John Dingley email: firstname.lastname@example.org Also see my "Instructables" DIY skateboard page.
Why? For the technical challenge and the fun of riding these machines. They are unlike anything else. Electronic self-balancing machines have existed since 1998 (a Japanese robot) but there is still a huge amount of room for further experimentation by amateurs. In addition the parts are gradually becoming cheaper to buy all the time.
Q: Can I buy a kit? A: No although I did have a go at a kit where the balance sensors, Arduino and hand controller were all pre-wired together with software pre-loaded.
Here: http://www.instructables.com/id/Self-balancing-skateboardsegwy-project-Arduino-S/ There are some Segway type kits out there (Elektor, Ewee etc) and several Chinese Segway clones.
Jan 11th 2014: A monowheel skateboard very much like the original one by Ben Smithers back in 2007 (here: http://www.robosys.co.uk/) raised approx $650,000 on Kickstarter, has been featured at an electronics show in Las Vegas this month. See: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&term=onewheel It has even been on the BBC "Click" TV programme:
This is so neat and uncluttered because it has a clever motor inside the hub. This means it does not need the chain or belt drive we hobbyists tend to use.
Here I was thinking this was an obscure hobby of no mainstream interest, but I may be wrong after all!
What's new on this site?
a) Note new entry (8) on left describing how to hook up an Arduino to an OSMC motor power controller, including faster pwm.
b) The UNI-МИГ 01 (Uni-Mig 01) Link (19) in left hand menu. One wheeled unicycle scooter.
c) I have finally managed to get a self-balancer to work using a modern DIGITAL IMu from Sparkfun. Link: Click Here
Heroes (we all need some heroes):
Trevor Blackwell who inspired almost everyone else doing this sort of thing: http://tlb.org/#eunicycle
Ben Smithers (Norwich, UK) who posted the first amazing video of a one wheeled skateboard: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGbbag9dklU
Rodger Cleye, another early monowheel board builder: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eN2J8m_E0go
Also have to mention Charles F Taylor, a farmer who built amazing mechanical gyro-stabilised one wheeled vehicles in the 1940's: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suk2W3T5JAk
- almost lost in the mists of time but recently reverse engineered by two bikers: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7q6I4lDuHQ
HERE WE GO THEN, MACHINES I HAVE BUILT, SOME MORE CRAZY THAN OTHERS, SOME MORE SUCCESSFUL THAN OTHERS.......
My own classification of self-balancing one wheelers (so far):
1) Stand-on (skateboard style).
2) Stand-astride (Solowheel type design)
2) Unicycle (i.e. seat on top of wheel like a unicycle, e.g. the Enicycle or a one wheeled motorbike e.g. the Ryno)
3) Seat-forward ("Riot wheel" for example, seat in front of large wheel http://www.theriotwheel.com/ )
4) Seat-behind (See Russian patent diagram at bottom of this page, where seat is behind a large wheel)
5) Prone-forward (See concept CAD image towards bottom of this page where rider is ahead of a large wheel lying prone).
6) Prone-unicycle (rider is more or less prone but above the main wheel.
7) Inside-wheel (Large hollow wheel with seat inside the rim of the wheel) as in older fully mechanical designs.
Note: There is also a Prone-behind category of drag motor bike where the bike drags itself along by a single front wheel with the rider hanging on behind.
These do not self-balance though and are more like a powered sled: http://www.unimoto.ch/histoire/histoireeng.html
One wheeled skateboard and Segway style machines.
2008 First machine that actually worked. The "Hot Wheel" variant. The "Thing" V1. See link (4) on left.
See link (16) on left.
Twin wheeler, batteries in deck. "Easy build" version. With carbon fibre deck With ply deck. "Pneu-skate" with pneumatic tyres.
See link (1) on left. See link (3) on left. See Link (6) on left. See link (2) on left.
Concept to put mechanism in a rucksack Best Skateboard so far. Compact, has Headway LiFePo4 cells and pneumatic tyres.
Extending handle also acts as handlebar and I am unlikely to significantly improve on this skateboard type design. Wii-Nunchuck is for steering and trim.
is ridden like a small Segway.
Solowheel type machines where you stand on the footpegs each side.
Abandoned for now as too dangerous. May work eventually but high chance of injury while ironing out the bugs! See link (17) on left.
My current monowheel projects
The "Thing" version 2 Derby Mini Maker Faire UK November 2013 with Nick Thatcher and his "Raptor" machine (far left and far right). This used all my
old large monowheel skateboard parts to create a unicycle. Welded on unicycle seat and handlebars. It worked much better than expected.
