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Santa Cruz History


History of the Town of Santa Cruz

By Rudy Candelario







            The original name of Sta. Cruz prior to the coming of the Spaniards to the Philippines was Talabasi.  In the old map of Mindoro presumably sketched by an unknown Chinese trader, this name appeared in the place where Sta. Cruz is located at present.  According to the indigenous people, in their dialect, talabasi was the name of a kind of medicinal plant during the early days.


            The name Sta. Cruz was believed to be given by Captain Juan de Salcedo to the small village he found near the area where the mouths of Ramayan, Salagan and Pola Rivers merged.  The said Spanish leader found the place when he made his first journey to the western coast of Mindoro, in May 1570.  The thick foliage of the trees at the mouth of the river near this village served as protection to the small sailboats of his warriors from Panay.[1]


            Another story which up to the present time is being narrated by old residents of Sta. Cruz, traces the origin of the name of their community.  Based on the story, the original name of this place was Bugo.  It came from the name of a tree.  A small community composed of the families of Benedicto Flores, Francisco Bernardo, Felix Gatdula, Eulalio Isidro and Damian Fernandez was formed here.  The leader of the group was Francisco Bernardo.  The community members  drew water for household use from the stream of Timalon.           


            One day Eulalio Isidro found in the stream a wooden cross, one foot long.  He showed it to his companions.  The group considered the discovery of the cross as a miracle.  Since they were religious by nature, they built a chapel and at the altar of the house of worship, they enthroned the cross.  From that time on, Sta. Cruz became the new name of Bugo.[2] 


            Sta. Cruz was first mentioned in an old Spanish document in 1666, in the report sent by a Jesuit missionary to his superiors.  In that report, the priest stated that he visited and baptized many adults in the villages of the Mangyans in Ilin, Dongon, Sta. Cruz, Mamburao and Paluan. 


            Since 1663, Sta. Cruz officially belonged to the Parish of Calavite which could be found at the north-westernmost part of Mindoro.  The ecclesiastical territory was managed by Fr. Martin Diaz, a secular priest.  However, it was not mentioned in the document if this priest has gone to Sta. Cruz even once.[3] 


            In 1679, the Spanish friars belonging to the Order of Augustinian Recollects were entrusted with the mission of spreading the Catholic faith in Mindoro.  Fr. Diego dela Resureccion was appointed as the parish priest of Calavite.  It was possible that he or any of the forty one missionaries who succeeded him in Calavite until 1767, when the parish was completely destroyed by the pirates, had visited the small village of Sta. Cruz.  Again, the old documents did not mention it.


            In an important manuscript written by Fr. Jose dela Concepcion in 1751, he mentioned that Calavite Parish was under the management of Fr. Francisco de San Miguel de San Clemente and that the population of Sta. Cruz was one hundred eighty five (185), bigger than the population of Mamburao by eighty (80).


            In 1754, the king of Spain ordered the construction of two forts in Mindoro which the inhabitants could use in defending themselves against the pirates.  The forts would be built in Balete, East Mindoro and Sta. Cruz, West Mindoro.  However, due to unknown reasons, the order was implemented only after fifteen (15) years.


            In the report of the administrator of Mindoro, Corregidor Gregorio Ladero to the governor-general of the Philippines in 1791, he mentioned that the forts in Balete and Sta. Cruz were used by the people in defending the villages against the pirates.


            Due to the frequent raids of the Moro pirates in Mindoro, the Spanish government decided to assign a group of soldiers to Sta. Cruz to defend West Mindoro against the marauders.  Nevertheless, the group composed of twenty five (25) soldiers led by a captain was not able to prevent the nefarious activities of the pirates.  As a result, the people in the lowlands, decided to hide in the mountains.  The people of Sta. Cruz might have done the same thing because within a period of more than a hundred years, this place was not mentioned as a village.  Its name was only indicated in the map, during that time, for its river provided good harbor and shelter to small boats.


            From the old documents of 1803 and 1805, we could read how Don Nicolas de Torres, the Spanish governor of Mindoro, captured the pirates who hid in their boats while resting in the river of Sta. Cruz.  Although many of the pirates managed to escape to the mountains, the Mangyans armed with bows and arrows shot them. 


In connection with the aforementioned incident, a story handed down for generations narrated that in Sitio Naghumbak, Brgy. Carumbac at present, the bloody encounter between the Spanish soldiers and the Moro pirates took place.  The pirates escaped and they passed by Sumague which is Brgy. Casague at present.  When the Spanish soldiers were about to catch them, some pirates dived at the river of Sitio Timalon but many of their companions were killed by the pursuing government soldiers at Sitio Pula.[4]


            It was only in 1876 when Sta. Cruz was again mentioned as a developing community.  The people who hid in the mountains went down to the lowlands and lived in their villages.  Sablayan was already established during that time and since 1844 has its own parish priest.  The priest assigned there managed a very wide territory, for the northern part of West Mindoro, including Sta. Cruz was under the Parish of Sablayan.


            The Recollect missionary who was parish priest of Sablayan (1870-1876), Fr. Pedro Muro de San Agustin, noticed in his occasional visit to Sta. Cruz that the number of inhabitants in this place was increasing in number and they were interested to become progressive. 


            In 1875, Fr. San Agustin wrote the governor of Mindoro who was in Calapan.  He explained that it would be advantageous to the church and government if Sta. Cruz would be created as a town.  He attached in his petition letter the list of the Mangyans living in Sta. Cruz who requested him to teach and baptize their children.


            This petition was strongly recommended by the governor of Mindoro to the higher authorities in Manila.  He added that two or three towns should be created in West Mindoro for the development of the Mangyans who were being exploited by the lowlanders.         


            The central government in Manila was in favor of the petition which was recommended by the governor.  It was also supported by the highest official of the church.  After numerous communications and meetings, the supporters of the petition agreed that instead of three, six towns should be created in West Mindoro and in each town the Archbishop of Manila would assign one missionary who would give true education to the Mangyans for their development and for a deep understanding of the Catholic religion. 


In December 1876, the petition, plans and proposals were sent to the king of Spain for his approval and Royal Decree.


            In April 1877, the king of Spain approved the establishment of a new town in Mindoro which would be called Santa Cruz de Mindoro.  Due to his successful efforts, we could say that Fr. Pedro Muro de San Agustin was the founder of the town of Sta. Cruz.


            After a year, by virtue of Royal Decree No. 103 dated February 25, 1878 the king of Spain approved the establishment of six new mission stations which would be selected by the Recollect Vicar of Calapan.  One of the six was Sta. Cruz.


            From the 1884 Census record, the population of Sta. Cruz de Mindoro was one hundred thirty nine (139).  Tagalog was the common dialect.  The villagers used sailboat when going to other places and it usually took them four days to reach Calapan, the capital of the province.  Capitan Valeriano Balaong was the capitan del pueblo, during that time.


