Lesson 3: New Hampshire


EGP 335 Spring 2014                                                                     Katie Spontak


1.0 Lesson Plan Details

            North East Region, New Hampshire, Paper Mills, Grade 4

  • Expected Duration (30-45 minutes)
  • Concepts – Geography; Science, Technology and Society
  • Vocabulary –
    • Pulp – any soft, moist, slightly cohering mass, as that into which linen, wood, etc. are converted in the making of paper
    • Paper – a substance made from wood, pulp, rags, straw, or other fibrous material, usually thin sheets, used to bear writing or printing
    • Paper mills – a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibers such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients using a fourdrinier machine or other type of paper machine
    • Geography – the topographical features of a region
    • Cellulose – the chief constituent of the cell walls of plans and of wood
    • Parchment – the skin of sheep, goats, etc., prepared for use as a material on which to write
    • Vellum – calfskin, lambskin, etc., treated for use as a writing surface
  • Skills – explain the history of paper and paper mills, understand how paper mills make paper, compare how paper is made today with how it was made traditionally


1.1 Integration of Learning Outcomes/Objectives

  • Students Will Be Able To:
    • Examine the geography of New Hampshire and determine why paper mills are successful in that location.
    • Understand and explain the history of paper.
    • Understand the steps in making paper in a paper mill and compare it to how paper was made traditionally.


1.2 Standards PA Civics, History, Economics, Geography &

       NCSS Themes I - X with subthemes

·      PA Standards

    • Geography
      • PA.7.2.4.A – Identify the physical characteristics of places and regions.
      • PA.7.4.4.A – Identify the effect of the physical systems on people within a community
  • NCSS Themes
    • Science, Technology and Society
      • NCSS.1.8.b – Provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions.


1.3 Anticipatory Set

  • Teacher talk: Alright, students, we now are moving into New Hampshire on our Road trip through the North East.  Who can find me New Hampshire on our map? Teacher points to map of the United States of America Allow for response.  New Hampshire is located between Vermont and Maine, below Canada and above Massachusetts. 
  • Teacher will bring up New Hampshire on Google Earth and will zoom in and do a “tour” of the state’s physical geography.  What do you see a lot of in New Hampshire? Allow for response.  There are a lot of trees.  What can be made from trees? Allow for response.  New Hampshire has a large amount of pulp and paper mills that make a variety of paper products.  Think of some of the things you use every day that is made from paper.  Who can give me some examples of what you use every day that is made from paper? Allow for response.  From the paper we write on to napkins and paper towels, we use a lot of products made from paper every day. 
  •  Today we are going to do a Web Quest to find out more information about the history of paper, how paper is made, and how paper mills work.  Each of you will have a computer (or laptop).


1.4 Procedures

  • Students will either use the classroom computers, the laptop cart, or go to the computer lab to complete the Web Quest.  Each student will complete his or her own Web Quest and worksheet.
  • The teacher will have the Web Quest link already on each student’s computer.
  • The teacher will also have the Web Quest projected and will go through the website with the students to ensure that everyone understands what they are to do.
  • Okay everyone, click on the link that says “Introduction”.  Someone please read the information on this page. Allow for response. Excellent, does anyone have any questions so far? Allow for response.  Okay, everyone click on the task link and can I have a volunteer to read the information? Allow for response.  Does anyone have any questions about what you are going to do?  Allow for response.  Next lets click on the process tab.  Who wants to read the instructions?  Allow for response.  Does anyone have any questions?  Allow for response.  Now lets click on the evaluation link so that you will see the rubric for your 1-2 paragraph essay.  Teacher will read through the rubric and answer any questions that the students may have about the requirements for the assignment.  There is also an enrichment activity under the enrichment link for those of you who finish early.  There is a quiz to test your new knowledge as well as the history of a paper mill in Berlin, NH.  Now, let’s go back to the process page and get started.  Please feel free to ask any questions that you may have as you complete your virtual tour.  When you are finished you will turn in your worksheets.  You can also pick up a paper about how to make your own paper at home.
  • Students will now complete The History of Paper Making and Paper Mills Web Quest


1.5 Differentiation

  • Below Level
    • Instead of writing a 1-2 paragraph explaining the difference between paper mills and traditional paper making methods, students will be able to verbally explain the difference to the teacher using the websites for assistance if needed.
  • Above Level
    • For students who finish the Web Quest early, there is an enrichment opportunity where they can take a short quiz testing their new knowledge.  There is also a link to the history of a paper mill in Berlin, NH where the students can learn more about the Glen Manufacturing Company.

