An Exploration in the Evolution of Fanzines

By Janine Warren  

Research Project submitted to  De Montfort University  for Laboratory Module CREW5002..  April 2008  


Research Questions

 Before cyberspace there was a piece of paper, a tube of glue, a photocopier and the postal service.  As a means of expression, the fanzine(1) has always attracted the disaffected, provided a haven for alternative views and a means of forging networks between like-minded people away from mainstream culture and the mass media.

In an age of digital media which has seen many fanzines trans-mutated into personal web pages, blogs and ezines, what impact has the internet and social networking had on the aesthetics, community and politics of fanzine publishing and the alternative culture they are embedded within?  Can a printed fanzine still be relevant for both readers and writers in a digital age or is it merely a pastiche?  Is it possible for the unlimited access of the internet to provide a haven to an underground culture that has long viewed accessibility and popularity with suspicion?  My aim is to explore what  has been lost and gained from the evolution of print to digital and the inter -relationship these mediums can share within the self-publishing community.

To help answer these questions, I wrote, published and distributed my own fanzine, The Woman’s Compendium of Notoriety(2)  and in a bid to form networks with other writers and create an awareness of the zine, I created a webpage, on the social networking site MySpace.  I also interviewed a selection of fanzines and ezines writers to gather their experiences and opinions and drew upon my reading on the subject.

The main aim of the research is to find answers to my own personal needs as a writer, curious about the relationship between print and new media particularly within alternative culture.  The underground has long been a breeding ground for attitudes and ideas which have later been absorbed by the mainstream. with this in mind I hope my research will also be of wider interest.   

 

Literature Review

Despite the long history of self-publishing, it is only relatively recently that the subject has undergone scrutiny from academics and mainstream media.  Research into the area really only began when fanzine culture hit a peak in the mid nineties.
 
The number of commercially published pieces is relatively small, perhaps highlighting the division between self-publishing and the mainstream.   There is however, a growing amount of literature on the internet stemming from both academics and fanzine writers.  

Mike Gunderloy is a key figure in the history of underground publishing.  Veteran writer, reader and researcher into fanzines and former publisher of Fact Sheet Five(3).  His book, How To Publish A Fanzine, published in 1988 serves as a guide to writing, designing and distributing a print fanzine.  Written pre digital revolution, the book is somewhat dated in certain areas such as the chapter on promotion and distribution.  However the book, provides detailed information on the variety of zine genres and the construction of print zines and motives behind self-publication and DIY ethics. This book serves as a foundation stone on Fanzine research and was a useful reference in the production of my own fanzine.  In 1992 Gunderloy along with co-founder of Fact Sheet Five, Carl Goldberg Janice, published The World of Zines, which was basically the best of the Fact Sheet Five zine in book form.  It is a unique document of the time serving as an introduction to some of the most popular print zines of the period and providing an insight into how fanzines writers formed an alternative network pre -internet.  It also defines some of the key aspects of underground literature, that I focus upon in my research, such as ‘to explore an area of the word which the mainstream media doesn’t adequately cover, to cause trouble and bring about social change.’ (Gunderloy and Goldberg 1992: 1)
 
Published in 1997, Stephen Duncombe’s Notes From Underground: Zines and the politics of alternative culture, is notably the first major study from an academic into the, history, politics and values of fanzine writing and its relationship to alternative culture.  It is an invaluable piece of literature in this field, tracing the rise of self-publishing from the political pamphlets of the 17th, through to the avant-garde, the sc-fi culture of the 30s, the 60s counter culture, punk, riot grrrl and to its peak at the end of the 90s.  He explores the subject in depth, highlighting the roll of alternative media within popular culture and discussing its values and ethics, raising the larger question of, whether it is possible to rebel culturally within a consumer society? 

Written on the cusp of the internet revolution, there is little discussion in his work on what effect new media may have on self-publishing and the politics of alternative culture. Although he concludes that ‘Zines on the internet are the likely successor to paper’ (Duncombe 1997:193) and adds in his endnotes that, ‘an internet based zine network may make communication too easy and the deviant socialization process of the underground might be lost.’ (ibid: 230)   In the ten years since the publication of Notes from Underground, self -publishing via the internet has come into fruition.  My research is really to follow on from Duncombe in discovering the effect that had on the alternative culture of self-publishing and the positive and negatives of counter cultural transmutation.