            In February 1887, the first parish priest who stayed in Sta. Cruz was Fr. Domingo Cabrejas del Sto. Cristo dela Columna.  With the help of the people he was able to build a chapel made of nipa and cogon.


            Fr. Domingo did not stay long in Sta. Cruz.  In July 1887 he was transferred to Sablayan.  After a year, the position he vacated was entrusted to Fr. Antonio Diego delos Dolores.  Fr. Antonio stayed in this town until 1890.  He contacted a serious illness and on March 1, 1890 he was brought to Manila where he died.


            The successor of Fr. Antonio as parish priest of Sta. Cruz was Fr. Manuel Tarasona del Pilar.  He too did not stay long in this town for the Recollect Provincial Superior decided to transfer the mission stations in Lumitaw, Busuanga and Sta. Cruz of West Mindoro to Pola, Bongabong and Bulalacao of East Mindoro.  As a result, Sta. Cruz was placed under the jurisdiction of the Parish of Mamburao.


            According to the report of Fr. Vicente Soller, the parish priest of Mamburao in 1895, Sta. Cruz was attacked by the bandits on November 28, 1895.  They killed Teniente Eusebio Basit, the barangay leader and wounded Ponciano Esguerra, the former teniente.  Due to that tragic incident, many inhabitants of Sta. Cruz transferred to Mamburao.[5]


            In 1898, the Filipinos revolted against the Spaniards.  The Filipino revolutionaries, under the leadership of Capitan Mariano Abeleda and Capitan Agustin Liboro captured the Spanish friars in the different towns of West Mindoro.  They temporarily detained the friars in Paluan before sending them to Taysan, Batangas for imprisonment.[6]


            During the period when there were no Spanish friars in Mindoro, two secular priests from Batangas tried to keep the faith alive in the island.  One of them was Fr. Vicente Romero who visited all the towns in West Mindoro.  On June 17, 1900 he visited Sta. Cruz which at that time has a population of 300.people.


            The names of four places in Barahan, Sta. Cruz remind the people of the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.  The names given to the places by the Tagalog speaking people and their corresponding translation in English are:  Tulay Bato (Stone Bridge), Punduhang Kastila (Spanish Port), Pinagbitinang Kanyon (Hanging Place of Cannon) and Pinagpihitang Barko (Turning Area of Ship). 


            Tulay Bato is a high but not so wide bridge made of stone, across the river of Barahan.  The Spaniards ordered the natives to build it in order that the pirates who entered the river aboard their swift vintas would not be able to return to the sea.  At present, the makeshift stone bridge is already submerged in the water.  Punduhang Kastila is an area in Barahan which was used as port by the Spaniards.  Pinagbitinang Kanyon is the place where a big tree with iron rings used as cradle of a cannon, could be found.  Pinagpihitang Barko is a portion of the river in Barahan where the Spanish sailors dug its banks, to enable their ship to turn and return to the sea.[7]     









            During the American occupation of Mindoro, many families from the island of Lubang and the town of Paluan transferred to Sta. Cruz.  They occupied the wide vacant land.  Some of them became financially well off.  They acquired wide pastureland and bought vast agricultural estate.  They hired able bodied men from other provinces to work as farmhands and cattle raisers.


On January 4, 1905 by virtue of Act 1280, Mamburao which was established as a pueblo by the Spanish government was retained as a town by the Americans.  The former municipalities of Paluan, Abra de Ilog & Sta. Cruz were again returned to their old status as barrios and placed under the jurisdiction of the municipal president of Mamburao.[8] 


That same year, the American government established Banganay, a village for the indigenous people.  They opened a primary school and assigned a teacher in this community.  In 1907, another American official with the name of Mr. Brown established another community of the indigenous people in Calamintao.  A school called Calamintao Settlement Farm School was opened here.  The American teacher taught the indigenous people how to farm, build houses and sew clothes.  Unfortunately, due to the shortage of pupils, the school closed after a few years.[9]


            In 1937, Bishop William Finnemann, SVD, DD the first prefect apostolic of the island of Mindoro, visited Sta. Cruz.  In his autobiography, Fr. Miguel Wittler, the SVD missionary from Argentina and one of the companions of Bishop Finnemann, narrated what happened during their visit to this municipality, from April 29 to May 2, 1937.  He said that the people living here were very poor.  Nobody took care of their spiritual needs except for the priest from Lubang who visited them occasionally. 


            Fr. Wittler described the chapel as small and made of nipa, but an old woman took care of it as if it was his own house.  According to the priest, a long steel pipe served as the bell of the chapel.    


            While Bishop Finnemann was visiting Sta. Cruz, he stayed at the house of Don Mauricio Rodriguez.  He blessed the house where he stayed before he proceeded to Mamburao.[10]


            After the historic visit of Bishop Finnemann to Sta. Cruz, no mention was made in the documents of the church and the government as to what happened to Sta. Cruz until World War II broke out.


            Like the inhabitants of other towns of Occidental Mindoro, the people of Sta. Cruz experienced untold hardships during the war.  Barahan was made as the headquarters of a group of freedom fighters under the leadership of Captain Alfonso Umali.  Some patriotic men who helped the guerrillas were tortured by the Japanese soldiers.  One of them was Francisco Tria.[11]


            Some brave men of Sta. Cruz joined the guerrilla movement.  Old residents of this place mentioned the name of Florante Tria.  According to them, the said patriotic young man was a member of the group of guerrillas who built the radio transmitter facilities of the American soldiers at the island of Ambil, Looc.  He also served as one of the operators of the secret radio communication system.  Through the said communication facilities, the guerrillas were able to report to the group of Major William Phillips in Calavite, Paluan the activities of the Japanese soldiers in Lubang Island.[12]       






            Four years after the war or on April 1, 1949 by virtue of Executive Order No. 210 of President Elpidio Quirino, Sta. Cruz was separated from Mamburao and created as another municipality.  Francisco Tria was appointed by the American authorities as the first municipal president.[13]  The said leader made the old building near the church as the temporary seat of the municipal government.  He appointed the teniente del barrio in each barrio of Sta. Cruz.[14]


            In 1951, Santiago Vidal was elected as mayor of Sta. Cruz.  Together with the members of the municipal council, he named the streets at the town’s center.  He worked for the construction of the wooden bridge which joined Barahan and Poblacion.


            Mayor Teodoro Malabanan was elected as the next father of the municipality of Sta. Cruz.  Among the visible accomplishments of the said mayor were the maintenance of peace and order in this town and the cooperative labor of the inhabitants in constructing roads from their sitios or barrios to the national highway;  The roads  facilitated the transport of agricultural products from the farms to the public market.           