1.6 Closure

  • Today we learned about the history of paper, papermaking, and paper mills.  We learned that paper mills were originally located near populated areas that could provide a large amount of rags.  With the change of materials from linen to wood, who can tell me why New Hampshire has a large number of pulp and paper mills? Allow for response.  Who can explain to me why it is important to use paper mills to make paper instead of the traditional way of making paper by hand?  Allow for response.
  • Each student will then write 3-5 facts about papermaking and paper mills on their postcard as an exit slip.


1.7 Formative/Summative Assessment of Students (P-12)

  • Formative Assessment – will be completed as the teacher circulates through the classroom.
  • Summative Assessment – will be completed by grading the worksheets, short essay, and reading each student’s postcard.


1.8 Materials/Equipment


  • Computer or laptop (one per student)
  • The History of Paper Making and Paper Mills Web Quest (already loaded on each computer)http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=239792
  • The History of Paper Making and Paper Mills worksheet (one per student)
  • How to Make Your Own Paper worksheet (one per student)





D. Attach teacher content notes sheet, making sure to CITE REFERENCES used

Content Notes:

1.     Before the invention of paper

a.     Various cultures used different materials such as stone, metal, wood, papyrus, clay, parchment, vellum, cloth, tree leaves, bark, and rice-pith

b.     The Sumerians used Clay tablets around 4000 B.C.

c.      Tree “bark cloth” is made by beating moistened sections of bark with a serrated beater and then joined with vegetable adhesives and gums.

d.     Tree leaves are trimmed, flattened and polished smooth with sand and characters are then scratched on the surface and colored in with a black, sooty pigment.

e.     Rice-pith is cut spirally from the inner pith of the kung-shu or Fatsiapapyrifera plant and is traditionally used by the Chinese.

2.     Beginning of Papermaking

a.     Ts’ai Lun, a Chinese Emperor, is credited with inventing paper in 105 AD.

b.     Early Chinese paper appears to have been made from a suspension of hemp waste in water that was turned into pulp, placed in a four-sided bamboo frame, and dried.

c.      The first real advance in papermaking came from the development of a smooth material for the mold covering, making it possible for the papermaker to free the new sheet and reuse the mold.

d.     The papermaking moved to Korea where they used hemp, rattan, mulberry, bamboo, rice straw, and seaweed to make pulp.

e.     Chinese papermakers also spread their craft into Central Asia and Persia and eventually into India via traders.

f.      As papermaking spread across Asia and the Middle East, new materials had to be used because the Chinese materials were not available.  These materials included flax and other substitute fibers

g.     It took nearly 500 years for papermaking to reach Europe.

3.     The Traditional Process of Papermaking

a.     Raw materials for paper

                                               i.     The material of choice for the European’s was cotton or linen fiber from rags that were sorted, cleaned, and heated in a solution of alkali, which were then washed and macerated to a pulp, which was then bleached to remove the final traces of dyes.

b.     Paper molds

                                               i.     To form a sheet of paper, the papermaker dipped a paper mold into the vat of stock and lifted it out horizontally, trapping the fibers against the screen of the mold.

                                              ii.     Paper molds were made by hand from parallel lengths of wire laced together with fine wire or threat or from woven wire mesh.

c.      Drying the sheet

                                               i.     After forming, the sheet was removed from the mold and placed on felts or woolen cloth for pressing

                                              ii.     A stack of paper sheets and felts were placed in a large wooden screw press and all the workers in the mill were summoned to tighten the press.

                                            iii.     After pressing, the sheets were strong enough to be lifted from the felts and hung to dry, usually in groups of 4 or 5 known as “spurs” to prevent wrinkling and curling.

d.     Sizing and finishing

                                               i.     To make the paper less absorbent, it was dipped in animal gelatin or glue.  This was important for writing papers because the ink were thicker and did not sink into the paper so easily.

4.     Papermaking Comes to America

a.     The first paper mill in America was established in 1690 by William Rittenhouse near Germantown, PA.

b.     Rittenhouse left Holland in 1688 and modeled his paper mill after the European mills.

c.      These mills had to be located near populated areas that could provide a reliable supply of rags and a generous supply of fresh water.

d.     Although some of the machinery was imported from Europe, most of it had to be constructed in the colonies.

e.     As the paper mills expanded, rags for making paper became scarce and papermakers began to search for new materials.

f.      Wood pulp became a viable option thanks to the work of Mathias Koops in England.

