Trang chủ‎ > ‎USA‎ > ‎IELTS Exam Preparation‎ > ‎Grammar for IELTS‎ > ‎

Nouns

What Are Nouns?

You probably remember learning about nouns at some point, but you may be hard-pressed to explain what they are. Nouns are incredibly important in spoken and written language, but the good news is that they're also pretty easy to understand. Figuring out the basics of how nouns operate in sentences will help you learn lots of other more complex rules down the road.

Definition of Nouns

A noun is a part of speech, and parts of speech simply refer to types of words. You may be familiar with a lot of basic parts of speech, like nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Nouns identify people, places, things, and ideas. Nouns can be categorized as either common or proper. Common nouns name general people, places, things, and ideas, while proper nouns name specific people, places, things, and ideas. For example, examples of nouns naming people would be:

Common Noun Proper Noun
president Barack Obama
teacher Mrs. Sanders
brother Joe

In our first column, we have general, or common, nouns. In our second column, we have specific, or proper, nouns. Note that typically, the first letter in a common noun isn't capitalized unless that common noun is the first word in a sentence. The first letter in a proper noun is typically capitalized.

Nouns also identify places. Common nouns naming places include 'hometown,' 'country,' and 'airport.' Corresponding specific, proper nouns would include 'Cincinnati,' 'Argentina,' and 'Hartsfield International Airport.'

Nouns identifying things include 'space shuttle,' 'movie,' and 'cartoon.' Those are common nouns, and proper nouns that correspond with them to name particular things would include 'Challenger,' 'The Godfather,' and 'The Simpsons.' Nouns identifying ideas include 'joy,' 'boredom,' and 'liberty.' So, now that nouns may be a bit more familiar, you can no doubt guess that they are very, very common in sentences.

Nouns in Sentences

A key thing to remember about nouns is that every sentence needs to have one to be complete. Some sentences have pronouns instead of nouns. We'll get more into that in another lesson.

Nouns perform and often receive the actions being performed in sentences, and they play other roles in sentences, too. Without nouns, we'd end up with incomplete sentence fragments like, 'walks around' or 'stomped on.'

Nouns in these sentences would tell us who was doing what and where. For example, 'Bigfoot walks around his apartment.' and, 'Jim's ex-girlfriend stomped on his heart.' are complete sentences that are a lot more descriptive thanks to nouns (and a few other parts of speech).

There is an exception to the rule that every sentence needs a noun. Some sentences contain short commands, like 'Leave!' or 'Stop.' In each of these examples, the noun is understood without actually being included. The understood noun, or pronoun, here is 'You.' The speakers in those very short sentences really mean, 'You leave!' and 'You stop.'

Lesson Summary

Remember that nouns are parts of speech that name people, places, things, and ideas. They can be general, also known as common nouns, or they can be proper nouns that name particular people, places, things, or ideas. Every sentence must include a noun (or pronoun) to be complete, with the exception of short, commanding sentences in which the noun (or pronoun) is understood.

Lesson Outcome

This lesson will make it easier for you to understand how to:

  • Describe what a noun is
  • Distinguish between common nouns, proper nouns and pronouns
  • Understand the role of a noun in a sentence
  • Recognize exceptions to the rule that all sentences need nouns

Singular and Plural Nouns

Today, I picked up a few thing at the stores, and then I picked up my childs at school. Just a regular day in my lifes, like many other daies!

As the problems in that sentence demonstrate, it's important to pay attention to whether the nouns we use are singular or plural and to know how to make nouns plural the right way.

Most nouns are easily made plural, but as with a lot of things in the English language, there are a few nouns for which different rules apply.

Plural Nouns

You may know that a noun identifies a person, place, thing, or idea.

A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea, while a plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.

There are a few basic rules to remember when it comes to turning a singular noun into a plural noun.

1. Most singular nouns need an 's' at the end to become plural.

These are the easy ones. You can just add an 's' to alien, taco, or skateboard, for example, and you instantly have aliens, tacos, and skateboards.

There's a second rule for nouns that end with certain letters.

2. Singular nouns ending in 's', 'ss', 'sh', 'ch', 'x', or 'z' need an 'es' at the end to become plural.

So, if you have a secretive, alcoholic octopus drinking wine from a glass behind a bush, and you decide that one of those just isn't enough, you'd have two octopuses drinking from glasses behind bushes.

The same would be true for a crutch, a box, and a blintz, which would become crutches, boxes, and blintzes.