Phil Stoneman’s dissertation, Fanzines: Their Production, Culture and Future, uses Gunderloy’s How To Publsih A Fanzine as his main reference.  He focuses predominantly on British music zines, touching on history, motivation and current practises in a bid to understanding, ‘how and why zines are published.’ (Stoneman 2001: 1)   Stomenam’s final chapter ‘From Zine to E-zine’ is a look at how fanzine writers are beginning to utilize the internet, suggesting that that its greatest possibility, ‘is that small-scale publishers can truly view themselves as members of a community that is not defined by location.’ (ibid: Chapter 6)  His research marks the beginning of electronic media being discussed in relation to underground publishing.

In the same year Fredrick Wright published his dissertation, From Zines to Ezines: Electronic Publishing and the Literary Underground.  Wright focuses on the literary underground’s use of new media as a gauge to reveal how ‘electronic publishing technologies may affect literature in the future.’ (Wright, 2001:6)  His research is based on the study of hundreds of print and ezines and interviews with people involved in underground publishing, concluding that it is a very complex area of study, with many contradictions.

What perhaps differentiates my research from the above academic papers is method. My research is based to a large extent on my own creative practice as a writer and producer of a fanzine.

Amy Spencer’s, book, DIY: The Rise of Lo-Fi Culture, published in 2005, is a commercial publication that focuses on all aspects of DIY culture, not only self publishing.  It provides many interesting interviews with people involved in the alternative scene including writers of both fanzines and ezines which were useful to my research. Her main point being, ‘DIY culture has always promoted the maxims of anti-elitism and, with new technology, they are truer than ever.’ (Spencer 2005: 368)  A valid point that leaves space for a more in depth analysis as to whether the traditional ethics of underground culture can exist with the openness of the internet.

Edward Picot ‘s essay, From Zine to Screen: Literary small magazines and the digital revolution (2006) provides examples of Small literary magazines that are turning to digital publishing.  Picot also compares the British and American self-publishing scenes and the varying ways they have embraced new media.  His insight to the benefits and downfalls of moving from print to screen are very beneficial to my research.

The Zine Book online resource links to numerous relevant essays and interviews in connection with my research.  It provides advice on all manner of issues in connection with both print and electronic publishing including legal issues and copyrights, distribution, online tips and tricks as well as hosting a zine archive, discussion board and connection to distros and zine library’s.  I found the following essays from the site written predominantly by zine writers supplied me with fascinating insight to the ongoing debates within zine culture.

Boulware, J. (1996) The DDIY Spirit. (WWW) (Accessed 05/03/08)

 

Smith, L. (1997). What Color is your Alternative? (WWW) (Accessed 05/03/08)


Futrelle, D. (1997). Been There Seen That. (WWW) (Accessed 05/03/08)

Marr, J. (1999). Zines Are Dead. (WWW) (Accessed 05/03/08)

Berg, S,W. (2004).  Zine Saver. (WWW)  (Accessed 05/03/08)

Florez, R. (2007). Why Zines Won’t Die. (WWW) (Accessed 05/03/08)

Yorke, C. Zines Are Dead: The Six Deadly Zines The Killed Zinery. (WWW) (Accessed 05/03/08) 

 

 

Luddites, Fetishists and Digital Expression 

So why bother going to all the time and expense of writing, producing and printing a fanzine when anyone with access to a computer is in a position to self publish these days?  Just sign up to blogger.com and in a few easy steps you can be airing your words to the world.  Or similarly MySpace, the social networking site, with a ready built network of people all waiting to be added to your list of friends.   Are fanzine writers that continue to publish using the medium of paper simply luddites, suffering from a paper fetish and clouded by a haze of nostalgia?

 

One of the writers I interviewed for my research certainly thought that might be the case.  Anne Marie Payne began her fanzine AMP , out of frustration with women’s media in the UK, ‘Women’s media was so lame here at the time, I was reading a lot of America fanzines like Roller Derby, which were a huge inspiration to me, it made me think I could do something similar.’ (2008) AMP began as a paper zine just over ten years ago and had an online presence by the end of 1998.

