Information Literacy Weeks 6-8

Essential Questions

How do I teach my students to research Internet resources effectively and efficiently? 
What's the best method for evaluating information? 
How do I teach my students to use digital resources responsibility?
"Information fluency" is the intersection of information literacy, computer literacy, and critical thinking. Regardless of what content area or grade level you plan to teach, these three skills will be a part of your anticipated student outcomes. This chapter will focus particularly on information literacy, but you'll notice the three skills are tightly interwoven. It will also provide knowledge and skill to teach your students effective Internet research strategies.
How do you feel about research? How do you think your students will feel about research? 

Assignments

Log into the OneNote Class Notebook for your section to access the Peer Team Teaching Planning Guide for this week.






Information literacy and the research process are embedded into teaching with technology. According to the American Library Association (1989), information literacy is "a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locateevaluate, and use effectively the needed information." We use information in many different scenarios, both personal and academic, and find it in many different formats. The written word and voice are no longer the only options for communication; we now use graphics, videos, tweets, images, etc. to share information with each other. Information found on the Internet is often unfiltered, which means that information users have to judge its authenticity, reliability, authorship, and appropriateness (ACRL 1999). As a teacher, you are responsible for teaching your students how to "locate, evaluate, and use" the information they need. (See the ACRL website for what an information literate individual looks like.)



Recognizing an Information Need

Think about what you do when you have a question like, "Why did Steve Carell leave The Office?". What do you do? Most likely, you "Google it." That two-word phrase so often used in our culture actually means that you use the Internet to access a search engine, identify key phrases to put into the search engine, analyze your search results, and report the answer to your friends.You just completed the research process in about 3 minutes (depending on your Internet speed)! Your students need to learn how to do the same thing with their personal questions like this one, and with academic questions. They need to learn effective strategies for "Googling it" during the research process.

Again, according to the ALA statement, the first step of being information literate is the ability to "recognize when information is needed." You did this when you created your question about The Office. Creating a good question is the first step in the research process. Your students need instruction about how ask the right questions. It's easy to ask questions that are too specific and can be answered with a simple fact or to ask questions that are too broad and out of the scope of what your students can accomplish in one assignment. Read through this page, Sweet Search's Ten Steps to Better Web Research, to learn more about how to start the research process.



Locating Information

The Internet can be overwhelming, and students need instruction about how to navigate it. Look at this infographic A Day in the Internet (MBA Online) for some examples of just how much information your students will encounter on the Internet. The second step of being information literate is locating information. There are lots of alternatives to "Googling" including using kid-friendly search engines. Kid-friendly search engines help filter the hits created during the search process. Check out this annotated list of seven kid-friendly search enginescompiled by Richard Byrne. How could a list like this help students, teachers, and even parents? 

Another alternative to using Google is to use an online reference system. Online reference systems access databases to find journal articles, encyclopedia articles, and other published reference content that is reliable and accurate. These resources provide information digitally using PDFs, scanned images, and electronic content. You should be familiar with online reference systems like ProQuest and EBSCOhost from your own academic research. These companies, and others like them, also offer kid-friendly databases. Similar to kid-friendly search engines, kid-friendly databases provide age-appropriate material developed specifically for students. Many school districts and public libraries pay for access to these databases so you may not have to pay for a subscription yourself. Check out the Stillwater Public Library webpage for a list of databases you can access with a Stillwater Public Library card.

Examples of Student Electronic Databases:
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When looking for information, search smarter! Did you know that you can see what time it is anywhere in the world by typing "time" and the location into a Google search bar? Try out "time Japan." Knowing search tricks and tips can help you find simple facts and information quickly. The research process requires students to locate more information than this though. Students need to learn how to form keywords for their searches. They need to know how to use different search features to limit their search results. Boolean searches and advanced search features can help students focus the search process. Watch the Search Engines, Keywords, and Web Portals video by Education Portal for some basics about search engines, and especially for information about Boolean logic (starting at 3:45 in the video). The Successful Searching Wiki by Tangient LLC (2013) provides many strategies, tips, and tricks from finding online information efficiently. 

The last alternative to "googling" that we will present in this class actually involves Google. A Customized Google Search Engine (CSE) can be a great way to help students locate the information they need for their academic research. See the Resources section at the bottom of this page for links regarding this technology tool. How could a Customized Google Search Engine help you censor what your students find? How could a CSE help you build a library of professional resources for your classroom? 


Evaluating Information

Chances are when we search for "Why Steve Carell left The Office?" there are a number of celebrity gossip websites that return hits. Users have to sort through information and look for signs that what they find is quality. The third step of information literacy is evaluating information.The Internet is not censored. It's important for both you and your students to look for whether or a not a website is accurate, reliable, current, and/or biased. 