Note that some singular nouns ending in 's' or 'z' require that you double the 's' or 'z' before adding an 'es'. For example, a really bad day might involve you having not one pop quiz, but two pop quizzes.

Irregular Plural Nouns

And then, there are a lot of nouns with weird rules for becoming plural.

3. Some nouns are the same in both their singular and plural forms.

So I can have one deer or two deer - or one sheep or two sheep. Or I might be hooked on one T.V. series or two T.V. series.

4. Some nouns ending in 'f' require that you change the 'f' to a 'v' and then add an 'es' at the end to make them plural.

For example, you might have not just one elf sneaking into your house on Christmas night, but two elves.

The English language loves to have exceptions, though, so the houses in your neighborhood have roofs, not rooves, and your wacky old uncle has crazy beliefs, not believes.

5. Nouns that end in 'y' often require that you change the 'y' to an 'i', and then add an 'es' at the end to make them plural.

So while you may enjoy making silly faces at a stranger's baby, you may not be thrilled to find yourself surrounded by strangers' babies on a long flight.

English wouldn't be half as fun without lots of little exceptions, and there's one with this rule. Luckily there's a tip to help us out with this one.

With a noun that ends with 'y', if there's a vowel ('a, e, i, o, u') right before the 'y', then you just add an 's' at the end to make the noun plural.

For example, I'm not certain, but it seems like it would be a lot of fun to ride on an airplane surrounded by monkeys or toys.

This next one doesn't come up all that often, but it's a good one to remember. Most people don't get it right, so you'll be pretty impressive when you show that you know how it's done.

6. A hyphenated compound noun requires that you make the first, major noun plural.

For example, there are two runners-up in a beauty pageant, not runner-ups. There might be a meeting for editors-in-chief, not editor-in-chiefs. Many people might be quick to tell you that just one is plenty; they don't need multiple mothers-in-law.

Finally, there are some odds-and-ends irregular plurals. You no doubt know that childs don't go to the dentist when their tooths hurt; children go when their teeth hurt.

There are a number of these irregular plurals, including the singular nouns man and woman with the plurals men and women, and the singular nouns foot, goose, and mouse, with the plurals feet, geese, and mice. There's not a hard and fast rule for this handful of irregular plurals; just take note of them when you see them to become familiar with them.

7. Become familiar with the few irregular plurals that require changing the actual singular form of the noun to become plural.

Lesson Summary

A noun identifies a person, place, thing, or idea.

A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea, while a plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.

There are a few basic rules to remember when it comes to turning a singular noun into a plural noun.

  1. Most singular nouns need an 's' at the end to become plural.
  2. Singular nouns ending in 's', 'ss', 'sh', 'ch', 'x', or 'z' need an 'es' at the end to become plural.
  3. Some nouns are the same in both their singular and plural forms.
  4. Some nouns ending in 'f' require that you change the 'f' to a 'v' and then add an 'es' at the end to make them plural.
  5. Nouns that end in 'y' often require that you change the 'y' to an 'i' and then add an 'es' at the end to make them plural.
  6. A hyphenated compound noun requires that you make the first, major noun plural.
  7. Become familiar with the few irregular plurals that require changing the actual singular form of the noun to become plural.

Learning Outcomes

This lesson on nouns should clear up how to:

  • Define singular and plural nouns
  • Recognize that while many of the rules are the same for plural nouns, there are many exceptions
  • Understand what it takes to make a plural noun
  • Recognize irregular plural nouns and the rules that go with them

The Apostrophe

The apostrophe is that little mark that goes up at the top, in between and after letters in certain words. There are a few different situations where you'll have to use an apostrophe, like when you're forming a contraction or making a noun possessive. If you're like a lot of people, you may sort of know when to use an apostrophe, and you may sort of know where to put it, but you may also feel like you're kind of winging it a little. We'll save contractions and other uses of apostrophes for another lesson, but here, we'll cover the basics of how to make nouns possessive - and where to put the apostrophe - so that you'll never have to wing it again.

Singular Possessive Nouns

You may remember that a noun is a word that names a person, place, thing or idea. Examples of nouns would be 'teacher' and 'horse.' We use the possessive form of a noun when we want to show ownership by that noun. In other words, we use the possessive form of a noun to show that someone has something, like a brother's car or a teacher's briefcase.

We create the possessive form of nouns in a few different ways, depending on whether the noun is singular or plural and whether a plural noun ends in s. To make a singular noun possessive, add an apostrophe and an s.