            The next head of the municipal government of Sta. Cruz was Mayor Marta Abeleda vda. de Viaña.  She tried to increase the income of the town by requiring the registration of each head of cattle raised in the pasturelands of Sta. Cruz.  She encouraged the development of the cattle raising industry in Sta. Cruz.


            In 1963, the people of Sta. Cruz entrusted to Mayor Florante Tria the reins of the municipal government.  With the financial support of the provincial and national government, the main road at the town’s center was converted into a concrete thoroughfare.  In addition, concrete bridges were constructed in the different barangays; electric service reached the municipality; and a local water district was established.


            When Mayor Nestor Abeleda was elected as the chief executive of the municipality, he worked for the construction of a new municipal building.  He encouraged the propagation of the modern method of farming.  It was during his time when the volume of palay produced in Sta. Cruz began to increase.


            It was during this period, Decade 60’s, when a big piggery was established in Lumangbayan, Sta. Cruz by Atty. Mauro Castro and Captain Wilfredo Calabio, both sons in law of then Secretary Cornelio Balmaceda of the Department of Agriculture.  To manage the piggery, they established Mindoro Management Corporation (MIMACOR).  The said piggery, considered as the biggest in the Philippines during that time, gave jobs to many residents of Sta. Cruz.  Unfortunately, after ten years, MIMACOR suffered financial losses and its properties were foreclosed by the Philippine National Bank.  The land occupied by the company at Lumangbayan was used as training center by agriculture students.  Its main office was used as headquarters of the Palayan ng Bayan Project of the national government.[15]


            In 1966, two public high schools were opened by groups of parents & teachers at Poblacion and Barahan.  The institutions started as barrio high schools but after a few years, the municipal councilors decided to convert the public secondary school at the town’s center into Sta. Cruz Municipal High School.  In 1993, by virtue of an executive order of President Corazon Aquino, the two secondary schools were elevated to the status of national high schools.  At present, Sta. Cruz National High School has two buildings at Brgy. Pinagturilan, where extension classes for high school students from first year to fourth year are being held.[16]     


            Hon. Florante Tria was again elected mayor of Sta. Cruz in 1968.  He served as the head of the municipality until the martial law period when the government vigorously implemented the infrastructure projects in the province.  Two of the projects implemented during his time were the construction of the long concrete bridge over Amnay River, the natural boundary of the towns of Sta. Cruz & Sablayan; and the irrigation systems of National Irrigation Administration (NIA) in the different barangays of Sta. Cruz.


            In 1976, after coordinating with the Japanese government, then Occidental Mindoro Governor Arsenio Villaroza, established a training center for the youth who were studying the modern method of farming.  The training center was under the Organization for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural Advancement (OISCA) Program of Japan.  Through this program, some young men of Occidental Mindoro were given the opportunity to go to Japan to deepen their knowledge and skills in the field of agriculture.[17]


            During this period, since wide areas of swamps could be found in Sta. Cruz, a few well off individuals converted some of the swamps into fishponds.  However, the following years, flood frequently occurred and fishpond owners suffered financial losses.  As a result, they abandoned the development of the said industry, temporarily.


            In 1977, when Fr. Wim Leijendekker, SVD served as the parish priest of Sta. Cruz, he promoted the formation of Basic Ecclesial Communities in the parish.  Assisted by the lay missionaries from Mindanao and his former catechists in Mansalay, Oriental Mindoro, they gave seminars and trainings to the people in the barrio.  They helped form the farmers’ cooperative in Dayap.


            In one meeting with the officers of Jaycees, a civic organization, the need of a hospital for the poor people of Sta. Cruz was discussed.  The officers told Fr. Wim that they have prepared a project proposal for the construction of a community hospital.  They asked him where to submit it and after determining the proper funding agency, they sent the project proposal.  After waiting for months, the fund needed for the project arrived.


            In December 1980, after overcoming some obstacles the construction of the hospital was finished.  The hospital was managed by the Jaycees but after a year, its administration was transferred to the municipal government.  Upt to the present time, the hospital greatly helps the poor patients.  


            The rebel group belonging to the New Peoples’ Army (NPA) intensified their anti-government activities during martial law period.  They controlled some sitios of Sta. Cruz.  They detained some well known personalities for a few days while investigating the complaints lodged against them.  Some personalities who were detained were able to return home but some were not as lucky as the others.                    






            In 1986, after the peaceful EDSA revolution, Atty. Jesus Abeleda, Jr. was appointed as OIC Mayor of Sta. Cruz.  However, after serving only for less than a month, he was replaced by Manuel Miclat.  When OIC Mayor Miclat campaigned during the 1987 Elections, Marceliano Morales served temporarily as the head of the municipal government.


            Mrs. Purificacion Abeleda won as mayor of Sta. Cruz during the first post EDSA election.  During his term of office, the former division schools superintendent worked for the construction of enough school buildings in her municipality.  The construction of a building for the public market was also realized under her administration.  In her desire to maintain peace and order and to in order to facilitate the release of some individuals who were captured by NPA members, Mayor Abeleda held for a few days, a dialogue with the head of the rebel group at their hideout in the mountains.[18] 


            In 1992, Mayor Artemio Abeleda was elected as the chief executive of Sta. Cruz.  With the support of the provincial and national government, he constructed the municipal gymnasium & children’s playground and beautified the municipal compound.  His town mates were satisfied with his performance that in 1997, he was reelected as mayor.


            The school buildings and roads of Sta. Cruz were repaired and improved, gradually.  The flow of goods and services became fast.  The farmers increased the size of their cornfields when buyers from other places came to buy their harvest.          


            In 2001, Felimon Galsim, a lay leader, was elected as mayor of Sta. Cruz.  Under his administration, the municipal hall and the town plaza were improved and beautified.  With the financial assistance of the provincial government, the concrete roads were built and improved.  He maintained peace and order in the whole town.[19]


            Mayor Leonardo Abeleda won the mayoralty race in 2004.  This time, the provincial government vigorously implemented the project for the concreting and widening of the highway from Abra de Ilog to Sta. Cruz.  The building for the public market was improved and made bigger. 


            Despite the efforts exerted by the local and national government, the municipality of Sta. Cruz has not yet attained lasting peace.  A tragic incident happened in this town on December 24, 2004.  SB Kagawad Francisco Pingko Gatdula was killed by unidentified armed men, a few meters from his house, while going to church.  The killing shocked his town mates and relatives, specially his sin, Fr. Jojo Gatdula who was ordained a few months ago.  A dialogue was held between local officials and the officers of the Philippine Army (PA) contingent assigned in Sta. Cruz.  The PA officers promised to solve the case immediately but up to the present time, the crime remains unsolved.[20]


            At present, the local officials and people of Sta. Cruz cooperate with each other to make their municipality more peaceful and progressive.





