I was always really excited by the internet.  Initially it was just the magazine online, but then I began keeping a journal, which you didn’t get with the print zine, it was quite personal, I think you could get away with that a lot more then than now.  Soon the website began to take over from the magazine, I was also using the site as a repository for my freelance writing, it gave me a voice in cyberspace and it became a little bit of a tool, serving me well as a profile.  As the internet changed and it wasn’t quite so safe to post your private life in public I had to take the journal down and then I started blogging in that newsy way, you see now. The blog is really the main focus of AMP now. (ibid)  


Payne is an ardent blogger and her move online has been a huge success in the development of her career as a writer, but I wondered if she thought anything had been lost in the transfer?  
 

Overall the switch to the web has been good but I do miss that feeling of a really secret little world that you have  that nobody else knows about, that you have reached through some distro(4)  in Chicago.  I think because the internet has made the notion of subculture more accessible it has slightly devalued it.  I also think people interact differently with text on the screen they scan and give less time to it.  I think people give the printed word a different kind of reading, they pay it more attention, but the downside is you reach less people.  I can see why people do reject the internet and stick to print as it is so pure.  But when I was really involved in the fanzine scene it was the only way to get that information.  Sometimes I feel like there is this deliberate luddite tendency, to celebrate paper and ink like some people will only buy vinyl. It’s very naïve. (ibid)


A few days after our interview, I read the following AMP blog post,

So Janine interviewed me about zines and shit and I waxed lyrical about how rubbish it is to do a fanzine and be all nostalgic for the 90s in that way now that the internet has rendered everyone into a zinester and now, in typical about-turn fashion, I have, after a morning spent perusing Pagan Kennedy's 'Zine - how I spent six years in the underground and finally found myself - I think', decided that doing a 90s-style personal zine all photocopied black and white on paper would be THE MOST AWESOMEST THING EVER, so watch this space for ordering details. (Payne: 24.03/08)


Our conversation had obviously struck a chord.  But what of those nostalgic luddites, with a fetish for paper?  I interviewed Katie Haegele a fanzine writer who runs an American distro called The La La Theory.  I wondered why she hadn’t embraced the blog?

I once tried to keep a blog as a way to discipline me to write on a certain topic and it didn't really work. I couldn't enjoy it because for some reason I had a hard time knowing who the audience was--it felt like writing in a diary, only not private.  It also felt open-ended in a way I didn't like; I prefer the self-contained feeling of a zine, the sense of a project completed. (2008)


The platform a writer favours to air their work really comes down to personal preference and goes far beyond debates of nostalgia, paper fetishes, printing costs, convenience and the potential to reach a larger audience.  It is in part connected with content and the writers relationship with the reader.  Payne’s use of the internet has brought her a wider audience but she has also had to rethink her approach to content, toning down her personal edge and perhaps in turn losing that personal connection that print zines bring between author and reader.  It also goes deeper than that to the very core of a writers need to express and be inspired. When I had asked Haegele why she favoured print zines she had simply replied, ‘Because I can write the way I want to.’ (ibid)



The Woman’s Compendium of Notoriety:  Getting Down And Dirty In The Digital Age

Part of my research entailed writing and producing my own fanzine, The Woman’s Compendium of Notoriety.  I most certainly belong to the community of nostalgic luddites.  The idea of blogging fills me with dread, for some reason it gives me the feeling of turning up to watch a show only to be pushed onto a stage in front of millions and told to perform.  I feel that the format of fanzine puts you in touch with your reader on a more intimate level.  There is also something about the professional slickness of blogs and ezines that I’m not really digging. 
 

As Natalie Goldberg wrote in her book, Writing Down The Bones, ‘Writing is physical and it is affected by the equipment you use.’ (Goldberg, 2006:13)  I enjoy getting my hands dirty, favouring the Punk aesthetics of cut and paste, typing up stories from my notebooks and ripping up bits of old magazines and books I have found in charity shops to form collages, pondering over what should go where and twisting newspaper cuttings into new narratives.  There is also something about the physical act of putting together a cut and paste zine that I relish.  I tend to keep computers out of the equation, opting to hammer away to the clattering rhythms of an old typewriter.  It is like a mini battle, woman against machine with its constant tape malfunctions, by the time I have finished -which could take several days, it is like I’ve been in a boxing ring with the thing, my shoulders are aching, my hands are covered in glue and ink and you can no longer see the floor for shredded paper.  Then comes the moment of glory at the helm of the photocopier, feeding your pages in and watching as the black and white Xerox pages flow out. 
 