So to demonstrate that my friend (which is a singular noun) has a surfboard, I'd need to make the word 'friend' possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s to wind up with 'friend's surfboard.' The possessive form of the singular noun 'horse' would be 'horse's,' as in 'horse's tail.'

This rule applies even if the singular noun that you want to make possessive already ends with an s. So, you would say that the kindergarten class's recital is next week. The same goes for singular nouns that end in z or x. You'd say, therefore, that Dr. Mendez's lecture was interesting, or that Ms. Delacroix's car is in the shop. You'll get an extra gold star when you get this one right, as it's one that a lot of people get wrong.

Note that you may sometimes have to show what's called joint possession, which occurs when two or more people own something together. For example, a husband and wife might jointly own a car, or two siblings might share a bedroom. To show joint possession, add an apostrophe and an s to the end of the last noun. So, you would refer to Jack and Juanita's car or Keisha and Jane's bedroom.

A word of caution with this: if you really mean to communicate that several people own their own separate things, then you would express that a bit differently. For example, if Tasha and Marc have each finished their own, separate tests, we would refer to Tasha's and Marc's tests. The fact that we've put an apostrophe and an s at the end of each of the nouns in this phrase signals to the reader that we have separate ownership here, not joint, shared ownership.

Plural Possessive Nouns

The rules for forming possessives with plural nouns are a bit different, but still pretty straightforward. Most, though not all, nouns require an s or es at the end to become plural. Plural means more than one. So, the plural of 'guitar' is 'guitars,' and the plural of 'glass' is 'glasses.'

To make a plural noun that ends in s possessive, add just an apostrophe - not an apostrophe and an s. We'll look at two example sentences with the nouns 'Smiths' and 'kids,' which are plural and which end in s. Making each of these plural nouns possessive requires simply adding an apostrophe at the end. So you would say that the Smiths' house was remodeled or that the kids' toys are in the driveway.

There are some irregular plural nouns that are plural, but don't end in s. Examples include men, women, children and deer. To make a plural noun that does not end in s possessive, add an apostrophe and an s. This works the same way as when you're making a singular noun possessive. So the possessive of 'men' is 'men's,' the possessive of 'women' is 'women's,' the possessive of 'children' is 'children's' and the possessive of 'deer' is 'deer's.'

An example sentence might state that the children's homework is done. Errors occur with irregular possessive plurals a lot, and you may have seen some in department store signs. We use possessives when we talk about the men's department or the women's department or the children's department, and these are the correct ways of forming these possessives. If you ever see a sign marked mens department or womens department, you can know that you've spotted an error. Because the words 'men' and 'women' are already plural, you would never need to add just an s to them. Rather, you would only add an apostrophe and an s at the end of these words in order to make them possessive - to show that this is the men's department, for example.

Avoid Confusing Plurals with Possessives

While errors with irregular plurals, like 'men' and 'women,' happen fairly frequently, writers sometimes mix up regular plurals with possessives, too. So you might see someone make a mistake like: I have two daughter's. In this sentence, the writer has used the possessive form of the noun 'daughter,' but it's a mistake to do so, as there's no ownership of anything in the sentence. We're not talking about the daughter's piano or the daughter's cow or anything like that. What we really want in this sentence is the plural of the word 'daughter,' because the writer has two of them. So, we simply need to make the word 'daughter' plural by adding an s at the end to form 'daughters.'

The mistake of making a noun possessive when it really should be plural happens a lot when people are talking about their last name. For example, someone working on their family holiday card might sign the card 'The Johnson's.' But again, there's no ownership here, so that's a mistake. Instead, the writer really wants to show that the Johnson family has sent the card, and so he or she should simply make the last name Johnson plural by adding an s at the end. The correct signature would be the plural form 'The Johnsons.'

Lesson Summary

Remember that we create the possessive form of nouns in a few different ways depending on whether the noun is singular or plural and whether a plural noun ends in s. To make a singular noun possessive, add an apostrophe and an s. This rule applies even if the singular noun that you want to make possessive already ends with an s. The same goes for singular nouns that end in z or x.

To show joint possession (that two or more people own something together), add an apostrophe and an s to the end of the last noun. To make a plural noun that ends in s possessive, add just an apostrophe - not an apostrophe and an s. To make a plural noun that does not end in s possessive, add an apostrophe and an s.