1.  Alacaak



            The name of the barangay was given by the indigenous people belonging to the Alangan tribe.  It came from the name of a big tree which grew in this place.


            During the Spanish occupation, this area was a forest.  Only patches of kaingin of the indigenous people could be found on the wide plain.


            During the American regime, the government awarded to Mariano Abeleda, a logging concessionaire, the right to cut big trees in this area.  When all the big trees were felled, coconut and other fruit bearing trees were planted on the plains.  Other portions were converted into cornfields and ricefields by the logging concessionaire.


            The families of the laborers hired by the heirs of Mariano Abeleda in their coconut, palay and corn plantation, stayed on the piece of land they cultivated.  Their relatives who also looked for land to till, built huts near the national highway passing through this place.


            The number of families living in Alacaak grew until it became a sitio of Barangay Mulawin.  The leaders of Mulawin as well as that of the sitio petitioned the government authorities that a primary school be opened in this place.  Their petition was granted.


            During the early part of 1967, the people of Alacaak requested the municipal councilors of Sta Cruz that their sitio be elevated to the status of a barrio.  The councilors discussed the merits of the request, approved it and after undergoing the legal process, Alacaak was created as a bariio on December 10, 1967.  Anastacio Cuzon was elected as the first barrio captain.  Together with the members of the barrio council, he took his oath of office on February 2, 1968.


            In 1970, three important events happened in Alacaak.  The first one was the workshop of the members of UPSCA, an association of students of the University of the Philippines.  The second was the demolition of the huts near the national highway, on the land owned by the Abeleda Family.  The third was the firing of unidentified men on the service vehicle of Ex-Governor Damaso Abeleda, one of the heirs of Mariano Abeleda.


            Due to the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program or CARP, conflicts erupted between the occupants of the farm and the owner of the land.  Many farmers stopped cultivating the land, temporarily.


            In 1972, after numerous dialogues between the owner of the land, employees of the Department of Agrarian Reform and the group of farmers, peace was restored at Alacaak.  The farmers returned to the farms which they used to cultivate and many of them built huts on the designated barrio site of the community.  The leaders of the barangay encouraged the complete attendance of the farmers to the barrio development course seminar which was held in this place. 


            A water system was constructed by the National Irrigation Administration in Alacaak.  When the project was finished, it enabled the farmers to plant and harvest palay twice, annually.  As a result, they became active in church activities, as a sign if their gratitude to the Almighty God.


            When the country experienced a crisis in energy, in 1979, an ipil-ipil plantation was put up in Sitio Bisay, in order that the trees would be used as fuel to a dendrothermal plant.  However, the said electric plant was abandoned after it was discovered that it will cause the rapid denudation of the forests on the mountains.


            In 1981, during the war game conducted by the American soldiers in Occidental Mindoro, some houses and properties in Sta. Cruz were damaged.  Due to that incident, many families demanded for compensation to the damages on their properties.  It was embarrassing to note, however, that many families who were not affected by the war game also asked for compensation.  It included some families in Alacaak.  The person in charge of the war game discovered the fake damage claims, thus, no payment was made to the claimants.


            In July 1982, a marijuana farm was discovered by the government soldiers at Sitio Kaibong.  The following year, while the feast in honor of the patron saint was being celebrated at Sitio Kurtinganan, a policeman was shot by members of the New Peoples’ Army (NPA) at the plaza.  It started a few bloody encounters between government soldiers and NPA members.  The armed conflict in Alacaak stopped only when Gen. Fidel Ramos became the president of the Philippines.


            Aside from Barrio Captain Anastacio Cuzon, the persons who served as leaders of Alacaak were Andres Alcantara, Teofilo Mendez, Panfilo Katigbak who was detained by the NPA in their hideout for a month, Laurel Alcantara and Angelito Lopez.  The leader of Alacaak at present is Brgy. Captain Lorigen Isidro.[21]



2. BARAHAN               



            Old residents of Barahan could not tell exactly which of the two stories concerning the origin of the name of their barangay is true.  Both stories happened during the Spanish occupation of the Philippines.


            The first story was about a galleon which was battered by a typhoon while passing the sea on this part of Mindoro.  Due to the incessant lashing of the waves and the force of the wind, the sailors lost control of the vessel and it ran aground the shore of this place.  In the Tagalog dialect, the word used to describe what happened is bumara and the place where the incident happened is barahan.


            The other story was about the vinta or swift boat of the pirates which entered Bato River to raid the community along its banks, three kilometers away from the mouth of the said body of water or stream.  When the vinta was already inside the river, the people living near the seashore piled big stones across the stream in order that the swift boat could not return to the sea.  However, the piled stones have not yet reached the surface of the water when the vinta returned.  The people hid immediately and the vinta ran aground          

the pile of stones.


            From that time on, this place became known as Barahan or the place where sea vessels ran aground.  The village established in this place was called by that name.


            Fishermen and farmers who were looking for vacant land to cultivate were the first settlers of this place during the American regime.  In the history written by a teacher in 1950, it was mentioned that the leaders in Barahan were Adriano Ramos, Pedro Danhembro, Petronilo Gatdula, Francisco Incina, Pablo Ramos, Mariano Bolasco and Mariano Alfaro.


            During World War II, Barahan served as the headquarter of a guerrilla group headed by Captain Alfonso Umali.  Some of the members of his group were Lt. Rigor, Unson, Jamilla and Nitura.  Due to the assistance extended by the people, the Japanese soldiers who hunted the guerrillas were not able to capture them.


            After the war, the number of settlers in Barahan increased.  The government opened a school in this place.  From a group of pupils in Grade 1, the number of schoolchildren increased until the educational institution became a complete elementary school.


            On April 1, 1949 Barahan was created as a barrio by virtue of Executive Order No. 210.  Narciso Barrales was appointed as its first teniente del barrio.  The said leader also served as municipal mayor of Sta. Cruz.


            In 1966, when barrio high schools were opened in different parts of the country, the parents and teachers of Barahan decided to open a public secondary school in their community.  The school grew and after years of  trials and difficulties, it became Barahan National High School.


Through the cooperative effort of the people, barangay leaders and local officials, the road going to Barahan from the national highway was improved and many projects were implemented in the barangay, like the construction of the barangay hall, health center, multi-purpose pavement and plaza.


Due to the deep religious faith of their families and friends, three young men of Barahan became priests.  They are Fr. Nards Mercene, Fr. Edu Aquino and Fr. Dennis Manzano.


