle, may be a differently engineered linkage mechanism though): Click here for youtube video
Ryno bike on the Gadget Show here: Click here for video

Skateboard style creations:

Ben Smithers skateboard YouTube video Click here here

Ben Smithers website (working again)  Click here

Maiden voyage of the “Leviskate” self balancing skateboard. Click Here

The Emanual series. Emanual 1 is very interesting as although it is one of the most skateboard-like of the many creations here, it still has 2 wheels and can turn on the spot by tilting the board. Click Here

Stanford University skateboard with 2 wheels. Click Here

Another good, working, self balancing skateboard. Click Here

Skatanova self balancing 2 wheeled skateboard. Click Here

The Segskate. Click Here

The ME102. Click Here

Another new self balancing skateboard: Click here

"Dave Southalls' Engineering Experiments From The Shed"  - he recently got this to work (April 2010): Click Here

Clint Rutkas has had a website for some time describing his self balancing skateboard project among others plus some youtube videos. Here we see his board starting to balance for the first time, a great moment:  Click Here
Another video of C Rutkas machine more or less balancing OK: Click Here

A guy keeping a very low profile called Kyle has built a one wheeled skateboard. I can find no information at all other than a couple of photos on flickr: Click Here

Here is someone who looks as if he is trying to build a skateboard type machine: Click Here
A really very stylishly designed mono-wheel board from ? Japan:  Click Here
Heres another that balances OK and looks nearly finished:  Click Here
Here is one built in a few days from robot parts: Click Here
Japanese University "Robo-skateboard": Click Here
Here is one based on my Instructable, it works OK which is nice to see:  Click Here
A great new fast one wheeled board "Skate One" using a hub motor from Cordoba Polytechnic: Click Here
A new one based on my instructable: Click Here
The "Glide Board" with video: Click Here
Georgia-Tech "Velocyrider" based on the instructable (with video, code and ideas for new designs): Click here
Buffalo State College Senior project skateboard video: Click Here
Here is one from Johannesburg, just one photo on this page:  Click Here
Excellent one wheeler from Kyle, with custom brushless hub motor in Kart wheel, best yet: Click Here.
Another great one wheeler with video here: Click Here
Pogo stick style designs
The UNI-POGO a pogo stick which self-balances:  Click Here

Unicycle style creations:

Early German unicycle website Click Here
More on this unicycle Click Here
Here is one from as long ago as 2003: Click Here

Self balancing unicycle. Has downloadable code. As unicycle only has one wheel the code is very

relevant for a self balancing one wheeled skateboard. Worth studying.  Click Here


MUST SEE: Recent electric unicycle project from Slovenia. www.enicycle.com Uses a hub motor. The other really great thing is that it has a steering mechanism that means you can learn to ride it in 10 minutes. Superb YouTube video of him riding it around town, around a shopping centre, down a corridor and into the office! Click Here
Also here is a great video of the Enicycle on the "Gadget Show" (let the adverts at the start run then the video of this machine will appear) : Click Here

The ECOW scooter. Click Here

 Attempt to build unicycle from 2004: Click Here
HONDA make a unicycle style demonstrator that also balances in sideways direction using omnidirectional wheel: Click Here   Click Here for wheel mechanism (see end of this video). If a small bit of dirt gets into the small "lateral" movement wheels it looks as if it could suddenly lose ability to move sideways.
The Solo Wheel unicycle with no seat, genuinely portable, video: Click here
MiCycle college project a bit like the EniCycle:  Click Here
Davelvill has been making clever unicycle robots for some time, he is now working on a ride-on version: Click here
iBalanceU University project unicycle (with stabilisers): Click here
Unicycle build project (shows how it is not as easy as it looks): Click here             and Here         and Here
Charles F Taylor designs:
Charles F Taylor built a series of manually controlled / mechanically gyro stabilised one wheeled vehicles in the 50's and 60's.
Some video of these amazing machines in action are here:  Click Here
Recently (2010) two people have built a recreation of one of his early machines, for video of their "CTRig" Click Here
Regarding the Segway patent (i.e. the debate whether self-balancing machines infringe it or not):
Q: Did concept already exist in public domain as prior art ?
1) Behold:

