NZ Army

When it comes down to it every military is defined by the pointy bit at the tip of the spear. 
What can it bring to bear? What are its skills, disciplines and equipment? What can it do?

The super hard tip of the New Zealand military is obviously the SAS. They are trained to be as tough as men can be and they are regularly deployed to dangerous places to dangerous things so that they stay as sharp as they can be.

But no army can simply consist of special forces. For one thing the SAS are not meant to hold terrain, they are meant to find the enemy and give them a hard time. In low intensity warfare situations such a response could be more of a liability than an asset.

Just as important is what does the career ladder up, and down look like? No soldier can be in peak condition all their lives. Do we really want to invest in developing all that experience and skill and then lose it again because a man over 35 can't keep up with one of 24?

At present the Army operates as a light infantry regiment with a series of identical battalions. We don't actually need a light infantry regiment for anything but this is the pool which manages the bulk of our armed personnel. Within the regiment are career soldiers and young recruits. As older recruits leave younger ones replace them and the whole unit spends its time training and retraining. Indeed almost all the soldiers do is train. What they train to do and how they are organised around that training is largely opaque. The result is that we have a very large body of men and women paid to do something rather vague: be a light infantry regiment.

Expeditionary brigade of functional battalions

My solution is to break up the Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment. Instead of a light infantry regiment, New Zealand would field an expeditionary brigade instead. We have had brigades in the past so there is no problem with a brigade structure. A brigade is somewhat different to a regiment in that its constituent units can be focused on different functions than a regiment, which is traditionally more homogeneous. 

The concept is that each functional unit incorporates not only operational personnel but also the functional training school which specialises in the role the unit fills. Thus a unit is both an operational and a learning organisation.  For example the Pioneers would incorporate the military engineering school. The infrastructure of the operational unit and the infrastructure of the school are one and the same.

As a training organisation the focus of the unit is its students. Where the current Regimental structure is built around differing levels of professionalism at battalion level, with the first battalion being wholly professional and the seventh largely territorial, this structure would be based around different levels of professionalism within each unit at company level instead.

The units are as follows:
  1. Marine battalion (strength 575 cost $90m)
  2. Military Police battalion (strength 450 cost $50m)
  3. Motorised battalion (strength 475 $80m)
  4. Pioneer battalion (strength 520 $60m)
  5. Aviation squadron (strength 256 $180m)
  6. Mobile field hospital (strength 350+ $40m )
  7. Rangers Battalion ( strength 550 $60m)
  8. Field 3CI Company (strength 120 $25m )
  9. Mission Facilitation Scaffold (strength 64 $5m)

Total cost $600m compared to $1024m (land combat + combat support + land combat service support + No 3 squadron + Navy littoral warfare). This excludes training and support elements now part of the defence academy and arsenal but includes Navy personnel

Plus
NZ SAS ( strength ~300 $87m)


Organisation

As with the SAS today this structure would assume that each unit is a spate line item in Vote Defence and acts as a standalone cost centre responsible for its outputs together with its own purchasing and accounting, using standardised methods and systems.


Reserve and Training Companies

Note battalions include training companies which are for bringing basically trained personnel up to speed with the units specialist knowledge, and reserve companies. 

Reserve Companies consist of a small cadre of full-time troops plus trained troops under a call-up contract who generally work as civilians. They can be activated if there is a need for services beyond the capability of the cadre to fulfill. Typically Reserve companies are composed of men and women retraining for civilian life in their mid thirties.

Battalions

Marine Battalion [578 est $65 million]
Derived from Navy personnel. The marines operate firearms from coastguard ships and boats. They incorporate the dive capability of the RNZN, ship security and boarding parties. They work on the water and under it. They operate ROVs and learn de-mining techniques. This is the sea centric corps.

Why do we need this? Using firearms and explosives in a maritime environment is necessary for any kind of de-mining, anti-pirate operations, or boarding of reluctant vessels inside our EEZ or SAR territory. The marines would keep Coastguard ships secure and could be deployed undercover aboard merchant vessels in pirate controlled seas. They could also operate heavy weapons should they be required.