Aside from Teniente del Barrio Barrales, those who served as leaders of the barangay were Sergio Telebrico, Juan Calingasan, Wilson Tomas and Rafael Corpuz.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Gideon Victoriano.[22]  






            In the past, lowlanders often heard the indigenous people uttered the word casague, meaning very narrow, every time they passed this place.  It was believed that they used the word to describe the very narrow trail between the tall trees or the limited area of the plain land between the mountains.  Nevertheless, this place was known by that name, thus, when the indigenous people who settled here were asked where they lived they would answer, “In Casague.”


            After World War II, Casague became a part of a logging concession.  The big trees in the area quickly disappeared and only the tall grasses remained.  When some well off families from other provinces came, they put up pasturelands in this place. 


            Ten years after the war, when many families of farmers arrived in Sta. Cruz, they occupied some parts of Casague which were not used as grazing grounds of cattle.  They converted it into ricefields and cornfields.  Despite the presence of malaria, they persevered in tilling the land.  At first, the indigenous people lived with the lowlanders but later on, they transferred to the mountains.


Although Casague was a remote place, the number of people who lived here increased until it became a sitio of Sta. Cruz.  As years passed, the farmers gradually occupied the lowlands which were parts of pasturelands.  Despite the guidelines issued by government authorities that only rolling areas could be used as pasturelands, ranch owners would not give the plains utilized as grazing grounds of their cattle to the farmers.  It took years of negotiation and dialogue, sporadic outbreak of violence and complicated legal process before the farmers were able to own the land they have occupied.


In the beginning, a portion of the national highway from Abra de Ilog to San Jose passed through Casague.  However, during martial law period, a concrete road going to Poblacion, Sta. Cruz was constructed from the intersection of the national highway and the road leading to Barahan.  As a result, passenger jeeps and buses plying the San Jose-Abra de Ilog route used this road. 


Before President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, the inhabitants of Casague requested members of the municipal council of Sta. Cruz to elevate their place to the status of a barrio.  The municipal council granted their request.  On February 15, 1972, Casague was created as a barrio.  Jose Fernandez was elected as its first barrio captain.  The said leader worked for the opening of an elementary school in his community. 


During the period when the rebel group became active in Occidental Mindoro, Casague was one of the barrios in Sta. Cruz which they frequently visited.  Government soldiers often went to this place also.  The residents of Casague lived in anxiety, fearing that bloody encounters between the two groups would occur, one day.  Luckily, it did not happen.


            The leaders of the barangay, with the cooperation of the people and the support of the local officials were able to construct a multi-purpose pavement in their plaza, barangay hall and day care center.  They were able to implement also other projects in Casague.  In addition, they strived to maintain unity and cooperation among the community members.


            Aside from Jose Fernandez, other persons who served as leaders of Casague were Rolando Torreliza, Pablo Bernabe and Constancio Pilar.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Rolando Manuel.[23]






            The name of the barangay came from thorny trees with sour tasting fruits which grew abundantly in this area during the American occupation of the Philippines. In the Tagalog dialect that kind of tree is called dayap.


Only few families from the island of Lubang lived in this place during the early part of the American regime.  It was only after World War II when the relatives of the first settlers came and settled in this community.  Later on, families of farmers from other provinces who were looking for vacant land to till arrived also.  The new settlers cleared the forest and converted it into productive agricultural land.  Aside from farming, weaving of nipa shingles and fishing were their sources of livelihood.  Swamps near their community abound with fishes, crabs and shrimps, hence, food was not a problem for the industrious pioneers.


Years later, due to the continuous increase of the number of inhabitants in Dayap, this place became a sitio of Barahan.  Since the sitio is almost surrounded by swamps, during that time the farmers used banca in transporting their products from their farm to the public market of Sta. Cruz.  Through the efforts of the barrio officials of Barahan, a wooden bridge was built over the river which serves as the natural boundary between this barrio and Dayap.  It facilitated the transport of products especially during rainy season when the current is strong.


When an elementary school was opened in Dayap, the father of Ex-Congressman Jose Villarosa was one of the teachers assigned there.  His family resided in this community.  While the former representative was still a boy, he studied at Dayap Elementary School.  He was not able to finish the elementary grades in this place for his father was transferred to another barrio and school.


During the early part of 1962, the people of Dayap requested the members of the municipal council of Sta. Cruz that their sitio be elevated to the status of a barrio.  Their request was granted.  On August 7, 1962, by virtue of the resolution passed by the municipal council of Sta. Cruz, Dayap was created as a barrio.  Emerenciano Moreno was elected as the first teniente del barrio.


The first leader of Dayap and the other barrio officials who succeeded him worked for the construction of the plaza, barangay hall, health center and the roads going to the sitios at the southern and eastern part of the barrio.


Before the year 1970, a barrio high school was opened at the nearby barrio of Barahan.  Due to this development, many young men & women who have graduated from Dayap Elementary School were able to pursue secondary education.


In 1978, a calamity struck Dayap.  A great flood occurred in this place and the ready to harvest palay of the farmers were carried away by the flood.  To survive, they repeated what they did during the war --- digging wild root crops and eating yuro or the dried sap extracted from the trunk of buri palms.


The Catholic Church, through missionary priest Fr. Wim Leijendekker, SVD helped the farmers recover from their losses.  A  cooperative was formed and through the assistance of benevolent donors abroad, the farmers were provided with financial capital for farm inputs.


During martial law period, the national highway connecting Abra de Ilog and San Jose was widened and improved.  A portion of the highway passed through a sitio near Dayap.  It facilitated the marketing of the products of the farmers.


Aside from Emerenciano Moreno, the persons who served as leaders of Dayap were Felix Ramos and Remigio Vidal.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Loreto Daprosa.[24]






            Like other barangays of Sta. Cruz, this place was a forest during the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.  The indigenous people were living here and they survived by hunting wildlife and the kaingin system of agriculture.  In addition, they fished at Lake Lanas which could be found at the eastern portion of the forest.

            During the American regime, the forest in this area became a part of the logging concession awarded to an influential family.  Since it was in this part of the logging concession where big trees were being sawed into lumber, it was referred to as the place known in Tagalog as pangurtihan.  The name Kurtinganan originated from that word.


            When all the big trees were felled and the logging permit of the concessionaire was canceled, the laborers decided to settle in this place. At first, the indigenous people lived with the lowlanders but later on,  they transferred to the mountains.


            Among the first settlers of Kurtinganan were the families of Pablo Mendez, Rufo Valdez, Anastacio Cuzon, Honofre Viray, Farcon Acosta, Nemesio Villaroza and Estanislao Pag-ilagan. 


            The population of Kurtinganan grew until it became a sitio of Barrio Mulawin.  When Alacaak was created as a barrio in 1967, Sitio Kurtinganan was placed under the jurisdiction of the officials of the said barrio.


