Planning for Instruction Weeks 3-4

Essential Questions

What is instructional design?
What are Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction?
What are the most engaging ways content can be presented so students remain active while gaining content knowledge?

What learning community resources are available to find and share digital resources for creating engaging lessons?


Models for Designing Instruction


Instructional design is the practice of creating "instructional experiences which make the 
acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing" (Merrill, et al., 1996). For you, as a future teacher, this means that there is a whole academic field dedicated to helping you create the best possible lessons for your students. You will encounter a variety of methods for creating lesson plans during your coursework and 
when you take your first teaching job; but, they all have some elements in common.
Below are three different instructional design approaches -- see if you can spot the similarities and differences:
ADDIE Model
ASSURE Model
Understanding by Design (Backward Design)
Analysis (clarify the instructional goals and objectives and identify the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills)

Design (development of learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection)

Development (developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase)

Implementation (a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed)

Evaluation (both formative and summative assessments are planned for)
A — Analyze learners 

S — State standards & objectives

S — Select strategies, technology, media & materials

U — Utilize technology, media & materials

R — Require learner participation

E — Evaluate & revise
Stage 1: Identify Desired Results (enduring understandings and essential questions)

Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence of Learning (assessment strategies)

Stage 3: Design Learning Experiences & Instruction (objectives and methods)
Notice that each of the three instructional design models systematically consider the basics: who the learners are, what is to be learned,how the learning will be assessed, and which strategies and resources will be used to make sure students learn. One difference you may have noticed between the three is that Understanding by Design is backwards -- it begins with the end in mind and then plans how to get there. 

Instructional Strategies

In this course you will have the opportunity to develop and teach a lesson to your peers as part of a teaching team. We will be using a particular instructional design model to make sure you've provided the best opportunity for your "students" to learn: Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction.
The graphic below gives you some details about the model: 




By following these nine steps, you make sure you have taught a thorough lesson. Side note: the image above was created using piktochart...we'll be using it later in the course!

"Step 4: Present Material" is often the most difficult to plan for. We all have been lectured at for so many years, and even though it's typically not our favorite way to learn, we tend to fall back on it while we're teaching. Your challenge in this course will be to come up with interactive and engaging ways to present material so your "students" are actively learning. Kevin Yee has collected 186 interactive techniques to keep students engaged in your teaching. You can see the full list at
http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/teachingandlearningresources/coursedesign/assessment/content/101_tips.pdf, but we've selected a few to share with you below:
Strategy
Description
Category: Lecture
Instructor Storytelling
Instructor illustrates a concept, idea, or principle with a reallife application, model, or case-study.
Empty Outlines
Distribute a partially completed outline of today’s lecture and ask students to fill it in. Useful at start or at end of class.
Student Polling
Use a site like Poll Everywhere (http://polleverywhere.com); distribute standardized cards that can be held aloft as visual responses to instructor questions (ex: green card for true, red for false,yellow for not sure); or use small erasable marker boards for each student to display an answer. 
Pass the Chalk
Provide chalk, a soft toy, or small beach ball; whoever has it must answer your next question, and they pass it on to the student of their choice.
The Half Class
Lecture
Divide the class in half and provide reading material to one half. Lecture on that same material to the other half of the class. Then, switch the groups and repeat, ending with a recap by pairing up members of opposite groups.
Category: Individual Student Work
One-Minute Papers
Students write for one minute on a specific question (which might be generalized to “what was the most important thing you learned today”). Best used at the end of the class session.
Muddiest Point
Like the Minute Paper, but asks for the “most confusing” point instead. Best used at the end of the class session.
Drawing for Understanding
Students illustrate an abstract concept or idea. Comparing drawings around the room can clear up misconceptions.
Concept Mapping
Students write keywords onto sticky notes and then organize them into a flowchart. Could be less structured: students simply draw the connections they make between concepts.
Bumper Stickers
Ask students to write a slogan-like bumper sticker to illustrate a particular concept from lecture.
Category: Students Working in Pairs
Think-Pair-Share
Students share and compare possible answers to a question with a partner before addressing the larger class.
Pair-Share-Repeat
After a pair-share experience, ask students to find a new partner and debrief the wisdom of the old partnership to this new partner.
Wisdom of Another
After any individual brainstorm or creative activity, partner students up to share their results. Then, call for volunteers of students who found their partner’s work to be interesting or exemplary. Students are sometimes more willing to share in plenary the work of fellow students than their own work.
Forced Debate
Students debate in pairs, but must defend the opposite side of their personal opinion. Variation: half the class take one position, half the other. They line up and face each other. Each student may only speak once, so that all students on both sides can engage the issue.
Category: Student Groups
Jigsaw
(Group Experts)
Give each group a different topic. Re-mix groups with one planted “expert” on each topic, who now has to teach his new group.
Board Rotation
Assign groups of students to each of the boards you have set up in the room (four or more works best), and assign one topic/question per board. After each group writes an answer, they rotate to the next board and write their answer below the first, and so on around the room.
TV Commercial
In groups, students create a 30-second TV commercial for the subject currently being discussed in class. Variation: ask them to act out their commercials.
Blender
Students silently write a definition or brainstorm an idea for several minutes on paper. Then they form into groups, and two of them read their ideas and integrate elements from each. A third student reads his, and again integration occurs with the previous two, until finally everyone in the group has been integrated (or has attempted integration).
Simulation
Place the class into a long-term simulation (like as a business) to enable Problem-Based Learning (PBL).
Imaginary Show and
Tell
Students pretend they have brought an object relevant to current discussion, and “display” it to the class while talking about its properties