5.     The Modern Paper Mill

a.     Most of the mill’s raw material arrives by truck or rail in the form of logs that are then soaked in water and tumbled in slatted metal drums to remove the bark.  The debarked logs are then fed into a chipper.

b.     Digesting is the process of removing lignin and other components of the wood from the cellulose fibers, which will be used to make paper.

c.      Wood chips are fed into the digester and mixed with chemicals to create pulp.

d.     The pulp is then bleached to produce a bright white pulp and beaten in refiners.  Refiners are vessels with a series of rotating serrated metal disks.

e.     Once the pulp has been bleached and refined, it is rinsed and diluted with water.  This is then pumped into the headbox of the paper machine where it is dispensed through a long, narrow slice onto a continuously moving belt of wire or plastic mesh.

f.      As it moves down the wire, much of the water drains away or is pulled away by suction from underneath.  As the water drains away the cellulose fibers adhere to one another to form the paper web.

g.     From the wire the newly formed sheet of paper is transferred onto a cloth belt in the press section where rollers squeeze out much of the remaining water.

h.     After leaving the press section, the sheet enters the drying cylinders that dry the paper as it passes over them.

i.       Between dryer sections the paper may be coated with pigments, latex mixtures or many other substances to give it a higher gloss or some other desirable characteristic.

j.       After one last round of drying, the paper sheet is passed through a series of polished, closed-stacked metal rollers known as a “calendar” where it is pressed smooth.

k.     Finally, the sheet is collected on a take-up roll and removed from the paper machine.

6.     Invention of the paper machine

a.     Nicholas-Louis Robert, a Frenchman, invented a prototype of a machine in which paper was formed on a continuous sheet of wire cloth in 1798.

b.     It took him 5 years to come up with the prototype and sold his patent rights to St. Leger Didot.

c.      Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier build a new and improved paper machine in 1807 and most modern paper machines are referred to as “fourdrinier” machines.

d.     The first fourdrinier machine was imported from England to the US in 1827 and erected in Saugerties, NY.

e.     Thomas Gilpin build the first cylinder machine in America at Brandywine Creek, PA.

7.     Recycling Paper

a.     Bales of sorted waste paper are soaked in large vats where they disintegrate into fibers and chemicals are added to separate ink from the paper.

b.     The pulp is deinked and sent to the stock preparation area where it is treated and loaded into the headbox and treated as if it had been made from wood chips.



(2013, July 11). Virtual tour. Retrieved from Robert C. Williams Paper Museum website: http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/education/museum_virtual_tour.htm



 M.I-Minor Influence or

S.I-Significant Influence

If S.I. include why credible

How easy is it for teachers to access?

How easy is it for students to access?



This website is affiliated with Georgia Institute of Technology.














1.9 Technology

  • Computer
  • Projector
  • Google Earth


2.1 Reflection on Planning

I had a difficult time creating a lesson plan about the history of paper and papermaking.  There is a lot of information on the Internet about paper mills but it was difficult to find information specific to paper mills in New Hampshire.  Many New Hampshire paper mills are out of business due to economic reasons or natural disasters destroying the mills.  Of the paper mills that remain, many of their websites are created for business purposes and not education or history of the mill.  Therefore, I had to get creative with my lesson.  I enjoyed creating the Web Quest and think that I created an excellent resource for students.  I originally wanted to make paper as part of the lesson but felt that it would take too much time and wouldn’t be able to teach about the actual history of paper.  I felt like a 2-day lesson on paper was too much so I decided to find instructions on making your own paper as an activity to send home if the children wished to try it themselves.

I did not teach this lesson but I imagine that it would be successful.  I like the idea of using Google Earth at the beginning of the lesson to view New Hampshire’s physical geography and hypothesize about what uses one could have for all of those trees.  One thing I do worry about is the 1-2 paragraph essay may take more time than allotted so the duration may need to be flexible.  Overall, I’m very happy with this lesson plan and I think that the student’s will enjoy learning about the history of paper and papermaking.

Katie Spontak,
Apr 15, 2014, 1:03 PM
Katie Spontak,
Apr 14, 2014, 6:27 PM