Number 10 in Science & Technology

A page of the Numeropedia - the Special Encyclopedia of Numbers

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1 m (meter) = 1010 Ångströms.

1 biot = 10 amps (amperes). (Units for electrical current measures).

Modulo 10 is used to check a 12-digit UPC (Universal Product Code for North America) barcode: the sum of 6 odd-placed (from the left) digits, multiplied by 3, added the sum of 5 even-placed (from the left) digits and the check digit (rightmost) must be divisible by 10. This code can catch all single digit errors, but cannot catch all transposition errors, such as …ab… to …ba…, when the difference between a and b is 5.

Credit cards and others identifying numbers, of any length (a1an–1an) used the IBM check digit scheme of modulo 10. The scheme used the permutation p = (0)(1,2,4,8,7,5)(3,6)(9), so it can catch single digit errors and adjacent-digit transposition errors, except that involve 0 and 9. The check digit an is added to the right end of the number, such that:

. If n is even, p(a1)+a2+…+p(an–1)+an = 0 modulo 10,

. If n is odd, a1+p(a2)+a3+…+p(an–1)+an = 0 modulo 10.

“Ten” radio codes are of the format “10-**”, where ** is 1- or 2-digit number from 1 to 99 and 10-200. Example: “10-4” is universally meant “OK”.

The numbers of automobile engine oil SAE viscosity: 20W-20 (-40, -50), 10W-30 (-40) and 5W-20 (-30).

The “number system” code of an EAN-13 barcode for the U.S. and Canada’s products: 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12 and 13.

The number used in calculating the decibels, as multiplying factor and base of the logarithm. Rule of thumb:Twice as much power or intensity of sound is measured by 3 decibels (or exactly 10×log2) decibels higher; or 10 times in intensity is 10 decibels higher.

DC-10, a popular 3-engine aircraft, built by MCDonnell Douglas, debuted in August 1971, retired from passenger service on 29 October 2006 for international flights and 08 January 2007 for domestic flights, by Northwest Airlines.

The number of digits in the ISBN (International Standard Book Number): nine digits (consisting of 3 parts of unfixed sizes, separated by hyphens or spaces: 1st part for language or country of origin, 2nd part for the publisher and the 3rd part for the book number) and one check digit (0-9 and X for number 10) to the right end. Sum of 10 products (n times the nth digit from the right of an ISBN, for n = 1 to 10) must be divisible by 11.

The check digit (1st) can be X, standing for 10. The code can catch all single digit errors and adjacent-digit transposition errors, (working only for 10-digit number).

The VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) of an automobile has 17 characters to encode information on: manufacturer, plant location, engine style, body style, model year (10th character) and restraint system, where the middle (9th) character of the number a1a9a17 is for the check digit:

a9 = 8a1+7a2+6a3+5a4+4a5+3a6+2a7+10a8+9a10

+8a11+7a12+6a13+5a14+4a15+3a16+2a17, (modulo 11), after transliterating all letters into numerical values.

The 10th digit of a 17-character VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) indicates the model year of an automobile (after 1980). The 7th character decides the year range [1980-2009] or [2010-2039].

 A = 1980 or 2010… L = 1990 or 2020… Y = 2000 or 2030… B = 1981 or 2011… M = 1991 or 2021… 1 = 2001 or 2031… C = 1982 or 2012… N = 1992 or 2022… 2 = 2002 or 2032… D = 1983 or 2013… P = 1993 or 2023… 3 = 2003 or 2033… E = 1984 or 2014… R = 1994 or 2024… 4 = 2004 or 2034… F = 1985 or 2015… S = 1995 or 2025… 5 = 2005 or 2035… G = 1986 or 2016… T= 1996 or 2026… 6 = 2006 or 2036… H = 1987 or 2017… V = 1997 or 2027… 7 = 2007 or 2037… J = 1988 or 2018… W = 1998 or 2028… 8 = 2008 or 2038… K = 1989 or 2019… X = 1999 or 2029… 9 = 2009 or 2039…