Try this activity. Google, "Martin Luther King." The first hit Google pulls up is from Wikipedia. As shown in the Easybib infographic at the first of this page, Wikipedia contains user-generated information, which makes it a sub-par source. See this article for ten reasons why you shouldn't cite Wikipedia. The second hit is a website that ends with .org, and as you probably know by now the ending three letters of a web address signal the website's purpose and who has authored the website. A .com website has been created for commercial purpose, .gov is governmental, .edu was created by an educational institute, .mil relates to military, and .org is for a website that is run by a recognized organization. Go ahead and visit, www.martinlutherking.org because this should be a reputable website, right? What do you notice about this website? Does anything seem inaccurate? Check out the organization who created this website by clicking the "Stormfront" link at the bottom of the page. What does this tell you about the accuracy of the information found on this particular Martin Luther King Jr. webpage?

Teaching students to evaluate the information they find on the Internet is essential for their success as both a student and a citizen of the digital world. Students need to learn how to have a critical eye when looking over the information they collect during the research process. Developing a checklist with older students like will help students learn how to evaluate the information they find--check out this great list of website evaluation & information literacy resources. Look through Kathy Schrock's Critical Evaluation Guide to Information for more resources to use in your classroom when teaching students about evaluating websites. I especially recommend the 5Ws of Website Evaluation for a simple, clear list to use with students. This will also help students choose information that meets their research needs.


Using Information

Once the information needs have been identified, several sources found and evaluated, students will use informationThe fourth step of information literacy is using information responsibly and effectively. Creating presentations, essays, posters, and any other project requires students to assimilate new ideas and create a product (which asks them to work at the highest levels of Bloom's Taxonomy!). 

Students need instruction about how to keep their information organized. Teachers of students as young as third grade could use a Google document for students to keep track of keywords they used, websites generated by those keywords, and what each website was about. Older students could also use web tools like Diigo or Easybib to keep track of the information they find. 

Although students can take notes using pencil and paper, students can also engage in electronic note taking. Electronic note taking has several advantages to the paper and pencil route: 1) The school saves money on printing costs 2) Students cannot lose or forget their notes 3) Students have access to their notes from any Internet-connected computer. Look at this infographic created by Course Hero for information about how note taking is changing in the digital age. 

Diigo is an exceptional note taking tool because students can type directly on the digital resource. They can highlight and save important facts, main ideas, and their thoughts while they are reading. Another great tool is creating a running Google document that students fill in as they find important information. Check out these other options for electronic note taking compiled by Richard Byrne "7 Great Note-Taking Tools for Teachers and Students." 

Finally when students use the information they find in their final projects, they have to give credit to the original authors. Plagiarism is a big problem throughout the education community. If you remember from the Easybib infographicon this page, the president of Hungary Pal Schmitt resigned from his position after it was discovered he had plagiarized his doctoral thesis. What is plagiarism? Watch this Common Craft video to find out. 

Websites like turnitin.com can catch plagiarism in student work, but it isn't always feasible to have students use this website or one like it. One of the biggest weapons against plagiarism is prevention. Students need to know what it is, why it's wrong, and how they can prevent it in their work. The "You Quote It, You Note It!" tutorial created by the Vaughan Memorial Library at Acadia University would be a great resource to use when teaching middle and high school students about plagiarism. Kate Hart created "A Magical Guide to Avoiding Plagiarism" that middle and high school students would love, and her website gives additional citation tips. Finally for you and high school students, the Purdue OWL website is an excellent resource for citation and reference page information. OSU's library offers a great list of Plagiarism Resources for us, and, of course, all students need to be aware of OSU's Academic Integrity policies and procedures.

This Common Craft videoexplains copyright and creative commons licensure. To learn more about Creative Commons, Fair Use policies, public domain, and other copyright issues visit https://www.teachingcopyright.org/resources.html!


Models for Teaching Information Literacy

There are several different models to use when teaching students how to do research. Using a model to teach information literacy helps you break up the research process into mini-lessons, while providing students with the "big picture." The table below lists several of the most popular research models and a web resource to learn more about each model. When deciding which model to use, use a model that makes sense to you and that will work with your specific learners. A web resource has been provided for each model to give you specific information about each, but feel free to use your new research process knowledge to find more information about these or other research models.