My experimentations with zines in the past have really only been for myself and friends.  The main aim in the production of this fanzine however was to discover if zines are still relevant in the current digital climate, to discover if people still made them and if so why does anyone read them?  I thought by constructing a MySpace page for the zine, I would be able to connect with a wider community of like-minded readers and writers.  It was also to help me as a writer realise the similarities, if any, the mediums of print and digital share and what they both can offer.  But this in turn lead me to begin thinking about the larger ideals of alternative culture and what might be missing in its relationship with the brave new world of digital media.
 

The difficult part of constructing any fanzine is deciding on a subject and the type of zine you want to create.  Gunderloy in his book, How to Publish A Fanzine, notes that the two important things to bear in mind are, ‘tap your experience’ and ‘be specialized.’ (1988: 15)  With this in mind I opted for what he terms a ‘penzine’ (ibid:8), which Gunderloy describes as, ‘often functioning as a letter substitute.  Lacking the formal characteristics of a magazine, it becomes more of a personal record of the writers life and thoughts.’(ibid: 8) 
 

I decided upon the title first, it was to be called, The Woman’s Compendium of Notoriety, I wanted the zine to from part of a series, which would follow the theme of notorious women, particularly women in history that had challenged the preconceptions of femininity.  I naturally seem to gravitate towards zines with a feminist slant, perhaps because I first discovered fanzines as a teenager in the early nineties, involved in the Riot Grrrl movement (5).  The title was also part homage to Compendium Books, the independent bookseller the London Punk scene of the 70s had favoured as an outlet for their own fanzine creations. 

 
     In the traditions of punk fanzines, my aim was to make it graphically striking, building collages from both text and found imagery, to create a subversive subtext.  The first issue Heroines and Villainesses, opens with a roll call of dishonourable women and includes parts of my own fiction writing, tips on shoplifting, newspaper cuttings on female criminals, a cartoon based on Jean –Luc Godard’s theory, that all you need to make a film, is a girl and a gun and an account of the actions of the Bader Meinhof Gang.    After completing the zine and taking full of advantage of the office photocopier, I was left with 50 copies that I some how had to put into circulation.   

Add To Friends - Distribution and Networking 

I opted to circulate the zine in two ways.  One, a very traditional method involved abandoning copies around local independent records stores, music venues, coffee shops, arthouse cinemas and vintage clothing stores, anywhere I thought like-minded souls might frequent.  Also, in a bid to offer people an alternative from the trashy mind numbing free papers that circulate London each evening, I took to abandoning copies on tubes and buses.  The second method was to sign up to MySpace in the hope I would befriend people interested in reading my fanzine.   

 

I favoured MySpace, because it allows for creativity in the design of the pages, unlike Facebook.  This meant I could keep the look of the webpage, to some extent in keeping with that of the fanzine.  MySpace also provides a URL address, which means non-members of the site, may view the page and can be easily found by typing the title into a search engine.  I also registered an email address for the zine, both of which were printed on the back, to provide readers with a means of feeding back to me; this was vital in monitoring the progress of my research.
 

My two means of distribution brought about more issues to contemplate.  The first involves wandering into shops, going to gigs and engaging with people in the real world, the other entails hours of sitting in front of a computer screen clicking add friend to anyone you happen to come across who looks vaguely interesting in the virtual world.  Both are a game of chance and both had their benefits and nuisances. 