HQ and Development School [ 30 senior officers, instructors etc]
Administration Unit [ 16 staff]
Training Company commanded by a captain with four distributed training platoons
  4 Training platoons commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 and 3 trainee watches of 8
Dive Company commanded by a Major with a dive support crew of 4 sections of 8 headed by a staff sergeant
  1 Training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
  4 Dive squads each commanded by a Lieutenant with 7 divers (NCOs)
  3 ROV crews each commanded by a Lieutenant 
2 Ship's Marines Companies commanded by a Major with 4 distributed platoons
  4 Platoons commanded by a Lieutenant with 3 watches of 8 commanded by a sergeant
1 Naval Heavy Weapons Training Company and School commanded by a Major
  1 Simulator Training Unit of 8 training for guns, torpedos, depth charges, and missiles 
  1 Docked Training Unit of 16 training for guns, torpedos, depth charges, and missiles 
  1 ECM systems training unit of 8 training for target acquisition radar, sonar, and countermeasures.
  1 Training platoon of 24 commanded by a Lieutenant
  2 Rotations of 4 heavy weapons teams of 8 each commanded by a Lieutenant
  
 
The Marines are the ones trained to use lethal and non-lethal close quarters weapons in a maritime environment. Their deployed numbers will vary depending on the size of the vessel they operate from and the object of the mission.



Military Police Battalion [449 est $60m p.a]
Derived from Military Police, Military Intelligence and Light Infantry. The military police must qualify as police officers. This includes learning the basics of investigation, crowd control, legal processes, search and interrogation techniques. Some will specialise in dog handling, others in intelligence gathering. This is the people centric corps specialising in low intensity warfare.

Why do we need this? Operating in politically and legally complex environments is becoming standard for many UN peacekeeping operations. Troops trained as police gain the skills of intelligence gathering, negotiation and civil management needed to prevent rather than simply respond to violence. The unit can also provide extra resources for NZ Police investigations when not deployed overseas. This unit applies when local law enforcement don't inspire confidence. Their focus is always the local population rather than hostiles.

HQ and Development School [30 senior officers, instructors etc.]
Administration Unit [ 16 staff]
Training Company commanded by a Captain with four training platoons
1  Police Skills Training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with an instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
1  Police Methods Training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with an instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
1  Military Intelligence Training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with an instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
1 Psychological Techniques Training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with an instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
1 Force Police Company commanded by a Captain to enforce military law
  Base police detachments commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Low Intensity Warfare Company (128 troops in two rotations of 64) commanded by a Major
  1-2 senior Police platoons commanded by a Captain and Staff sergeant in 4 sections of 8 military police officers
  1-2 junior Police platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant in 4 sections of 8 military police officers
1 Reserve Low Intensity Warfare Company (128 troops in two rotations of 64) commanded by a Major
  1-2 senior Police platoons commanded by a Captain and Staff sergeant in 4 sections of 8 military police officers
  1-2 junior Police platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant in 4 sections of 8 military police officers
1 Specialist Company commanded by a Major
  1 Criminal Field Intelligence Unit of 20 officers commanded by a Captain
  1 Fraud investigation unit of 20 officers commanded by a Captain
  1 K9 Unit of 20 dog handlers commanded by a Captain

The Low Intensity Warfare Company can field 64 officers, 6 dog handlers plus investigation and intelligence units in two rotations (i.e each deployed unit has a parallel at home which can be swapped over). It is intended to operate in situations where hostilities are simmering rather than boiling over.



Motorised Battalion [478 est $90m p.a)
Derived from Armoured Corps, Logistics Regiment, Queen Alexandra Mounted Rifles. The motorised corps operates from vehicles. It's speciality is land mobile operations. This may include convoys, convoy security, specialised driving, and manouever warfare. The focus is on fighting from a vehicle, including mobile gunnery and weapons systems. This may include light fast vehicles, heavy trucks, or armoured vehicles large and small.  This is the "Transporter" corps.