Research Model Name
Developers
Research Model Summary
Web Resource
"The Big 6" and "Little 12"
Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz
This model outlines 6 steps students should move through during the research process from Step 1: Defining the problem, all the way to Step 6: Evaluating Solutions. Under each of the 6 main steps are 2 sub-steps that more specifically define each step (aka the "Little 12").
Big 6 Skills Overview
"The Super 3"
Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz
Super 3 is the version of Big 6 for Kindergarten through 2nd grade
Super 3 Dinosaur version
"Information Search Process" (ISP)
Carol Kuhlthau
There are 6 stages in the information search process. This model outlines students thoughts, feelings, and actions that occur during each stage. For example, during the first stage, "Initiation," students feel uncertain, have vague thoughts about what they are supposed to be doing, and are seeking information about their topic.
Kuhlthau's ISP
"How to Do Research"
Kentucky Virtual Library
A fun, interactive way to guide students through research. This website gives examples from an elementary perspective and uses an interactive glossary to teach students research vocabulary terms.
Virtual Research Map

ISTE-T Standards 
4. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility
  • Teachers understand local and global societal issues and responsibilities in an evolving digital culture and exhibit legal and ethical behavior in their professional practices.
    • a. Advocate, model, and teach safe, legal, and ethical use of digital information and technology, including respect for copyright, intellectual property, and the appropriate documentation of sources
    • b. Address the diverse needs of all learners by using learner-centered strategies providing equitable access to appropriate digital tools and resources
    • c. Promote and model digital etiquette and responsible social interactions related to the use of technology and information
3. Model Digital Age Work and Learning
  • Teachers exhibit knowledge, skills, and work processes representative of an innovative professional in a global and digital society
    • d. Model and facilitate effective use of current and emerging digital tools to locate, analyze, evaluate, and use information resources to support research and learning
Key Terms

Boolean logic
censorship
electronic note taking 
information literacy
search engine
plagiarism

Resources

Customized Google Search Engine http://www.google.com/cse/?hl=en
How to Create Your Own Google Custom Search Enging video tutorial http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IeiFFpo8qME
Digital footprint http://thetechnoliterate.wordpress.com/2013/03/05/digital-footprint/

PLN 

Week 7: Collecting and Curating Resources

Essential Questions

What is information management and how do teachers use it? 
How do teachers organize electronic resources to address curriculum frameworks and learning standards? 
What and where are different types of educational resources available to teachers on the Internet? 
How might educational websites provide interactive and engaging experiences for students?

Assignments

Log into the OneNote Class Notebook for your section to access the Peer Team Teaching Planning Guide for this week.


Teaching is an information-rich profession, and a teacher's efficiency and effectiveness can be improved with an easy-to-use information management tool. In this digital age, there are many options to assist teachers in managing information and resources. 

Types of Information Management Tools 

Social Bookmarking - You probably already keep bookmarks of your favorite websites to go back to whenever you might need them. Social bookmarking takes it a couple of steps further, allowing you to access your bookmarks from any internet-enabled device, organize resources in a searchable manner by tagging, and share your bookmarks with individuals and groups who share your interests. In this course, you are getting to know the social bookmarking tool Diigo well, as we are posting, tagging, and sharing resources with our EDTC 3123 group. In the Resources section of this chapter, there are links to more social bookmarking tools you might like to try. 

Standards Connector - A Standards Connector is a collection of digital resources that is specifically organized based on a set of standards. Here's an example of a Standards Connector a group of teachers created for an integrated unit on Colonial Era Pennsylvania http://thewongsters.wikispaces.com/Learning+Standards+Connector+Table.

Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) - You've gotten used to having class information at your fingertips through OSU's Online Classroom. Wouldn't it be nice to have that type of tool for your future students and the classes you teach? Good news! There are quite a few free LMS tools for classroom teachers to use. An LMS, or Course/Classroom Management System (CMS) has some or all of the following features: 
  • list of courses
  • syllabi
  • teaching materials
  • quizzes, tests, surveys
  • asynchronous communication: email, discussion forums
  • synchronous communication: chat, whiteboard, video conferencing
  • student management tools: progress tracking, automatic grading, grade book
  • student tools: home page, dropbox, etc.

Many school districts have an LMS already installed locally for their teachers to use. Moodle and Sakai are open-source tools that can be run on a local server. If a school doesn't have something like this, there are a vast array of free, hosted sites for teachers to use. Edmodo (http://edmodo.com) is a common site that many use; click on the "Learn more" button to watch a short video of its features. There are additional resources linked below in the chapter Resources area. 

Types of Websites 

Archival and Primary Source websites - A type of educational website that provides original historical materials for students to access and analyze.

Collaboration websites - Communicate and collaborate with others around the world in order to create students who are competitive and globally-minded

Educational websites - A source of Internet-based digital content, often designed with K-12 learning goals in mind.