Before you start adding apostrophes and the letter s to words, stop and ask yourself whether you're trying to show ownership or you're trying to show that the noun you're using is plural. Getting into the habit of asking that question will help you avoid getting your possessives mixed up with your plurals.

Learning Outcomes

Once you've finished the video, you'll be able to:

  • Explain how to write a singular possessive noun
  • Demonstrate how to write a plural possessive noun
  • Recognize how to not confuse a plural noun with a possessive noun

Collective Nouns: Definition

You've probably been to a party, or a gathering, or some sort of shindig where you met and got along with a whole lot of people, and you really felt like part of the group.

But, have you ever been in a crowded place where, though you were technically a part of the group, you felt isolated, on your own, kind of singular?

Keep that alone-in-a-crowd, singular idea in mind as we think about the topic of this lesson: collective nouns. A collective noun is a noun that names a group of people or things. Examples of collective nouns are:

band

class

company

family

government

jury

organization

and

team

The most important thing to remember about collective nouns is that even though they name a bunch of people or things, grammatically speaking, they're like that singular person in a crowd.

Agreement With Verbs

The rule to keep in mind is that collective nouns are singular, so they must be paired with singular verbs. This can be a bit counter-intuitive because we know that collective nouns refer to groups of people and things. Remember, though, that grammatically speaking, they are singular. Let's take a look at some examples of subject-verb agreement involving collective nouns.

You wouldn't use a plural verb and say, My family are big. You would instead use a singular verb and say, My family is big. Similarly, you would say, The local government has a lot of great programs for children. In this sentence, the collective noun is government, and we've correctly used a singular verb, has.

If you ever find yourself getting a bit confused as to whether a certain verb is singular or not, try pairing it with a singular noun and then a plural noun to see which sounds right. For example, you could say, One girl has a book bag, but you would say, Two girls have book bags. The singular verb is the one that goes with a singular noun, so we've confirmed here that has, which goes with the singular subject one girl, is in fact a singular verb.

Here's another example: The company hires a lot of diverse individuals. Spot the collective noun in this sentence. It's company, and we've correctly paired it with the singular verb hires here.

Don't be thrown off by the fact that hires ends with an s. Verbs that end in s are often singular, even though plural nouns usually end in s. Again, you can do a quick test to see what sounds right. You would say, One woman hires people, but Two women hire people. The first sentence has a singular noun and singular verb, and the second has a plural noun and plural verb.

Note that there is an exception to the rule that says that we must pair collective nouns with singular verbs. When you refer to the members of a collective group as separate individuals, use a plural verb in that sentence. Here's an example: The team are putting on their helmets right now. In this case, we know that the team as a collective group doesn't have one big head and one big helmet to put on. By virtue of what's being talked about in this sentence, we're talking about the team members as separate individuals, so it makes sense here to use a plural verb with the collective noun team.

Collective Nouns as Antecedents

There's another situation in which it's important to remember that collective nouns are treated as grammatically singular. You may remember that a pronoun is a word that takes the place of or refers to a noun. An antecedent is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to. For example, if I were to say that The teacher gathered her books, the pronoun in that sentence would be her, and the antecedent to which it refers would be teacher.

Collective nouns, just like any other nouns, can be antecedents in sentences, and that means that they must be paired with pronouns. Here's the rule to keep in mind for this situation: Collective nouns are singular, so when they are used as antecedents, they must be paired with singular pronouns.

Remember that a collective noun like family, even though it refers to more than one person, is grammatically singular. If family is used as an antecedent in a sentence, that means that it must be paired with a singular pronoun. Here's an example: My family loves to take _____ yearly vacation. In this case, it might be tempting to say, My family loves to take their yearly vacation.

Using the pronoun their here would be wrong, though, because their is a plural pronoun, and when collective nouns act as antecedents, we'll need to match them with singular pronouns. Therefore, the correct version of this sentence is My family loves to take its yearly vacation.

Here's another example: The jury took its lunch break. Here, its is the correct pronoun to use to refer back to jury, because its is a singular pronoun. As a collective noun, the antecedent jury needs a singular pronoun matched up with it.

Just like our earlier discussion about pairing collective nouns with verbs, there's an exception to the rule about pairing collective nouns as antecedents with singular pronouns. When you use a collective noun antecedent to refer to the members of a group as separate individuals, use a plural pronoun in that sentence. Note that in our earlier example sentence, The team are putting on their helmets right now, we correctly used a plural pronoun, their, to refer back to the collective noun team.