Why do we need this? Civilian drivers can drive in disasters or ordinary peace time logistics movements of most things. Just because you have things to move doesn't mean you buy a truck. But the military do have mobile operations. Whether we are dealing with terrorist sieges, convoys in dangerous places, or UN peacekeeping operations we need our forces to be capable of mobile operations. This battalion also includes the center of excellence for driving skills. In future an increasing number of vehicles will drive themselves but you still need human planning and oversight. This doesn't have to be huge but we do need the capability. 

HQ and Development School [30 senior officers, instructors etc.]
Administration Unit [ 16 staff]
Field Maintenance Company commanded by a Captain
  4 Field Maintenance and Recovery Units commanded by a Lieutenant in four teams of 4
Driver Training Company commanded by a Captain
  Basic training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
  Combat manoeuvre training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections
  Vehicle maintenance training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections
2 Mechanised Combat Companies (16 AFVs) commanded by a Captain
   4 Mechanised platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and sergeant with 4 AFV crews of 4
2 Transport Companies (32 Heavy load carriers) commanded by a Captain
    4 Heavy transport platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant with 8 vehicle crews of 2
1 Light Support Company (16 reconnaissance vehicles, 16 ambulances) commanded by a Captain
  2 mobile 3CI platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant with 8 vehicle crews of 2
  2 Ambulance platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant with 8 vehicle crews of 2
1 Motorised Reserve Company commanded by a Captain
1 Mechanised platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and sergeant with 4 AFV crews of 4
2 Heavy transport platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant with 8 vehicle crews of 2
1 Ambulance platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and a sergeant with 8 vehicle crews of 2

The motorised battalion can deploy a rotation of 16 AFVs, 32 heavy trucks, 8 recon vehicles, 2 motorised field maintenance teams and 8 ambulances. This is about the maximum HMNZS Canterbury can carry at one time anyway.

Pioneers Battalion [512 est $60 million p.a]
Derived from Engineers Corps, Light Infantry Regiment and Logistics Regiment. The pioneer battalion focuses on destruction and construction. The term "pioneer" replaces "engineer" because pioneers are more assault oriented. Assaults require troops able to clear minefields and breach defences as well as construct them. There is no point in the military competing with civilian contractors but the military still needs a small team able to build defensive structures when based in potentially hostile environments where explosives may be available. This is the Macgyver battalion.

Why do we need this?  Every year the army deals with bomb threats, and almost every year construction teams are dispatched in the wake of disasters. Pioneers go first while there is risk. Civil engineering contractors follow afterwards.

HQ and Development School [30 senior officers, instructors etc.]
Administration Unit [ 16 staff]
Pioneer Training Company commanded by a Captain
   Trades training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
   Combat engineering training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
   Defusing training platoon commanded by a Lieutenant with 1 instructors section of 8 NCOs and 3 trainee sections of 8
1 Pioneer Company commanded by a Major
   1 Pioneer infantry platoon of 32 commanded by a Captain
   1 Pioneer infantry platoon of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Mechanised Pioneer Platoons of 4 AFV crews of 6 commanded by a Captain
   1 Mechanised Pioneer Platoons of 4 AFV crews of 6 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Mechanised bridging platoon of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Base Engineering Company commanded by a Captain
   1 Mechanised construction platoon of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
   2 Trades construction platoons of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Perimeter security systems platoon of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Reserve Pioneer Company commanded by a Captain
   1 Pioneer infantry platoon of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Mechanised construction platoon of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
   2 Trades construction platoons of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Perimeter security systems platoon of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Reserve Mobile Facilities Company commanded by a Captain
   1 Fuel Management Platoon in 3 sections of 8 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Electrical Supply Platoon in 3 sections of 8 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Water Management Platoon in 3 sections of 8 commanded by a Lieutenant
   1 Waste Processing Platoon in 3 sections of 8 commanded by a Lieutenant

The Pioneer Battalion provides both offensive and defensive capability while being at least partly civilian based. This means that capability is retained but at reduced expense unless personnel are actually deployed.

Aviation Battalion [ 256 est $180m p.a]
Derived from the RNZAF No 3 and No.6 squadrons. The  aviation corps is focused on combat aviation. This means attacking other forces from the air using rockets, missiles or machine guns.  It also includes operation of unpiloted aerial vehicles.