            The two kilometer feeder road from Sitio Kurtinganan up to the national highway was constructed with the help of the municipal government, during the term of office of Brgy. Captain Andres Alcantara of Alacaak.  The said road made it easier for the farmers to bring their products to the public market.


            Since their community has grown, the people of Kurtinganan requested members of the Sangguniang Bayan of Sta. Cruz, through Barangay Resolution No. 84-9 of Brgy. Alacaak, that their sitio be elevated to the status of a barrio.  In connection with their request, the sitio leaders determined the exact boundaries of Kurtinganan.  In 1984, with the financial support of Antonio Azurin, Sr. and Fausto Ventura, Sr., a survey team from the Department of Public Works and Highways, together with Provincial Census Officer Brigido Bagui, inspected and pinpointed the boundaries between this community and the barrios adjacent to it.


            That same year, the municipal council of Sta. Cruz, approved through Municipal Resolution No. 84-47, the resolution of the barangay officials of Alacaak creating Brgy. Kurtinganan.  The resolution of the municipal council was forwarded to the provincial council for approval.  Unfortunately, the said resolution was not discussed during the next session of the provincial board for it was misplaced and could not be found. 


            In 1986, when Manuel Miclat was appointed as OIC Mayor of Sta. Cruz, he earnestly requested members of the provincial board to help him find the resolution.  Luckily, Willie Fajardo, an employee of the provincial board found the document.  The resolution was approved and on February 18, 1987 Kurtinganan was officially created as a barangay.  Antonio Azurin was appointed as OIC Brgy. Captain.  The said leader worked for the opening of an elementary school in this community. 


            When an election was held in Kurtinganan, Crispulo Sandoval was elected as the barangay captain.  He took his oath of office on March 18, 1987.  The first thing he did was to donate a portion of his land for the campus of the elementary school of the barangay.


            Engr. Jose Guce, another good hearted individual of Kurtinganan, donated a lot where the basketball court, barangay hall and church were constructed.


            In 1992, Kurtinganan did not receive its Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA).  When the barangay officials inquired about it, they discovered that authorities in the national government did not know that Kurtinganan was already a barangay because the documents attesting to its creation were not sent to the proper government office.  Brgy. Captain Crispulo Sandoval immediately sought the assistance of the congressman and governor of the province.  Necessary follow-ups were made and after a short period of time, Kurtinganan received its IRA.


            Brgy. Captain Sandoval served Kurtinganan from 1987 up to 2001.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Jurnito Roda.[25]  






            This settlement was the center of Sta. Cruz, during the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.  In an old map drawn by a Spaniard, Talabasi was written as the original name of the village.  According to the indigenous people, the name came from a kind of medicinal plant which could be found here.


            The name Sta. Cruz was given to this place by Captain Juan de Salcedo.  This  coastal village located near the area where the mouths of Ramayan, Salagan and Pola Rivers merged, gave shelter to the small boats of the warriors from Panay, who were recruited by the Spanish government to drive away the pirates living in Mamburao..


            Sta. Cruz was created as a town during the Spanish regime but due to the frequent raids of Moro pirates, the number of inhabitants in this place did not increase, hence, it was reclassified as a barrio of Mamburao.


            On April 11, 1950 by virtue of Executive Order No. 210, Sta. Cruz was separated from Mamburao and was again created as a municipality.  However, from the community near the mouth of the river, the town’s center was transferred to Sitio Bugo.  As a result of the said transfer of location, the old center of Sta. Cruz was called Lumangbayan.


            During Decade 60s, when Hon. Cornelio Balmaceda was appointed as Secretary of Agriculture, his two sons-in-law, Atty. Mauro Castro and Captain Wilfredo Calabio established a big piggery in Sta. Cruz.  They established a company to manage it --- Mindoro Management Corporation (MIMACOR).  They borrowed capital from Philippine National Bank (PNB).  Within a period of ten years, many adults of Sta. Cruz were given work in what was considered as the biggest piggery in the whole Philippines, during that time.  Since the main office of MIMACOR was in Lumangbayan, this barrio became an exciting and progressive place.


            Unfortunately, MIMACOR incurred financial loses and its properties were foreclosed by PNB.  The land which it occupied in Lumangbayan was temporarily used as training center of agriculture students.  Its building was used as office of the Palayan ng Bayan Project in Sta. Cruz. 


            From 1972 to 1982, cattle raising became a profitable industry in Lumangbayan, However, when rebel groups intensified their collection of revolutionary tax and other anti-government activities in this place, the ranchers stopped raising cattle.


            In 1991, the training center of agriculture students, known as Organization for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural Advancement (OISCA) which was sponsored by the Japanese government, stopped its operation.  Farmers who were looking for vacant land to cultivate and later on claim as their own, occupied the abandoned agricultural land.


            When Lumangbayan was declared as a barangay on December 3, 1971 Francisco Tria was elected as its barangay captain.  He was succeeded by Jesus Templanza, a year after the peaceful revolution at EDSA.  Since 1989 up to the present time, the barangay captain of Lumangbayan is Hon. Marianito Tria, Sr.[26]               



7.  MULAWIN    



            The name of the barangay came from a kind of tree which grew abundantly in this area, during the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.  This was one of the places where the indigenous people hunted for wildlife and the source of hardwood used for building the houses of the elite or ilustrado in the province. 


            During the American regime, this place became a part of the logging concession of Capitan Mariano Abeleda, a well known Filipino revolutionary leader in Mindoro.  When the big trees were all felled, one of his heirs, Vicente Abeleda, converted the former logging concession into a pastureland.  He hired workers.  Among them were Marcos Tumaguinting Bautista or Nunong Angko, Domingo Acosta, Luis de Borja, Petronilo de Borja and Apolonio Memdez.


            Years later, Vicente Abeleda removed his pastureland in one portion of Mulawin.  The people occupied the abandoned land.  The community grew until it became a sitio of Sta. Cruz, then, a barrio of Mamburao.  In response to the request of the inhabitants, a primary school was opened in this place.


            The families who first settled in Mulawin actively engaged in politics.  One of them was Petronilo de Borja who was elected as a member of the municipal council of Mamburao and appointed by American authorities as municipal president of the said town. 


            In 1949, Sta. Cruz was separated from Mamburao and created as a municipality.  Right after its creation, due to the request of its inhabitants, Mulawin was elevated to the status of a barrio.  Condeno Bautista was appointed as its first teniente del barrio.  Among the sitios placed under his jurisdiction were Alacaak, Kurtinganan and San Vicente, then known as Payompon.