Exploration and Discovery websites - A type of educational website that allows students to engage in online explorations of topics of interest.

Lesson Plan websites - A type of educational website featuring lesson plans and related teaching materials.

Real-time and Recorded Data websites - A type of educational website that presents scientific data for students to access and analyze.

Skills/Practice websites - A type of educational website that provides basic learning activities for students.

Student-to-Experts websites - A type of educational website that supports exchanges of information between students and adult experts in organizations outside of school.

Virtual Field Trip websites - Online learning adventures where students are able to visit far-away places using their classroom computers.

ISTE-T Standards


2. Design and Develop Digital Age Learning Experiences and Assessments
  • Teachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessment incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes identified in the ISTE·S.
    • a. Design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources to promote student learning and creativity
    • b. Develop technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students to pursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting their own educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their own progress
    • c. Customize and personalize learning activities to address students’ diverse learning styles, working strategies, and abilities using digital tools and resources
    • d. Provide students with multiple and varied formative and summative assessments aligned with content and technology standards and use resulting data to inform learning and teaching
3. Model Digital Age Work and Learning
  • Teachers exhibit knowledge, skills, and work processes representative of an innovative professional in a global and digital society.
    • a. Demonstrate fluency in technology systems and the transfer of current knowledge to new technologies and situations

Key Terms

bookmarking
interactive video conferencing
social bookmarking

Resources

Social Bookmarking and Standards Connectors
BagTheWeb http://www.bagtheweb.com/edu For any topic, you can create a "bag" to collect, publish, and share any content from the Web. Beyond most social bookmarking or curation tools' capability, BagTheWeb enables users to build networks of bags. This way bags can be linked together to provide rich and complete information about any topic.
TES Teach with Blendspace https://www.blendspace.com/ 
LiveBinders http://livebinders.com Organize your favorites into "binders" with tabs and sub-tabs and share or embed those binders. 
Pinterest http://pinterest.com Pinterest is a site where you can “pin” (or collect) photos you find on the internet. The photos link to the webpage or blog post where the photo is located, so you can read more about it.
Standards Toolbox http://www.standardstoolbox.com/
Symbaloo http://symbaloo.com Is a highly customizable graphic page with "tiles" creating a "webmix." Share your webmix or use those others have put together.

Learning or Classroom Management Systems 
 
Collaborize Classroom http://collaborizeclassroom.com Complements classroom instruction and engage students in online activities, assignments and discussions that allow for deeper participation inside and outside the classroom. 
Coursesites https://www.coursesites.com Online course creation and facilitation service that empowers individual K–12 teachers, college and university instructors and community educators to add a web–based component to their courses, or even host an entire course on the Internet. 
EdModo http://edmodo.com Helps connect all learners with the people and resources needed to reach their full potential. 
MyBigCampus http://mybigcampus.com Part social network. Part LMS. Part professional development. All for K12. And all safe.
Rcampus http://www.rcampus.com/Comprehensive Education Management System and a collaborative learning environment. 
Schoology https://www.schoology.com Schoology is a free web-based learning management system (LMS) built on a social network. Schoology leverages the familiarity of popular social media tools to improve communication and collaboration. 
Wiggio http://wiggio.com/academic.html Students and teachers use Wiggio to collaborate on projects, case studies, labs, study groups, and class initiatives.
Wonderville http://wonderville.com/ A social learning site for students and teachers in K-5.
Class Dojo http://www.classdojo.com/about A classroom management system that digitally tracks students' behavior using avatars and by giving/taking points.

PLN 




Week 8: Using Resources in Different Environments

Essential Questions

How do you integrate technology in a classroom that has very little technology?
What about different configurations of computer technology in the classroom?
How do you find iPad apps to use in the classroom?
What are some of the newest learning technologies that could change teaching and learning?


Assignment

Log into the OneNote Class Notebook for your section to access the Peer Team Teaching Planning Guide for this week.

Learning Environments

There are a variety of different learning environments you may find yourself teaching in -- from a one-computer classroom, to a computer lab down the hall, to each student having a tablet computer of their own. The table below offers information about a variety of learning environments:

