EGP 335 Spring 2014 Katie Spontak
1.0 Lesson Plan Details
North East Region, New Hampshire, Paper Mills, Grade 4
1.1 Integration of Learning Outcomes/Objectives
1.2 Standards PA Civics, History, Economics, Geography &
NCSS Themes I - X with subthemes
· PA Standards
1.3 Anticipatory Set
1.7 Formative/Summative Assessment of Students (P-12)
A. STUDENT MATERIALS/ READING RESOURCES:
B. TEACHER MATERIALS/RESOURCES FOR LESSON DESIGN:
D. Attach teacher content notes sheet, making sure to CITE REFERENCES used
1. Before the invention of paper
a. Various cultures used different materials such as stone, metal, wood, papyrus, clay, parchment, vellum, cloth, tree leaves, bark, and rice-pith
b. The Sumerians used Clay tablets around 4000 B.C.
c. Tree “bark cloth” is made by beating moistened sections of bark with a serrated beater and then joined with vegetable adhesives and gums.
d. Tree leaves are trimmed, flattened and polished smooth with sand and characters are then scratched on the surface and colored in with a black, sooty pigment.
e. Rice-pith is cut spirally from the inner pith of the kung-shu or Fatsiapapyrifera plant and is traditionally used by the Chinese.
2. Beginning of Papermaking
a. Ts’ai Lun, a Chinese Emperor, is credited with inventing paper in 105 AD.
b. Early Chinese paper appears to have been made from a suspension of hemp waste in water that was turned into pulp, placed in a four-sided bamboo frame, and dried.
c. The first real advance in papermaking came from the development of a smooth material for the mold covering, making it possible for the papermaker to free the new sheet and reuse the mold.
d. The papermaking moved to Korea where they used hemp, rattan, mulberry, bamboo, rice straw, and seaweed to make pulp.
e. Chinese papermakers also spread their craft into Central Asia and Persia and eventually into India via traders.
f. As papermaking spread across Asia and the Middle East, new materials had to be used because the Chinese materials were not available. These materials included flax and other substitute fibers
g. It took nearly 500 years for papermaking to reach Europe.
3. The Traditional Process of Papermaking
a. Raw materials for paper
i. The material of choice for the European’s was cotton or linen fiber from rags that were sorted, cleaned, and heated in a solution of alkali, which were then washed and macerated to a pulp, which was then bleached to remove the final traces of dyes.
b. Paper molds
i. To form a sheet of paper, the papermaker dipped a paper mold into the vat of stock and lifted it out horizontally, trapping the fibers against the screen of the mold.
ii. Paper molds were made by hand from parallel lengths of wire laced together with fine wire or threat or from woven wire mesh.
c. Drying the sheet
i. After forming, the sheet was removed from the mold and placed on felts or woolen cloth for pressing
ii. A stack of paper sheets and felts were placed in a large wooden screw press and all the workers in the mill were summoned to tighten the press.
iii. After pressing, the sheets were strong enough to be lifted from the felts and hung to dry, usually in groups of 4 or 5 known as “spurs” to prevent wrinkling and curling.
d. Sizing and finishing
i. To make the paper less absorbent, it was dipped in animal gelatin or glue. This was important for writing papers because the ink were thicker and did not sink into the paper so easily.
4. Papermaking Comes to America
a. The first paper mill in America was established in 1690 by William Rittenhouse near Germantown, PA.
b. Rittenhouse left Holland in 1688 and modeled his paper mill after the European mills.
c. These mills had to be located near populated areas that could provide a reliable supply of rags and a generous supply of fresh water.
d. Although some of the machinery was imported from Europe, most of it had to be constructed in the colonies.
e. As the paper mills expanded, rags for making paper became scarce and papermakers began to search for new materials.
f. Wood pulp became a viable option thanks to the work of Mathias Koops in England.
5. The Modern Paper Mill
a. Most of the mill’s raw material arrives by truck or rail in the form of logs that are then soaked in water and tumbled in slatted metal drums to remove the bark. The debarked logs are then fed into a chipper.
b. Digesting is the process of removing lignin and other components of the wood from the cellulose fibers, which will be used to make paper.
c. Wood chips are fed into the digester and mixed with chemicals to create pulp.
d. The pulp is then bleached to produce a bright white pulp and beaten in refiners. Refiners are vessels with a series of rotating serrated metal disks.
e. Once the pulp has been bleached and refined, it is rinsed and diluted with water. This is then pumped into the headbox of the paper machine where it is dispensed through a long, narrow slice onto a continuously moving belt of wire or plastic mesh.
f. As it moves down the wire, much of the water drains away or is pulled away by suction from underneath. As the water drains away the cellulose fibers adhere to one another to form the paper web.
g. From the wire the newly formed sheet of paper is transferred onto a cloth belt in the press section where rollers squeeze out much of the remaining water.
h. After leaving the press section, the sheet enters the drying cylinders that dry the paper as it passes over them.
i. Between dryer sections the paper may be coated with pigments, latex mixtures or many other substances to give it a higher gloss or some other desirable characteristic.
j. After one last round of drying, the paper sheet is passed through a series of polished, closed-stacked metal rollers known as a “calendar” where it is pressed smooth.
k. Finally, the sheet is collected on a take-up roll and removed from the paper machine.
6. Invention of the paper machine
a. Nicholas-Louis Robert, a Frenchman, invented a prototype of a machine in which paper was formed on a continuous sheet of wire cloth in 1798.
b. It took him 5 years to come up with the prototype and sold his patent rights to St. Leger Didot.
c. Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier build a new and improved paper machine in 1807 and most modern paper machines are referred to as “fourdrinier” machines.
d. The first fourdrinier machine was imported from England to the US in 1827 and erected in Saugerties, NY.
e. Thomas Gilpin build the first cylinder machine in America at Brandywine Creek, PA.
7. Recycling Paper
a. Bales of sorted waste paper are soaked in large vats where they disintegrate into fibers and chemicals are added to separate ink from the paper.
b. The pulp is deinked and sent to the stock preparation area where it is treated and loaded into the headbox and treated as if it had been made from wood chips.
(2013, July 11). Virtual tour. Retrieved from Robert C. Williams Paper Museum website: http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/education/museum_virtual_tour.htm
2.1 Reflection on Planning
I had a difficult time creating a lesson plan about the history of paper and papermaking. There is a lot of information on the Internet about paper mills but it was difficult to find information specific to paper mills in New Hampshire. Many New Hampshire paper mills are out of business due to economic reasons or natural disasters destroying the mills. Of the paper mills that remain, many of their websites are created for business purposes and not education or history of the mill. Therefore, I had to get creative with my lesson. I enjoyed creating the Web Quest and think that I created an excellent resource for students. I originally wanted to make paper as part of the lesson but felt that it would take too much time and wouldn’t be able to teach about the actual history of paper. I felt like a 2-day lesson on paper was too much so I decided to find instructions on making your own paper as an activity to send home if the children wished to try it themselves.
I did not teach this lesson but I imagine that it would be successful. I like the idea of using Google Earth at the beginning of the lesson to view New Hampshire’s physical geography and hypothesize about what uses one could have for all of those trees. One thing I do worry about is the 1-2 paragraph essay may take more time than allotted so the duration may need to be flexible. Overall, I’m very happy with this lesson plan and I think that the student’s will enjoy learning about the history of paper and papermaking.