    Cruising MySpace certainly lead me down some interesting and exciting paths, it provided almost instant connection with other writers of fanzines.  One of the first writers I came across was the London based, Dan Taylor who writes a print zine titled John Marr (6), and whom I interviewed for this research.  It also took me to America, where I found a thriving Zine scene and one I could be in instantaneous communication with, arranging trades.  Exchanging publications with other writers is a tradition in fanzine culture, the very idea of,

Profiting from a zine is anathema to the underground bringing with it charges of sell out.  What zines are expected to provide is an out let for unfetted expression and a connection to a larger underground world of publishers doing the same. (Duncombe 1997:14)

Within a matter of days, I was posting zines to American and around the UK and within weeks one American distro had requested an armful of my fanzine to take along and sell at the New Jersey Zine Festival.  I was also finding my inbox filling with requests for copies from people who had read a review on a MySpace page for the fanzine; You Can’t Say No To Hope these where exciting times!  

 

But what about all that leg work, what had that led to?  Well that too had taken me to interesting places, I handed one to a young lady at a photo exhibition one night, whom it turned out worked at The Guardian, she’d asked for a handful to share around the office and leave in the reception (7).  I had received several emails from complete strangers who had found abandoned copies in Rough Trade Records and who felt they should let me know how much they had enjoyed it.   I had been invited to the London Zine Symposium and a young man who runs a nightclub night called Shore Leave had asked if I could print up more copies that he could hand out to people at the club.  In no time at all I was loitering around the office Photocopier, printing up another batch.  


Welcome to the Virtual Starbucks: Is something rotten in the Underground?

There is a certain excitement to abandoning copies of your work in local record shops or on a number 73 bus but there is no guarantee that anyone will read the thing and even if they do, you may never know.  Introducing MySpace into the equation had certainly taken away that element of wonder.  It had rapidly introduced me to a world-wide virtual network of zinesters, breaking through the geographical constraints of the traditional means of distribution.  It had also provided a means for my local community to feed back to me.  It certainly seems to offer the connection and sense of community that are so important to the ‘dissent and creativity’ (ibid: 48) of the fanzine community, in a nice neat package.  As Dan Taylor suggests, ‘I wouldn't dismiss it. You come in contact with a lot of other 'zinesters' and even the odd distributor, contacts you wouldn't otherwise make, especially with other people across the world.’ (2008)

 

But there is one thing that has struck me regarding fanzine writers use of MySpace, and that is the fundamental reason for the publication of any fanzines is to provide an alternative to the mainstream media and whose history is one in rebellion against it, something which can be traced back to their foundations in the 17th pamphlets of the English Civil war.   As Gunderloy claims in his introduction to the book, The World of Zines, ‘there is an overall purpose: people are building networks independent of big business, big government and big media.’ (1992: 2)  Surely opting to communicate on a Social Networking site that is owned by the world’s largest media conglomerate, News Corporation, chaired by the infamous Media mogul Rupert Murdoch, is fundamentally wrong?  Does this not make Myspace the virtual equivalent of meeting up in Starbucks?  Is something rotten in the underground?  I breached this topic in my interview with Katie Haegele, who believes the benefits are too rich to be ignored,

I know plenty of kids who are at least 10 years younger than I am who do zines and connect with other zinesters online--via myspace, for example--and they are very savvy when it comes to seeing through big-media hype. They know what's fake and what isn't and can tell when clever marketing schemes are designed to look like their own grassroots youth culture. They can filter that stuff out, and they pick and choose the things from the larger culture and
underground cultures that they like.  I also am aware that activists use the internet, especially social networking sites, to spread information quickly and organize in ways they couldn't before. Also! I meet like-minded people who are interested in my work and whose work interests me from all over the world because of the internet, and this means a great deal to me. That seems global to me in a way that could be truly human and radical instead of homogenizing and demoralizing. (2008)


However I have seen conflicting evidence on this.  A couple of the fanzine writers I met through MySpace had said they weren’t entirely comfortable being part of its community but until they learnt how to build a website of their own they felt they had no choice.  ‘It was how the majority of fanzine writers communicated these days’. (Amber:2008)
  
As Stephen Duncombe points out in an essay he had just completed for a forthcoming New York zine exhibition and which he very kindly emailed me towards the end of my research tilted, Do Zines Still Matter?  ‘The world of zines wasn’t just about self-publishing and individual expression, it was a culture; a culture with its own set of norms and values, expectations and restrictions, insiders and outsiders.’ (2008)


So Who Cares About Values When You’ve Got Sixty New Friends You Are Never Going To Meet?