Yee, K. (2012) . Interactive techniques. Formative Classroom Assessment. Karen L. Smith Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning. http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/teachingandlearningresources/coursedesign/assessment/content/101_tips.pdf
It seems that there is an endless supply of creative ideas of how and what to teach, but how in the world does one find them and share with other teachers?! The word "curate" means to purposefully select certain things from countless possibilities. You probably have heard the term in relation to a museum curator. Due to the vast amount of resources available on the Internet, it is critical to develop skills in locating, evaluating, using, and sharing information effectively. Web-based social bookmarking sites allow users to store, organize and share resources. Typically, resources are "tagged" by users according to the individual user's choice of classification. Since it is socialbookmarking, you can search by common tags other users have selected as well. Common tags you may use in this class are things like "lesson plans," "edtech," or "teaching with technology." This concept is very similar to the use of hashtags on Twitter, which you may already be familiar with. You can also join a group of users who have similar interests to build a common collection of resources. We are going to be collecting resources within this course using Diigo (http://diigo.com) through the EDTC 3123 group. The following links will help you get started using Diigo:
The learning community we are building in this class will be available to you long after you complete the course and graduate.

ISTE-T Standards

2. Design and Develop Digital Age Learning Experiences and Assessments
  • Teachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessment incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes identified in the ISTE·S.
    • a. Design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources to promote student learning and creativity
    • b. Develop technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students to pursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting their own educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their own progress
    • c. Customize and personalize learning activities to address students’ diverse learning styles, working strategies, and abilities using digital tools and resources
    • d. Provide students with multiple and varied formative and summative assessments aligned with content and technology standards and use resulting data to inform learning and teaching

Key Terms

instructional design
curate
social bookmarking
tagging
cloud computing

Resources

Merrill, M. D., Drake, L., Lacy, M. J., Pratt, J., & ID2_Research_Group. (1996). Reclaiming instructional design. Educational Technology, 36(5), 5-7. http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/Reclaiming.PDF
Instructional Design Models http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesignmodels.htm
Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction http://academics.georgiasouthern.edu/col/design/strategies/gagne/
Edudemic's Teacher's Guide to Using YouTube in the Classroom http://www.edudemic.com/youtube-in-classroom/

PLN

follow https://twitter.com/edutopia
follow https://twitter.com/edtech_k12
follow https://twitter.com/usedgov
follow https://twitter.com/pbsteachers
follow https://twitter.com/isteconnects
follow https://twitter.com/huffpostedu
follow https://twitter.com/EdWeekTeacher



Week 4: Technology Integration

Essential Questions

Why would a teacher want to teach with technology?
What does effective technology integration look like?
What are the national standards for teaching and learning with technology?