Why do we need this? Civilian contractors can do a lot. They fly in dangerous environments (military and natural) all the time, and can do EEZ patrol, SAR and disaster recovery missions. But you can't put weapons on a civilian aircraft because then it becomes a military one. Military air cover for our ground forces can make the difference between our people suffering heavy casualties or relatively few, but to be effective it must be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and effective.

HQ and Development School [30 senior officers, instructors etc.]
Administration Unit [ 16 staff]
Ground Operations Company commanded by a Captain
   4 Ground operations platoons of 24 commanded by a Lieutenant
3CI Company commanded by a Major
   1 Air Mission Control platoons of 3 teams of 8 commanded by a Captain
   1 Winged Reconnaissance UAV platoon with 3 aircraft teams of 8 commanded by a Captain
   1 Rotary Reconnaissance UAV platoon with 3 aircraft teams of 8 commanded by a Captain
   1 Intelligence processing platoon of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 No.3 Rotary Combat ECM Squadron commanded by a Major
   3 Rotary Reconaissance Flights of 4 aircraft crews of 4 commanded by a Captain
1 No.6 Rotary Marine Squadron commanded by a Major
  2 Rotary Marine Flights of 4 aircraft crews of 3 commanded by a Captain

Typically there are twice as many aircrews as aircraft


Mobile Field Hospital ( 326 + Reserves Est $40m)
4
The mobile field hospital is largely a reserve unit. The field hospital is deployable either as a whole or in parts. Like all modern field hospitals its main function is triage and preparation for evacuation to civilian hospitals or isolation of serious outbreaks of dangerous diseases. It also includes elements needed for establishing bases before civilian contractors can be engaged.

Why we need this? The organisation needed to respond to medical emergencies in other countries (either because our people are fighting there or because of disasters or outbreaks) is not easily managed through the civilian health model which relies on District Health Boards. The military provides a means to focus and fund our ability to respond to these events.

HQ and Development School [30 senior officers and instructors, plus consultants]
Administration Unit [16 staff]
Reserve Facility Operations Company commanded by a Captain
   Field Kitchen Platoon of 32 in 2 rotations of 16  commanded by a Lieutenant
   Field Ablutions and Laundry Platoon of 32 in 2 rotations of 16  commanded by a Lieutenant
   Field Refrigeration and Secure storage Platoon of 32 in 2 rotations of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
   Field Biocontainment and Air conditioning Platoon of 32 in 2 rotations of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
Triage and SAR Company commanded by a Major
   1 Triage Platoon of 4 medical teams of 6 commanded by a Captain.
   1 Reserve Triage Platoon of 4 medical teams of 6 commanded by a Captain
   1 Paramedic Platoon of 32 in 2 rotations of 8 teams of 2 commanded by a Captain (teamed with Motorised ambulance platoons)
   1 Urban Search and Rescue Platoon of 32 in 2 rotations of 4 teams of 4 plus 1 USAR dog commanded by a Captain
    1 Mortuary Platoon of 32  in 2 rotations of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
Reserve Emergency Medicine Company commanded by a Major
   2 Surgical Platoons of 24 commanded by a Captain
   1 Special Infectious Care Platoon of 32 commanded by a Captain
   1 Mortuary Platoon of 32  in 2 rotations of 16 commanded by a Lieutenant
Military Specialist Advanced Medical Training School commanded by a Major
1 military emergency medicine training department
1 military psychological medicine training department
1 Nuclear Biological Chemical safety and treatment center
1 specialist rehabilitation training center

The Mobile Field Hospital is a cadre more than a full time unit.  It provides a bridge to the world of civilian medicine which operates both ways so that civilian medical specialists can learn more from military medicine and vice versa.


Rangers Battalion [ 550 est $60 million]
The Ranger battalion differs from all the others in that it is drawn from all the other corps. It is the senior operational force of the army and draws from Marines, Military Police, Pioneers, Motorised, and is the home of the artillery. It is the connection between NZSAS and the rest of the force. Some will step up to NZSAS, others will step down from NZSAS. It is the place for senior soldiers who can maintain their fitness and prefer operational duties to desk jobs. It's soldiers are able to be effective in very small numbers in a wide range of environments and circumstances, and with the intelligence able to appreciate the political nuances of any situation.