Lesson Summary

A collective noun is a noun that names a group of people or things. Examples of collective nouns are government and team.

You have to think about subject-verb agreement when you use collective nouns. Collective nouns are singular, so they must be paired with singular verbs. There is an exception to that rule. When you refer to the members of a collective group as separate individuals, use a plural verb in that sentence.

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of or refers to a noun. An antecedent is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to. Collective nouns, just like any other nouns, can be antecedents in sentences, and that means that they must be paired with pronouns. Collective nouns are singular, so when they are used as antecedents, they must be paired with singular pronouns. There's one more exception to remember. When you use a collective noun antecedent to refer to the members of a group as separate individuals, use a plural pronoun in that sentence.

Learning Outcomes

After you've finished with this lesson, you'll be able to:

  • Define collective noun, pronoun and antecedent
  • Explain the proper rules for subject-verb agreement when using collective nouns
  • Identify when exceptions to the general rules apply when using collective nouns
====================================================================================

71476_732258896798981_1587615059_n

[Infographic provided by Grammar.net]

1.) A Stand
This versatile collective noun is used in botany, forestry and agriculture. It denotes a group, grove or small forest of trees that belong to the same species. A forester might say, “The stand of saplings is growing quickly due to the abundant rain.”

2.) A Clump
Often applied to plants, this botanical term denotes a cluster of tightly grouped stalks, plants or trees. It can be applied to reeds, moss, seaweed and a variety of plants. Here’s an example: “A clump of fragrant lavender plants is a joy to behold.”

3.) A Brood
Used in zoology and farming, this collective noun describes a group of hatchlings or young animals born around the same time. For example, “Helena, the hen, raised a large brood of chicks this spring. Farmer John is expecting a second brood this summer.”

4.) A Bevy
This is another bird-related term, but it’s also applied to a group of females or an overabundance of something. An observer might say, “With his charm and good looks, a bevy of beautiful girls is always chasing Gregory.”

5.) A Host
Famously used in William Wordsworth’s poem about daffodils, this versatile collective noun can be applied to a group of visitors, a flock of birds or any other large gathering. Here’s an example: “A host of colorful posies is swaying in the breeze.”

6.) A Swarm
The word swarm implies a pesky bout of flying insects or other pests. It’s also a verb that denotes a cloud of flying bugs. When referring to insects, one might say, “A swarm of gnats is enveloping the volleyball team.”

7.) A Pride
Similar to a flock, a pride is a collective noun used to describe a group of lions or impressive birds, such as ostriches or peacocks. Here’s an example: “A pride of lions is relaxing in the shade of an acacia tree.”

8.) A Bed
This marine term is used to describe the habitat where a colony of mollusks thrives. It is often applied to clams, mussels, oysters and similar bivalves. For example, a marine fisherman might say, “According to the map, a bed of mussels is located in the shallows offshore.”

9.) A School
A school isn’t only a place of learning. It’s also a term applied to a large group of social fish. Here’s an example: “A school of yellow tang fish is crossing the bay, and hordes of snorkeling tourists are rushing into the water.”

10.) A Band
This collective noun is exceptionally versatile. It is used to describe a tribe, a set of people with common interests, a group of musicians or a flock of animals. For example, “Robin Hood traveled through Sherwood Forest with his band of merry men.”

These collective nouns are just a few of the odd English words that are used to describe groups of people, animals or plants. If there is a particular collective noun you like or one you find confusing, share it in the comments area.

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

http://www.englishclub.com/ref/Nouns_that_Are_Countable_and_Uncountable/index.htm

ABSTRACT NOUNS

78765969

images

http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/nouns/Abstract-Nouns.html

http://www.esltower.com/GRAMMARQUIZ/GRAMMAR/abstractnouns/abstractnouns.htm

http://www.softschools.com/quizzes/language_arts/abstract_nouns/quiz1963.html


Countable and Uncountable Nouns


178123_355881717834600_220258238_o

































1513663_901981173160085_9019262619591287830_n
collective-nouns1.jpg

251981_397779520258243_1654758670_n



















One fish => a school of fish
one hippopotamus => a bloat of hippopotamus
one bee => a swarm of bees
one lion => a pride of lions
one chicken => a brood of chickens
one goose => a gaggle of geese
one elephant => a herd of elephants




NATIONALITY ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS

Trang con (2): Apostrophe S Plurals
Comments