There is little doubt that new media has revitalised fanzine culture, anyone with access to the internet can write a blog, ‘while zines made the promise of democratizing the media, the internet has actually delivered it.’ (ibid)

But in many ways social networking and blogging sites have cleverly just soaked up the ideas and values of the fanzine community, digitalised them and handed it back as a nice neat package complete with pop up adverts and closely monitored by trend setters.  They know it all, age, gender, where you live, what music you listen to, the books you read, how you are feeling that day.  Sites like MySpace and Facebook are a marketer’s wet dream and in many ways go against the ideals an underground culture should hold precious.  It is impossible to underestimate the benefits, but has it not eroded some of our values, our authenticity?  And does anyone really care when they have, just met sixty new virtual friends?  I posed the question to fanzine writer Dan Taylor,

I think the internet has found itself connecting more people to the underground culture than pushed away. But the underground culture was always connected to action and activism, and the internet encourages a more passive spectator-orientated underground where much is said (or typed) but little is done. (2008)

 

Sometimes I think that what is really at the root of all this is that our current cultural climate lacks a great political or youth movement/rallying point, with a organic connection to the fanzine, like Punk of the 1970s or Riot Grrl in the 1990s, ‘in fanzines, the leap of faith necessary within any pop movement was combined with a political critique.’  (Savage 1991: 281)  Our society is now so disparate, but this isn’t necessary a bad thing, these rallying points could also be considered limiting in that they involve you in one movement to the exclusion of all others.  Are you a mod or a rocker?  Nowadays you can be both and the internet has only  aided that.  It is open to all, no special dress code or rules to adhere too.  But what we do have is millions of individual voices with no clear ideals.  The following quote from Stephen Duncombe struck me as the very thing we need to hold onto regardless of the developments in the mediums we use to communicate and express, ‘zines are a testimony that regular people think: about themselves, about their experiences, about politics and about their role as creators and consumers of culture’ (1997: 24)

The dawn of new media has broken down global boundaries and provided us with new freedoms in communication, enabling us to forge new friendships and express using new platforms, but globalization also means we have to revaluate what we cherish as writers and creators, working as an alternative to the mainstream. 

Fanzine culture has quite possibly lost its purity.  The very nature of a global network is in part what has lead to the devaluation of our subculture, with many of the ideals of alternative culture being gobbled up by the mainstream, turned around, only to be used as an affirmation of the very thing it was opposed too
I think in time people will begin to realize the value of their virtual identity and what they are parting with when they agree to the terms and conditions of social networking sites.  I think we also have to consider the restrictions on our self-expression when we sign up to sites such as these, whether it is reassessing the language we use to suit the nature of a blog or agreeing not to publish lurid images on MySpace, these censorships imposed by social networking sites are there to protect us but could they also be restricting our expression?  For the time being I think we are all still blinded by the allure and the ease. 

 

I have already started work on Issue 2 of The Woman’s Compendium of Notoriety, though my research has left me in some quandary as to whether I will continue to network using MySpace or seek out alternative means.  Through this research I have discovered plenty of virtual spaces fanzine writers are using to communicate away from the main social networking sites, such as Photocopy Heart.

My research has also enabled me to realize what it is I love about the fanzine in all its monotone glory.  It may be a crude in composition compared to the technicolor paradise of the internet, but I for one am not ready to trade my typewriter in for a lesson in HTML or swap its tactility and physical matter for the virtual.  All that paper and glue is a key to my expression that I haven’t yet, been able to match in any electronic medium.   I think there is some argument however that working in the medium of paper is slowly becoming a pastiche, and the following extract from my interview with Katie Haegale really sums that up to me. 
 

 

I don't know what direction digital versus analog communication will take in the future. I do have a great quote that I can share with you from a recent interview I did with, Katherine Hayles, a professor at UCLA who edited the book Electronic Literature: New

Horizons for the Literary.  I spoke to her for an article on digital literature. She told me that as digital becomes the default medium printed matter will become art and fetish objects. A light bulb went off for me when she said this because I have been seeing evidence of this all over--print zines, artist's books, the revival of letterpress printing, etc. Things are changing and will continue to, but change can mean surprising things.

