History of Sweatshops

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    1.  “global conveyor belt” [i]
    2. Even when rules are in place to prevent sudden factory closing and lay-off without compensation, workers often don’t have the resources to engage in lengthy legal battles[ii] (for an exception, see TV clip)
    3. 1889- British government set up a Select Committee of the House of Lords on the Sweating System[iii]
    4. First legislation in US adopted in first decades of 20th century due to public opinion informed by journalism and the early socialist movement[iv]
    5. Between 1980-1995 the growth of Asian output of footwear grew by 424% (growth of output in the Americas was 16% and Europe was 10%)[v]
    6. In 1995, the largest footwear employers were Indonesia, China, Brazil, Russia, Romania and Italy (in that order), by 1998 India was 4th[vi]
    7. Between 1980-1992 international employment in clothing industry was about 4.9million, but where these jobs were located was quickly shifting from developed nations (especially France, Germany, UK, US and Latin America) to areas in Asia, especially Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines[vii]
    8. in 1996 hourly wages in Bangladesh and Myanmar were published at $0.10-$0.18; ranging from $0.20-$.68 in other parts of Asia and between $1-$2 in Latin America[viii]
    9. Movie: Interview with Vandana Shiva [ix]

             i.     Globalization: rules written into WTO saying you can’t decide things for yourself---the Market will decide---- “a partnership of elites” [x]

           ii.     Rules written by corporations[xi]

         iii.     System of dispossessing the poor[xii]



[i] {Wichterich, 2000}

[ii] {D'Mello, 2003}

[iii] {D'Mello, 2003}

[iv] {D'Mello, 2003}

[v] {D'Mello, 2003}

[vi] {D'Mello, 2003}

[vii] {Mandle, 2000}

[viii] {Mandle, 2000}

[ix] {Jones, 2003}

[x] {Jones, 2003}

[xi] {Jones, 2003}

[xii] {Jones, 2003}