History of the Anti-Sweatshop Movement


             i.     began in 1995/1996 when people found out about the horrible labor conditions used by The Cap (central America), Kathie Lee Gifford’s Wal Mart clothing line (Honduras), Nike shoes (Indonesia) [i]

           ii.     Department of Labor raided the El Monte compound in Southern California in 1996, found undocumented immigrant workers forced to work in bad conditions[ii]

         iii.     Clinton created Apparel Industry Partnership (AIP) in Aug 1996- included apparel firms, non profit organizations and 2 union: UNITE and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union[iii]

1.     Work Place Code of Conduct agreed to in April 1997[iv]

2.     In an agreement issued in Nov 1998 they created a nonprofit organization, Fair Labor Association (FLA) to “oversee monitoring of compliance” with the Workplace Code of Conduct [v]

3.     Part of agreement was a drat of a Collegiate Code of Conduct for firms producing licensed merchandise --- disagreements about this caused unions to leave AIP[vi]

          iv.     In early 1990s it was common for companies to claim that they didn’t have any responsibility for actions of their subcontractors, but that has changed due to consumer, activist and shareholder pressure[vii]

[i] {Mandle, 2000}

[ii] {Mandle, 2000}

[iii] {Mandle, 2000}

[iv] {Mandle, 2000}

[v] {Mandle, 2000}

[vi] {Mandle, 2000}

[vii] {Rivoli, 2003}