References

Amber. (2008) [Discussion on the politics of MySpace] (personal correspondence 10/04/08)


Berg, S,W. (2004)  Zine Saver. (WWW)  Available from:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42524-2004Aug5.html (Accessed 05/03/08)

Boulware, J. (1996) The DDIY Spirit. (WWW) Available from:
http://www.zinebook.com/resource/ddiy.html

Duncombe. S. (1997) Notes from underground: Zines and the politics of alternative culture. London: Verso

Duncome, S. (2008) Do Zines Still Matter? [Attached to E-maill]. Message to J.Warren (janine.warren@learner.dmu.ac.uk). Sent 12/04/08 at 7.52pm from (Stephen.Duncombe@nyu.edu)  (in press)

Florez, R. (2007) Why Zines Won’t Die. (WWW) Available from: http://www.goodmagazine.com/section/Stimuli/rita_flrez_on_why_zines_wont_die (Accessed 05/03/08)

Futrelle, D. (1997)  Been There Seen That. (WWW) Available from:
http://www.salon.com/june97/media/media2970609.html?source=zinebook (Accessed 05/03/08)

Goldberg, N. (2006) Writing Done The Bones. London: Shambhala.

Gunderloy, M. (1988)  How To Publish A Fanzine. Washington: Loompanics Unlimited.  Available online at: http://www.zinebook.com/resource/gunder.html  (Accessed 20/02/08)

Gunderloy, M. and Janice, C.G. (1992) The World of Zines. New York. Penguin

Haegele, K. (2008) [Interview on the development of fanzines] (Conducted: 02/04.08)

Marr, J. (1999)  Zines Are Dead. (WWW) Available from:
http://www.zinebook.com/resource/zines-are-dead.html (Accessed 05/03/08)

Payne, A.M. (2008) [Interview on the development of fanzines] (Conducted: 22/03/8)

Payne. A.M (2008) Live Review: My Tea Party (24/03/08) Available from:
http://www.ampnet.co.uk/weblog/ (Accessed 24/03/08)

Picot, E. (2006) From Zine to Screen: Literary small magazines and the digital revolution. (WWW) Available from: http://hyperex.co.uk/reviewezines.php (Accessed 20/03/08)

Savage, J. (1991) England’s Dreaming: Sex Pistols and Punk Rock. London: Faber and Faber.

Smith, L. (1997) What Color is your Alternative? (WWW) Available from: www.salonmagazine.com/media/mediacircus.html
(Accessed 05/03/08)

Spencer. A, (2005) DIY: The Rise of lo-fi Culture.. London: Marion Boyars.

Stoneman, P. (2001) Fanzines: Their Production, Culture and Future.  (WWW) Available from http://www.lundwood.u-net.com/fandissy/fdtitle.html Ph.D. thesis,
University of Stirling. (Accessed 21/02/08)

Taylor, D. (2008) [Interview on the development of fanzines] (Conducted: 10/04/08)

Wright, F. (2001) From Zines to Ezines: Electronic Publishing and the Literary Underground. (WWW) Available from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=From+fanzine+to+electronic+Publishing+and+the+Literary+Underground Ph.D thesis, Kent State University. (Accessed 10/03/08)

Yorke, C. Zines Are Dead: The Six Deadly Zines The Killed Zinery. (WWW) Available from: http://www.brokenpencil.com/features/feature.php?featureid=46
(Accessed 05/03/08)


Appendix 1

Warren, J.  (2008) The Woman’s Compendium Of Notoriety. Copy posted to Professor Sue Thomas, De Montfort University.  17/04/08)

 

         Also Available from www.myspace.com/notoriousfemme & notoriousfemme@googlemail.com


Bibliography 

Berg, S,W. (2004)  Zine Saver. (WWW)  Available from:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42524-2004Aug5.html (Accessed 05/03/08)

Boulware, J. (1996) The DDIY Spirit. (WWW) Available from:
http://www.zinebook.com/resource/ddiy.html

Duncombe. S. (1997) Notes from underground: Zines and the politics of alternative culture. London: Verso

Duncome, S. (2008) Do Zines Still Matter? [Document attached to E-mail]. Message to J.Warren (janine.warren@learner.dmu.ac.uk). Sent 12/04/08 at 7.52pm from (Stephen.Duncombe@nyu.edu)  (in press)

Farrelly, L. (2001). Zines, London. Booth-Clibborn Editions.

