Stephen Toulmin

Toulmin Resources 

Stephen Toulmin

(born: March 25, 1922 -                               )


  (from Prof. Toulmin's USC faculty bio page)


The Toulmin Model of Rhetoric


Toulmin's model is grounded in argumentation, and in its simplest form is comprised of Data, Warrant and Claim.  Data provides the basis of a Claim, and a Warrant is the reasoned connection of the two.  The argument can be further fleshed out with Backing, or evidence offered in support of the warrant, Rebuttal(s) which limit the scope of the claim, and Qualifiers which limit the degree of certainty the rhetor is ascribing to the claim.  A superb diagram of the model can be found here