“The rolling element is a sphere a foot or so across, the upper part of which fits into a cage equipped with motors and drive-wheels.  The rider sits on a saddle projecting up from this framework.  Should he begin to topple, accelerometers detect the movement instantly, and the onboard microprocessor commands the motors to roll the sphere in the proper direction to frustrate the fall.  With fast enough electronics, the rider will feel absolutely safe, for the continual balancing tremors will be smaller than those which his own balancing reflexes would have to make were he simply standing up…”

“A really elegant, natural method of control and steering becomes possible.  The rider merely leans in the direction he wants to go; the unisphere obediently rolls in that direction to counter the fall, and continues to roll that way until he leans to one side to change direction, or leans back to stop.  With practice, this technique of balance-control — which is merely a generalization of the art of steering a bicycle, itself a simple extension of our automatic balancing reflexes — will become quite automatic.  The rider will navigate his unisphere forwards, backwards, and side-ways without even thinking about it.”

New Scientist, 18 May 1978


2) Japanese Emeritus Professor Kazuo Yamafuji of Tokyo's University of Electro-Communications who built a self balancing 2 wheeled robot in 1986, patented in Japan in 1996 Click here. Some internet discussion about this here. Picture of it half way down this page: Click Here. It looks to me as if there was "prior art" covering use of accelerometer/gyroscope combination to create self-balancing in the fore/aft direction before the Segway. However the Segway has 5 gyro's among many other features so can turn safely even on slopes for example, as it acquires a lot more information which the control system can then use to correctly position the machine.
Segway style creations: 
 All about Dean Kamen and the Segway: Click Here
Segway website: Click Here
Trevor Blackwell build your own segway site. Click Here

Version 2 of this scooter Click Here

More on how to build one of these Click Here

MIT segway project: Click Here

IMPORTANT download their technical specifications and definitely read the article on the “balance

filter” by Shane Colton. This explains in plain English how simple (relative to a Kalman filter anyway) self balancing can be made to work and how the signals from the gyro and the accelerometer are used.

Malcolm Faed has build a Segway type vehicle. Click Here

Geoffrey D Bennett has built “Meta” also a Segway type vehicle. Has downloadable code. Worth studying. Click Here

Another segway built on low budget very quickly. Click Here

Another homebuilt segway clone. Click Here

Segway project from ?Vietnam. Click Here

Ginger 2, a new home made segway project. Click Here

(Ginger was the codename for the Segway before it was launched)

A really excellent Scandinavian segway project. Click Here

A neat small Segway project as part of an Atmel design competition. Download his abstract and then the full pdf write up of the project as it has a lot of useful information and code. Click Here

Rotanova scooter. Click Here

The two wheel deal from Purdue. Click Here

Segway clone with attached barstool. See their website for description of some of the injuries you can acquire during development! Their test driver does seem especially bold in his approach. Click Here

Another one. Click Here

Another. Click here

The Mway-III. Click Here

Long video on the Mway build. Click Here

Very good segway clone from Australia. Son of EDGAR. Click Here

Toyota "Winglet" mini-Segway clone. Click Here

Another homebuild segway. Click Here
New Japanese Segway PMP-2: Click Here

Homebuilt Segway with wheelchair motors: Click Here

Quebec Open Segway: Click Here

Someone had to do it, a self balancing red phone booth! Click Here

The Korean "BBRider" Click Here

Hanoi University $300 Segway clone: Click Here

The Zzaag projekt Segway clone from Germany: Click Here

kcway2: Click here

The Huboway: Click here

Homemade Winglet: Click here

Dwukółka a la segway: Click here

Segway DIY: Click here

Zachary Anderson and his "Tipper": Click Here
An Asian competition winner, low cost segway style vehicle: Click here