Assignments

Log into the OneNote Class Notebook for your section to access the Peer Team Teaching Planning Guide for this week.

Teaching WITH Technology

First, we would like to help you understand where we are coming from. In the book Meaningful Learning with Technology (2012), authors Howland, Jonassen, and Marra set forth a set of assumptions that we whole-heartedly agree with:
  • Technology is more than hardware. Technology consists also of the designs and the environments that engage learners. Technology can also consist of any reliable technique or method for engaging learning, such as cognitive-learning strategies and critical-thinking skills.
  • Learning technologies can be any environment or definable set of activities that engage learners in active, constructive, intentional, authentic, and cooperative learning.
  • Technologies are not conveyors or communicators of meaning. Nor should they prescribe and control all of the learner interactions.
  • Technologies support meaningful learning when they fulfill a learning need -- when interactions with technologies are learner initiated and learner controlled, and when interactions with the technologies are conceptually and intellectually engaging.
  • Technologies should function as intellectual tool kits that enable learners to build more meaningful personal interpretations and representations of the world. These tool kits must support the intellectual functions that are required by a course of study.
  • Learners and technologies should be intellectual partners, where the cognitive responsibility for performance is distributed to the partner that performs it better. (Howland, Jonassen, & Marra, 2012, p. 7)
Many people think only of computers when they consider teaching with technology, but in this class, we're going to be thinking much deeper and broader about it, as you can see from the assumptions above and in the latest definition of the field of educational technology:
"Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources" (Association for Educational Communication & Technology, Januszewdki & Molenda, 2008)

Why Technology Integration?


Chances are, many of you have had a great teacher in your past who has inspired you. Study after study shows that the single most important factor in the quality of education a child receives is the quality of his/her teacher. We often hear students describe their best teachers as those who are tough but fair, love to learn, are enthusiastic about what they do, make learning fun, and build relationship with their students. What does all this have to do with educational technology? Watch this short video for an answer to why you would want to integrate technology in your teaching:

An Introduction to Technology Integration




We took the transcript from this video (direct link: http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-introduction-video) and made a word cloud of it using http://tagxedo.com; here is what came out: 



A word cloud is a great tool to analyze what is really being said. Note how often these words were used in talking about technology integration in this video: learning, using, student, create, technology, kids, tools, make, think, work, share, personal, ideas, better, seeing, etc. This lets you see at a glance what tech integration is all about - student learning with the best possible tools available.

Can you think of a time you might have your student create a word cloud? What would you have them do after they created it?

What Does Technology Integration Look Like?