            When the provincial government constructed the road from Mamburao to Sta. Cruz, it passed through Mulawin.  The road helped in the progress of the barrio and the increase of the inhabitants in the adjacent areas.  After a few years, the sitios placed under the jurisdiction of Mulawin were created as barrios --- Alacaak in 1967; San Vicente in 1970; and Kurtinganan in 1987.  However, new sitios emerged and were placed under the jurisdiction of the barangay captain of Mulawin.  The sitios were EEA Crossing, Carumbac, Urubugan, Porbis and Kabungahan.


            During martial law period, the government improved the road in Mulawin.  Electric service reached the barangay through Occidental Mindoro Electric Cooperative (OMECO) and its agricultural lands were irrigated by means of the irrigation system constructed by National Irrigation Administration (NIA).


            The leaders of the barangay, through the cooperation of the people and local government officials constructed the barangay hall, day care center and playground.  They also tried to maintain peace and order in Mulawin.


            Despite the occasional flooding of the barangay due to the water overflowing from the nearby rivers, after weeks of heavy rains, no great calamity occurred in Mulawin.


            Aside from Condeno Bautista, the persons who served as leaders of Sta. Cruz were Teofilo Mendez, Crispin Bautista, Ismael Mercader, Pedro Cajayon, Sr., Lorna Arandela, Orlando Diamante and Flordeliza Panganiban.  The leader of tha barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Rolando Rayo, Sr.[27]          






            The name of the place came from an enclosure made of sturdy posts and barbed wire where herds of cattle are being kept at night.  In Tagalog dialect, the enclosure is called turil, hence, the area where it was built in the past is called Pinagturilan.


            After Mindoro has been liberated by the Filipino revolutionaries from the Spaniards and Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was declared as the president of the Philippine Republic, a Caviteño named Juan Daño bought an agricultural estate in Occidental Mindoro.  A land title was issued to him and one part of the estate was the wide plain where Pinagturilan is located at present.


            After a few years, Dr. Benito Leviste bought a portion of the wide agricultural estate of Juan Daño and developed it into a coconut plantation known as El Dorado Coconut Plantation.  Among the laborers who worked in the plantation was the group led by Artemio Azurin.


            The group of Artemio Azurin dreamed of cultivating their own land.  When they saw that only a few individuals sere occupying the wide plains of Pinagturilan, they left El Dorado Coconut Plantation and built houses at the former cattle ranch.  They joined the early settlers of this place who were composed of the families of Diego Almero, Bansoy Daprosa and a farmer known only as Tampolino.


            The group of farmers requested government authorities that the uncultivated agricultural estate of Juan Daño, near El Dorado Coconut Plantation, be distributed to them.  They applied for homesteads and those who signed the application papers were Artemio Azurin, Maximo Azurin, Teofilo Azurin, Cenon Quiming, Luis Gaston, Mariano Iniego, Floresto Valdez, Felipe Iniego, Mariano Azurin, David Iniego, Marcelino Cortez, Taurino Soliven and Vicente Cortez.  After a few years, government authorities granted their request.


            In 1957, many families from Gen. Natividad and Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija arrived and settled in Pinagturilan.  Ten years after, due to the rapid growth of their sitio, the inhabitants petitioned the municipal government that Pinagturilan be created as a barrio.  Members of the municipal council of Sta. Cruz approved the petition.  By virtue of Municipal Council Resolution No. 40, series of 1965, Pinagturilan was elevated to the status of a barrio.  Mariano Iniego was elected as its first barrio captain.


            The municipal councilors of Sta. Cruz tried to change the name of Pinagturilan.  By virtue of Municipal Resolution No. 6, Series of 1968, they changed the name of the barrio to San Pedro, in honor of the good service rendered to Sta. Cruz by the late Congressman Pedro Medalla, Sr.  However, they restored the name Pinagturilan when letters for the residents of this barrio were sent to other places bearing the name San Pedro.


            The leaders of Pinagturilan worked for the opening of an elementary school in their community.  Through cooperation, coordination and proper representation, many projects were implemented by the government.  Among the projects were the improvement of the road from the center of Sta. Cruz to Sablayan, the construction of the barangay hall, day care center, basketball court and the school building for the extension classes of Sta. Cruz National High School.  Due to the opening of a public secondary school in this place, many elementary school graduates from nearby sitios and barangays were given opportunities to study high school.


            Aside from Mariano Iniego, other persons who served as leaders of Pinagturilan were Domingo Cortez, Wendelino Valdez, Fermin Arenas and Rosendo Azurin.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Ignacia Arenas.[28]       



9.  POBLACION 1 & 2   



            Bugo was the name given by the first settlers to this coastal community, due to the presence of a kind of tree bearing that name in this place.  The indigenous people were the ones living here until the last phase of the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.  When groups of farmers and fishermen from other places arrived and settled in this community, the indigenous people transferred to the mountains.


            During the American regime, the number of inhabitants of Bugo increased.  A few of them who were relatives of well known families in Paluan, bought wide agricultural land in nearby places and converted it into coconut plantation and pastureland.  They hired as laborers some lowlanders and members of the tribe of indigenous people.  Due to the rapid growth of its population, Bigo became a sitio.  A primary school was opened by government authorities in this place.


            When Sta. Cruz was again created as a municipality in 1949, its center was removed from Lumangbayan and transferred to Sitio Bugo.  Francisco Tria was appointed as its firs municipal mayor by then President Elpidio Quirino.  The roads in this place were improved and a municipal building was constructed. 


            Years later, this center of the town of Sta. Cruz grew in population and area.  Through the help of Fr. Wim Leijendekker, SVD a community hospital was built here.  When barrio high schools were opened in many parts of the country in 1966, a barrio high school was also opened at the center of the municipality.  The school grew, became a national high school in 1991 and in 1997, opened extension classes in Brgy. Pinagturilan.


            In 1976, the late President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the dividing of the poblacion or town centers into barangays.  As a result, Poblacion, Sta. Cruz was divided into two --- Poblacion 1 & Poblacion 2.  Bienvenido Rodriguez served as the first leader of Poblacion 1 and it was Abdon Hernandez in Poblacion 2.


            With the help of the national government, concrete roads were constructed at Poblacion 1 & 2.  The public market was improved and a concrete bridge was built over the wide river at the entrance of the southern portion of the town’s center.  In addition, the national highway from Mamburao to San Jose passed through Poblacion, Sta. Cruz.  The said infrastructure project greatly helped the town’s center to become progressive.


            Since this place is the center of the municipality of Sta. Cruz, many meetings and trainings sponsored by the government, non-government organizations and the Catholic Church were held here.  Included were the trainings of lay leaders who helped the priests and religious sisters in implementing the apostolate for indigenous people, family life, youth, formation of the Catholic faithful and integral human development.