Florez, R. (2007) Why Zines Won’t Die. (WWW) Available from: http://www.goodmagazine.com/section/Stimuli/rita_flrez_on_why_zines_wont_die (Accessed 05/03/08)

Futrelle, D. (1997)  Been There Seen That. (WWW) Available from:
http://www.salon.com/june97/media/media2970609.html?source=zinebook (Accessed 05/03/08)

Goldberg, N. (2006) Writing Done The Bones. London: Shambhala.

Gunderloy, M. (1988)  How To Publish A Fanzine. Washington: Loompanics Unlimited.  Available online at: http://www.zinebook.com/resource/gunder.html  (Accessed 20/02/08)

Gunderloy, M. and Janice, C.G. (1992) The World of Zines. New York. Penguin

Marr, J. (1999)  Zines Are Dead. (WWW) Available from:
http://www.zinebook.com/resource/zines-are-dead.html (Accessed 05/03/08)
 
Payne. A.M (2008) Live Review: My Tea Party & other blog posts Available from:
http://www.ampnet.co.uk/weblog/ (Accessed daily from 01/03/08 to cont-d)

Picot, E. (2006) From Zine to Screen: Literary small magazines and the digital revolution. (WWW) Available from: http://hyperex.co.uk/reviewezines.php (Accessed 20/03/08)

Savage, J. (1991) England’s Dreaming: Sex Pistols and Punk Rock. London: Faber and Faber.

Smith, L. (1997) What Color is your Alternative? (WWW) Available from: www.salonmagazine.com/media/mediacircus.html
(Accessed 05/03/08)

Spencer. A, (2005) DIY: The Rise of lo-fi Culture. London: Marion Boyars.

Stoneman, P. (2001) Fanzines: Their Production, Culture and Future.  (WWW) Available from http://www.lundwood.u-net.com/fandissy/fdtitle.html Ph.D. thesis,
University of Stirling. (Accessed 21/02/08)

Wright, F. (2001) From Zines to Ezines: Electronic Publishing and the Literary Underground. (WWW) Available from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=From+fanzine+to+electronic+Publishing+and+the+Literary+Underground Ph.D thesis, Kent State University. (Accessed 10/03/08)

Yorke, C. Zines Are Dead: The Six Deadly Zines The Killed Zinery. (WWW) Available from: http://www.brokenpencil.com/features/feature.php?featureid=46
(Accessed 05/03/08)
 

Secondary Sources

(Please note my secondary sources are made up of fanzines and by their very nature as self-published documents they have no publisher, and often no indication of date or author.)

Anon. In The River Reeds and Rushes.

Anon. Waterfight (Issue 4)

Breekkan, K. (2008) Au Milieu des Fauves. (Issue 1) Available from Kieran, 9 Oakwood, Fleet, Hants SU52 8BY

Brunsden, T.  Drink The Sunshine. (Issues 2 & 6) Available from finish_last_zine@yahoo.com

Emanuel, A. (2008) My Little Nightmare. (Issue 3) Available from allyscum@hotmail.com

Farthing, A. (2008) Culture Slut. (Issue 12) Available from helloamber.etsy.com

Kyle. (2006) Le Monstre: Broken. Available from Kyle@le-monstre.com

Oldfield, L. (2008) Savage Messiah. (Issue 6) Available from 
Savagemessiah@hotmail.co.uk

Russell, P. (2007) Dance Like No One’s Watching. (Issue 3) Available from dancelikenooneswatchingzine@yahoo.com

Sinclair, R. (2007) Dehumanized Fanzine. (Issue 4) Available from  Ross Sinclair, 4C Morris Lane, Kilmarnock, KA3 1DR

Taylor, D. John Marr Zine. (Issues 1,2 & 3) Available from jenaimarre@fmail.co.uk

West, J. (2008) You Can’t Say No To Hope. (Issues 9 &10) Available from jonfwest@hotmail.com