 The "MAV" mono-axial vehicle. Good website, lots of tech information: Click Here

 Daniel Fukaba's Segway - Video clip: Click Here
Man developing Wii Segway:  Click Here
ELEKTOR magazine DIY Segway kit (Just over $2000): Click Here
 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Segway development project: Click Here
Here is one from Harvard University: Click Here
Interesting Segway clone attempt using an accelerometer only (no gyro): Click Here
Kerry Snyder's ongoing build-a-Segway project: Click Here
Meta Project: image of Segway with reclining garden chair seat (brave man):  Click Here
Here is a video of the same machine with reclining chair! Click Here
Segway with wheelchair motors built by 4 students at Umeå University, Sweden: Click Here
Segway built as cheaply as possible: The heart of the balancing act is a 5DOF rate gyro and accelerometer combo board being interpreted by a pic 16F877a microcontroler with less than 100 lines of MikroBasic. Output is PWM converted to analog and sent to a Sabortooth 2X10 motorcontroller in analog input mode. Click Here
Another one, with Vespa scooter wheels for $200: Click Here
Teenager built Segway: ClickHere
New YouTube vid of an Arduino based OSMC based Segway from Iceland: Click Here
Segway construction webpage with plenty of photos: Click here
A really good Segway clone: Click Here      Website for this machine, has excellent build photos: Click Here
Another excellent machine: Click Here
Here is yet another one - in early stages of development: Click Here 
Really fast Segway clone: Click Here 
Zachary Carpenter built this one at Tulsa University - it even has chrome spinners on the wheels! Click Here
Another homebuilt done by some school friends: Click Here


A new category: Ski-less skis

Nissan ski-less skis: Click here


Balancing robots:

Gyrobot balancing robot, has some downloadable code for you to study. Click Here

Equibot. Small section on dead spot correction for small motors and some code. Click here
The Seg-Wii: This is an extremely useful fairly recent website as it has video, example code with explanatory notes and is very well laid out. There is a powerpoint lecture on how the algorithm works too which is worth studying for any project like this: Click Here
Dale Heatherington has built a small robot that self-balances using an ANALOG PID controller with op-amps and a comparator. It balances really well too and you can download the circuit diagram: Click Here


Without this article I would have really struggled to understand how this can be done although elements of this algorithm do appear in the software of others in this list. Click Here

My machine uses a "Complimentary Filter" which I believe is not quite the same thing as a "Kalman" filter which is more complex but in theory at least is "better" than a complimentary one. Having said that some have tried Kalman and found that the complimentary trial and error based methods worked best for them. If you want to know about the proper Kalman filter then look here if you can handle the maths: Click here

Free book on how to program in “C” language for those of us who needed to learn this. Click Here


A good set of AVR programming tutorials (i.e. how to program the Atmel series of microcontrollers). Click Here

Wikipedia article on the theory of PID control systems: Click Here

Excellent tutorial for the complete newbie to AVR programming as I was. Click Here

AVRbeginners net.................self explanatory really! Click Here

Theory of PID controller tuning. Click Here

"Build yourself a Segway" Podcast of high school student who built his own Segway. Shows him researching some of the above links on the net before he started: Click Here

 "Sccoterlabs" website which says it will have tutorials soon on how to build each part of your own segway clone: Click Here


Phenomenal video from 1950's of a one wheeled vehicle powered by petrol engine and balanced by a

mechanical gyro around country roads. Click Here
Jackie Chabanais and his petrol engined monocycle "Monorue." It looks as if he is an acrobat and can balance it using pure skill. Website has some amazing downloadable video of him riding it: Click Here

I love this one, the “Leango”, like riding on an upside down trackball. Click Here

Strange set of images from a Photoshop competition of mock one wheeled vehicles: Click Here

The Gyrover, gyro stabilised one wheeled remote controlled vehicle: Click here
The "Loony Cycle" - original link to Bolton College UK seems to be broken but a picture of it is on this page. Innovative idea,
 is a bicycle wheel with a propeller on each side that spins and pushes it upright if it is falling over to one side: Click here


Nothing whatsoever to do with self balancing but inspirational:

Chinese ? farmer-built "shanzhaiji" helicopter flying outside apartment block of owner, up a street and near power lines. No safety features: Click here

Chinese farmer built autogyro. Title of video: "I don't think the farmer-made plane is fake" -

      built from assorted scrap metal by the look of it. Again no concern for personal safety whatsoever: Click here