            Aside from Bienvenido Rodriguez, the leaders who served as barangay captains of Poblacion 1 were Budoy Tapales, Reynaldo Torreliza and Leonardo Abeleda, the present municipal mayor of Sta. Cruz.  The leader of Poblacion 1 at present is Brgy. Captain Hernando Alipustain.


            After having been elected twice as barangay captain of Poblaion 2, Abdon Hernandez was succeeded by Redentor Viaña.  The people’s faith in their barangay captain was affirmed when during the 2002 elections, Brgy. Captain Viaña was again elected as the leader of this barangay.[29]             






            This place was a forest during the Spanish occupation of Mindoro.  The indigenous people were the ones who occasionally gathered here the forest products being sold to the lowlanders.


            During the American regime, Capitan Mariano Abeleda, one of the leaders of the Filipino revolutionaries in the province, was awarded a logging concession by American authorities.  The forest in this area was a part of his logging concession. 


            Aside from the big trees, a kind of vine called hagnaya in Tagalog, abound in this place.  The said vine was used for tying together the bamboos in a fish corral during the early days.  The indigenous people used to gather the vines and sell it to the fishermen.  


            When all the big trees were felled, Vicente Abeleda, one of the heirs of Capitan Mariano Abeleda, put up a cattle ranch in this area.  Family members of the laborers in the logging concession and the cattle ranch were the first settlers of this place.  They called their community as Payompon. 


            After World War II, the population of Payompon grew until it became a sitio of Mulawin.  A primary school was opened by government authorities in this sitio. After many years, the primary school became a complete elementary school. 


            When Vicente Abeleda removed his cattle ranch in this place, the vacant land was occupied by the farmers.  They requested the members of the municipal council of Sta. Cruz that Sitio Payompon be elevated to the status of a barrio. The municipal councilors approved the request and they endorsed it to the provincial board of Occidental Mindoro.   


            On October 9, 1970 by virtue of Provincial Board Resolution No. 34, Series of 1970, Payompon was created as a barrio.  The inhabitants agreed among themselves  to perpetuate the memory of the goodness of Vicente Abeleda. They registered San Vicente as the official name of their barrio.


            A special barrio election was held at San Vicente on June 27, 1971.  Godofredo Mendez was elected as the first barrio captain.  Together with the elected other barrio officials, he took his oath of office on August 2, 1971.


            During martial law period, the main road of San Vicente was improved by the national government.  Electric service reached this place through Occidental Mindoro Electric Cooperative (OMECO).  The ricefields of the farmers in this barrio now called a barangay, were irrigated when an irrigation system was built by National Irigation Administration (NIA) in this area. 


            Like other barangays of Sta. Cruz, during martial law period, San Vicente was one of the places frequently visited by groups of people espousing a different ideology.  Despite the fears felt by residents of this place, they remained loyal to the government.


             With the cooperation of the inhabitants, support of local officials and government authorities, the leaders of San Vicente were able to improve the barangay, construct the barangay hall, day care center, health center, multi-purpose pavement and the barangay plaza. 


Aside from Brgy. Captain Godofredo Mendez, those who served as leaders of San Vicente were Artemio Abeleda, Bernabe Espinol and Rosendo Viaña.  The leader of the barangay at present is Brgy. Captain Ruben Abeleda.[30]




[1] Antoon Postma: History of Sta. Cruz, Occidental Mindoro, 1987, p. 1

[2] Interview with Mr. Abdon Hernandez, January 4, 1998

[3] Antoon Postma:  Calavite, The Life & Death of a Mindoro Parish, Philippine Quarterly of Culture &

   Society Vol. 25 (1997), p. 163


[4]Interview with Mr. Eias Dotimas, January 5, 1998

[5] Antoon Postma:  History of Sta. Cruz, Occidental Mindoro, 1987, p. 10

[6] AVSJ Staff: Souvenir Program of the Sta. Cruz Parish, 1987, p. 8

[7] Interview with Fr. Dennis Manzano, January 6, 1998

[8] Editorial Staff: STAA Souvenir Program, 1970, p. 1998

[9] Volker Schult: Mindoro: A Social History of a Philippine Island in the 20th Century, 1991, p. 70

[10] A. Postma:  History of Sta. Cruz, Occidental Mindoro, 1987, p. 11

[11] Interview with Mr. Elias Dotimas, January 5, 1998

[12] Interview with Ex-Mayor Florante Tria, January 6, 1998

[13] Editorial Staff: STAA Souvenir Program, 1970, p. 1998

[14] Interview with Mr. Elias Dotimas, January 5, 1998

[15] Editorial Staff: STAA Souvenir Program, 1970, p. 170

[16] Interview with Mr. Lorenzo Isidro, February 4, 2000

[17]AVSJ Staff: Souvenir Program of the Sta. Cruz Parish, 1987, p. 9

[18] Interview with Mrs. Purificacion Abeleda, January 6, 1998

[19] Interview with Mr. Elias Dotimas, January 5, 1998

[20] Interview with Fr. Jojo Gatdula, December 28, 2004

[21] Elias Dotimas, Municipal Planning & Development Office (MPDO) Report, 1997,p. 5

[22] Interview with Elias Dotinas, January 5, 1998

[23] E. Dotimas: MPDO Report, 1997, p. 6

[24] Interview with E. Dotimas, January 5, 1998

[25] Interview with Ex-Brgy. Captain Crispulo Sandoval, January 7, 1998

[26] E. Dotimas MPDO Report, 1997, p. 7

[27] Interview with Ex-Brgy. Captain Flordeliza Panganiban, January 8, 1998

[28] E. Dotimas: MPDO Report, 1997, p. 9

[29] Interview with Mr. Dotimas, January 5, 1998

[30] E. Dotimas: MPDO Report, 1997, p. 10






A.  Published Materials


     1.  Landicho, Macario

          1950:  The Mindoro Yearbook

     2.  Postma, Antoon

          1979:  Calavite:  The Life and Death of a Parish

     3.  Schult, Volker

          1991:  Mindoro, A Social History of the Philippine Island in the 20th Century

     4.  AVSJ Staff

          1987 Souvenir Program of Sta. Cruz Parish

     5.  Editorial Staff

          1970 STAA Souvenir Program


B.  Unpublished Materials


     1.  Postma, Antoon

          1987:  History of Sta. Cruz, Occidental Mindoro

2.  Dotimas, Elias

          1997:  Municipal Planning & Development Office Records


C.  Resource Persons


      1.  Ex-Mayor Purificacion Abeleda

      2.  SB Kagawad Elias Dotimas

      3.  Fr. Dennis Manzano

      4.  Mr. Lorenzo Isidro

      5.  Brgy. Capt. Abdon Hernandez

      6.  Brgy. Capt. Crispulo Sandoval

      7.  Brgy. Capt.  Flordeliza Panganiban

      8.  Fr. Jojo Gatdula