Why do we need this? There is a step between the military police and the SAS. The Rangers are for UN peace keeping situations where there is a serious risk of being shot at and having to shoot themselves but where the hostiles remain hidden, either in terrain as insurgents or within the local population as infiltrators. Rangers are tasked with finding the hostiles and capturing or killing them.

HQ and Development School [30 senior officers, instructors etc.]
Administration Unit [ 16 staff]
Artillery Company and School of 24 officers and instructors commanded by a Major
1 Artillery training platoon of four weapons
1 Static artillery battery of four weapons
1 Mobile artillery battery of four vehicles
1 Counter-battery reconnaissance platoon
1 Anti-Aircraft Platoon of 3 weapon batteries
Rangers Training Patrols commanded by a Captain
1 Mountain Training Patrol of 24 in 6 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Archipelago Training Patrol of 24 in 6 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Jungle Training Patrol of 24 in 6 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 K9 Patrol of 24 in 6 teams of 4+1 dog commanded by a Lieutenant
Rangers Combat Company commanded by a Captain
3 Infantry Platoons of 32 in 8 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Heavy weapons platoon of 32 in 8 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
Rangers Reserve Combat Company commanded by a Captain
3 Infantry Platoons of 32 in 8 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
1 Heavy weapons platoon of 32 in 8 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant
Rangers 3CI Team commanded by a Major
Pacific Field Humint unit of 32 commanded by a Captain
Field Humint unit of 32 commanded by a Lieutenant

The job of the rangers in a peacekeeping situation is to find the source of the trouble and close them down. They are capable of considerable violence but not as much as the SAS. Their main technique is to try and negotiate from a position of strength and if necessary demonstrate it. 

Field 3CI Company (120 est $25 million)

The Field 3CI Company is drawn from the GCSB, Military Intelligence and Army Signals. It's function is to assist operations against hostiles, and coordination with friendly and civilian agencies.

Why we need this? From cellphone fired IEDs to listening in on hostile communications the operational front has an increasing ICT dimension. The Field 3CI Company is a small but essential part of modern operations linked into the broader defence networks and those of friendly nations.

Field Networking Platoon of 3 teams of 8 commanded by a Captain
Electronic Warfare Platoon of 6 teams of 4 commanded by a Captain
Field Survey and Meteorology Unit of 6 teams of 4 commanded by a Captain
Field 3CI Engineering of 6 teams of 4 commanded by a Lieutenant


Mission Facilitation Scaffold (64 staff, est $5m p.a)
The MFS is a scaffold for the interaction of a set of civilian and military expertise which provide support to deployments in other countries. Each unit can be of variable size depending on the complexity of the mission. Staff of these units are armed with sidearms and trained for combat situations even though their main discipline is not military. The whole battalion is derived from home based units. However as insurgents can strike at any place or any time only those qualified for MFS are deployed outside New Zealand.

Why we need this? Because each battalion trains for a specific type of mission or operation but every deployment has the same needs even if they are met in different ways. The MFS is a persistent structure for coalescing multi-unit deployment teams which is itself developed and improved by a dedicated staff. This provides the means for deployment lessons to be fed back to the battalions.

MFS HQ and Development (64 officers and administrators)
Field Administration Unit
    Field accounting (HQ)
    Field human Resources (HQ)
    Field accommodation management (Pioneers)
    Field communications (3CI)
Base Management Unit
    Base security management (MP)
    Base services agency (MFH and Pioneers)
    Base traffic and logistics management (Pioneers)
NZ Arsenal Unit
    Equipment Management service
    Contracts Management agency
    Stores Management service
Field Command Support Unit
    Field geography and meteorology service (3CI)
    Field intelligence repository (3CI)
    Political intelligence agency (MP)
    Field Legal agency (HQ)
    Field Interpretation Service (HQ)
    Command Centre Facilities service (3CI) 

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