The Tumblebug science fiction one wheeled motorbike. Current project: the Uni-Mig 01 (UNI-МИГ 01) I will bring
this to the Newcastle Maker Faire 25th April, UK.
First test video of the Uni-Mig 01 (UNI-МИГ 01)
Assorted other curiosities...........
Horseless 2 wheeled chariot seen in 1896 advert for first motor show ever in United Kingdom
(Brown County Democrat, December 28, 1900.) - The "Footomobile" of the future!
Video of the "Easy-build" version I put up on the Instructables website in 2010. Had Arduino "brain" and lead-acid batteries.
Video of the fully developed compact twin-wheel skateboard with LiFePO4 batteries and pneumatic tyres, May 2013.
As you can see, the more you try, the better you get!
Has anyone else built one of these?
Oh yes! Ages currently range from 12yrs to 81yrs.
This Instructable is over a year old now, so yes indeed, people have. Here are a few I know of:
1) Skateboard: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSW7YXLCjqk
2) Skateboard: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-uUidBZEnM
3) The Velociryder: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvfUIxusPZw&feature=player_embedded
4) Great board video - Buffalo State College senior project:
5) Another board based on this Instructable:
6) A board based on old FIRST robotics parts + code from this instructable (FIRST robotics was started by Dean Kamen who also invented the Segway, to encourage youth to get interested in engineering): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vh9LpNQ_S0k&feature=related
7) Carbon fiber racing car seat with 2 wheels also based on this instructable - the SciChair:
8) Carey's self-balancing platform, good video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngMJcxeB7og
SOME INSPIRATION FOR EVERYONE:
Could this be ridden? Here is a similar one with a rear swivel caster for hood measure.
Well this guy, Jackie Chabanais could probably ride it using good old fashioned circus-style skill: Click Here
Would need a pretty big rocket to get
that to the moon!
This is so cool. Was it ever built? Looks like a Soviet era patent. Does anyone have any information? Seat-behind design.
"Sidecar Willy" pioneer of unimoto racing (Prone-behind design).
Dave Southalls' Red Max monowheel.
He has his own website "Dave Southalls' Engineering Experiments from the shed"
and apparently will soon have his own TV show on the Discovery "Quest" channel.
SOME THOUGHTS BASED ON EXPERIENCES BUILDING THESE MACHINES (December 2013):
Weight distribution: Accepted wisdom is that a self-balancing robot is easier to build if tall with all weight at the top since motors have less work to do to move the (lightweight) lower region back and forth rapidly to maintain balance. This is why balancing a yard brush on your finger is slightly easier with the broom head uppermost.
This may be true for a small robot, however for a vehicle I have found by accident that having a lot of the weight low down, bearing in mind there is already plenty of weight up above (i.e. my body), smooths the overall ride. This maybe because for a very top heavy robot, if you hit a small obstruction, a pebble for example, the machine has to start to tip forwards, the computer recognises this and then applies more power to motors to overcome obstruction, so machine does a little “wobble” forwards, then carries on OK. If you have some mass low down however, good old fashioned forward momentum carries you over the pebble without the need for a “wobble.”
Spinning masses: If motor is heavy, and so rotating armature inside has a decent mass, the spinning momentum of this also helps you, as wheel hits obstruction and tries to slow the motor down, the motor resists simply because of this rotating mass acting back on the chain towards the wheel. Obviously if it were too heavy (e.g. a big flywheel) the motor would then not react fast enough to commanded changes in speed from the self-balance computer so there is probably an optimum band of sweetness for this effect…………………a small flywheel might potentially have some merit.
So, with my newer unicycle machines, by repositioning the very heavy motor more or less behind the wheel and battery as low as possible too, I find it is easier to ride than before especially at low speed. I suppose this is also true of petrol scooters like the Vespa – the main weight is low down all around the back wheel. The clever thing with the Ryno, which makes it relatively easy to ride, may be the hollow wheel. They have all their heavy components within the wheel, i.e. low down, probably even below the axle line. Another way to do this is to have the battery flat in the side struts going down to the axle (as in the Focus designs unicycle or the solowheel) and use a hub motor, but within the wheel is really neat. It does mean you probably need big lathe to machine your wheel rim though!Having said that, there are many alloy car wheels now that are very wide with a huge offset, i.e. the spokes are all on one side and the wheel is more or less hollow. This makes me think you might be able to use a commercial alloy wheel to build a Ryno type machine. In particular in the US there is a craze for mega-diameter custom wheels so you can actually buy a 24inch diameter very wide rim with large offset off the shelf.