The Arizona Technology Integration Matrix (http://www.azk12.org/tim) and the USF Technology Integration Matrix (http://fcit.usf.edu/matrix/matrix.php) are fabulous tools to help you see different levels of technology integration. Along the x-axis is a continuum of five levels of technology integration from lowest to highest: entry, adoption, adaptation, infusion, and transformation. Along the y-axis are the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments: active, collaborative, constructive, authentic, and goal-directed. Examples of lessons at different grade levels and in different content areas are shown at the intersection of each level of tech integration with each meaningful learning environment. You will want to spend a couple of hours studying these great examples to fully understand what is meant by technology integration, and by the end of this course, we expect you will be able to envision yourself engaging students in meaningful learning as you continue to move toward the higher levels of technology integration. Below is further description of these meaningful learning environments:
  • Active - Students are actively engaged in educational activities where technology is a transparent tool used to generate and accomplish objectives and learning. "When learning about new things in natural contexts, humans interact with their environment and manipulate the objects in that environment, observing the effects of their interventions and constructing their own interpretations of the phenomena and the results of their manipulation" (Howland, Jonassen, & Marra, 2012, p. 3). Think back to something you learned without formal instruction -- just by actively engaging. Maybe how to hit a baseball on the playground or how to send a text from your first cell phone?
  • Collaborative - Students use technology tools to collaborate with others. When learners are actively engaged in manipulating objects and observing the effects, they will undoubtedly encounter something they don't understand and begin integrating this experience with their prior knowledge about the world and begin to determine what they need to know for this experience to make sense. This process is described as constructing mental models. Mental models become increasingly complex as a learner is actively engaged in observing, experiencing, supporting, and reflecting.
  • Constructive - Students use technology to understand content and add meaning to their learning. Whether it's as simple as finding some lunch or as complicated as completing teacher certification, all human activity is driven by a goal or a need. Technologies have traditionally been used to support teachers' goals (keep a lecture on track with bullet points in Powerpoint or average grades efficiently using a spreadsheet or database), but meaningful learning comes from learners using technology to reach a goal like creating, publishing, planning, researching, constructing, solving, communicating, or collaborating in an intentional way.
  • Authentic - Students use technology tools to solve real-world problems meaningful to them, such as digital citizenship. "Most contemporary research on learning has shown that learning tasks that are situated in some meaningful real-world task or simulated in some case-based or problem-based learning environment are not only better understood and remembered, but also are more consistently transferred to new situations" (Howland, Jonassen, & Marra, 2012, p. 4).
  • Goal Directed- Students use technology tools to research data, set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and evaluate results. When learning within a community or group, we have the opportunity to tap into each others' skills and knowledge in order to solve problems and perform tasks at a much higher level. Technologies afford groups or learning communities a world of anytime, anywhere collaboration and communication.

As you saw in the TIM videos, each of these environments allowed for technology integration, but some seemed to be more engaging for students than others. Let's take a look at the differences between learning from technology and learning with technology:
  • Learning from technology: This is most easily depicted as "drill and practice" or "electronic worksheets" in which the learner reacts to the technology, and the technology guides/directs the student. A high level of thinking is not needed here -- just memorization or repetition. Technology serves as a repository or distributor of information.
  • Learning with technology: When students use technologies to communicate their ideas, work in collaborative groups, conduct in-depth research, interpret and represent their interpretations, and engage conceptually and intellectually at the point they need support, they are learning with technology. Technology is serving as a partner to the learner in this instance. (Howland, Jonassen, & Marra, 2012)

You will encounter a variety of models to assist with integrating technology into teaching and learning. We've chosen to include TIM in this course, but know that there are other models as well. When you encounter different models, make sure they are focusing on improving student learning first rather than focusing on tools first! The image below explains this concept well: 



ISTE-T Standards

5. Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership
  • Teachers continuously improve their professional practice, model lifelong learning, and exhibit leadership in their school and professional community by promoting and
demonstrating the effective use of digital tools and resources.
    • a. Participate in local and global learning communities to explore creative applications of technology to improve student learning
    • b. Exhibit leadership by demonstrating a vision of technology infusion, participating in shared decision making and community building, and developing the leadership and
technology skills of others
    • c. Evaluate and reflect on current research and professional practice on a regular basis to make effective use of existing and emerging digital tools and resources in support of student learning
    • d. Contribute to the effectiveness, vitality, and selfrenewal of the teaching profession and of their school and community

Key Terms

educational technology
technology integration
active learning
cooperative learning
Arizona Technology Integration Matrix

Resources

Technology Integration: What Experts Say (Edutopia) http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-experts
Technology Integration: Research and Best Practices (PBS Teachers) http://www.pbs.org/teachers/librarymedia/tech-integration/
Arizona Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) http://www.azk12.org/tim/ Printable version without video links http://www.azk12.org/tim/docs/AZK1031_Matrix_Print.pdf
ISTE Educational Technology Standards for Students (ISTE-S) and Teachers (ISTE-T) http://www.iste.org/standards
Then vs. Now: How Technology in School Has Changed over Time http://www.masterofartsinteaching.net/tech/


PLN
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