Description
More Information
One Computer Classroom
The classroom has one computer for all activities: presentations, student group work, learning centers. Biggest challenge: Not enough individual time for each student.
How to Thrive - Not Just Survive - In a One Computer Classroomhttp://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech/tech092.shtml
The One Computer Classroomhttp://eduscapes.com/tap/topic84.htm 
Stand-Alone Lab
The teacher schedules time in one room for the students to each use a desktop computer. Biggest challenge: Scheduling. Without technology at hand in the classroom, it cannot be used for just-in-time learning.
The Pros and Cons of Computer Labshttp://www.edutopia.org/blog/pros-cons-computer-labs-mary-beth-hertz
Classroom Management Tips for the School Computer Lab
http://thecornerstoneforteachers.com/free-resources/technology-integration/managing-a-computer-lab
Mobile Laptop Lab
Students each use a laptop from a rolling cart used to transport and recharge laptops. Biggest challenge: Scheduling the cart; keeping batteries charged from class to class.
BYOD One Year Laterhttp://www.techlearning.com/features/0039/byod-%E2%80%94one-year-later/53433

1:1 (One-to-One Computing)
The school purchases and issues a computing device (typically laptop or tablet) to each student. Teachers support learning with Internet-based resources and activities. Biggest challenge: cost and support of hardware.
5 Common 1:1 Teacher Mistakeshttp://gowhereyougrow.wordpress.com/2012/12/13/5-common-11-teacher-mistakes/
Research and Best Practices In Support of One-to-One http://www.kent.k12.wa.us/Page/3381
B.Y.O.D.
(Bring
Your Own Device)
Students bring whatever Internet connected mobile device they have to school, and teachers support learning with Internet-based resources and activities. Biggest challenge: supporting a wide variety of platforms.
Ten Reasons to Consider BYOD in Educationhttp://www.teachthought.com/technology/10-reasons-to-consider-byod-in-education/On Board with BYOD hhttp://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/oct12/vol70/num02/On-Board-with-BYOD.aspx
The Hidden Costs of Wireless Computer Labs https://thejournal.com/articles/2005/08/01/the-hidden-costs-of-wireless-computer-labs.aspx
Flipped Classroom
The flipped classroom is one in which the students' homework is to watch or listen to the teacher's lecture or presentation via technology, so classroom time can be used for hands-on, active learning.
The Flipped Classroom Definedhttp://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2011/09/the-flipped-classroom-defined/
EducationNext: The Flipped Classroom
http://educationnext.org/the-flipped-classroom/
Regardless of which of the above learning environments you find yourself teaching in, finding and evaluating software will be critical. The next section will introduce you to resources to assist you in finding and evaluating software applications.


Finding and Evaluating Software Applications

Regardless of what hardware you happen to have in your classroom, you will need to know where to find and evaluate the best applications. For general electronic learning resource evaluations, we love Graphite from Common Sense Media (https://www.graphite.org/top-picks#/top-picks) and the California Learning Resource Network (http://www.clrn.org). On the Electronic Learning Resource site, you can browse resources by subject area and grade level and read summaries and reviews by educators. The Open Educational Resources page does the same for websites, tablet apps, and Web 2.0 tools. 

For iPad apps, you'll want to check out Graphite by Common Sense (https://www.graphite.org/reviews). This directory provides app reviews from Apple Distinguished Educators. Kathy Schrock provides Bloomin' Apps (http://www.schrockguide.net/bloomin-apps.html), a website with recommended iPad apps organized according to Bloom's Taxonomy . She also provides two excellent resources for evaluating apps designed to provide content (http://kathyschrock.net/pdf/evalipad.pdf ) and for apps designed for creation of a product (http://www.ipads4teaching.net/uploads/3/9/2/2/392267/evalipad_creation.pdf ). 

ISTE-T Standards

2. Design and Develop Digital Age Learning Experiences and Assessments
  • Teachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessment incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes identified in the ISTE·S.
    • a. Design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources to promote student learning and creativity
    • b. Develop technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students to pursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting their own educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their own progress
    • c. Customize and personalize learning activities to address students’ diverse learning styles, working strategies, and abilities using digital tools and resources
    • d. Provide students with multiple and varied formative and summative assessments aligned with content and technology standards and use resulting data to inform learning and teaching
4. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility
  • Teachers understand local and global societal issues and responsibilities in an evolving digital culture and exhibit legal and ethical behavior in their professional practices.
    • b. Address the diverse needs of all learners by using learner-centered strategies providing equitable access to appropriate digital tools and resources

Key Terms

1-to-1
BYOD
one-computer classroom
laptop lab
mobile learning

Resources

Graphite Top Picks https://www.commonsense.org/education/top-picks#%2Ftop-picks
California Learning Resource Network 
http://clrn.org
Johnny Lee's TED talk on hacking technology for your classroom http://www.ted.com/talks/johnny_lee_demos_wii_remote_hacks
Kathy Schrock's iPad Resources 
http://www.ipads4teaching.net/ipads-in-the-classroom.html
iPads in Education from Scoop.It http://www.scoop.it/t/ipadsineducation


PLN

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