Safra, L., Algan, Y., Grèzes, J., Tecu, T., Baumard, N. & Chevallier, C., Childhood harshness induces long-lasting preference forauthoritarian leaders, Open Science Framework

Debove, S., Baumard, N. and André, J.-B. (2016) On the evolutionary origins of equity, BioRxiv



Baumard, N. (2016) The origins of fairness:
How Evolution Explains Our Moral Nature, Oxford University Press.


Safra, L., Tecu, T., Lambert, S., Sheskin, M., Baumard, N., Chevallier, C. (2016). Neighborhood Deprivation Negatively Impacts Children’s Prosocial Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1760

Sheskin, M. & Baumard, B. (2016) Switching Away from Utilitarianism: The Limited Role of Utility Calculations in Moral Judgment, PlosOne

Debove, S., Baumard, N. and André, J.-B. (2016), Models of the evolution of fairness in the ultimatum game: a review and classification. Evolution and Human Behavior


Boyer, P. & Baumard, N., (forthcoming) Cognitive attractors in the evolution and diffusion of religious representations in Luther Martin and Don Wiebe (Eds.) Religion Explained: The Cognitive Science of Religion Twenty-Five Years On

Boyer, P. & Baumard, N., (forthcoming) The diversity of religious systems: An evolutionary and cognitive framework, in Liddle and Shackelford (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Religio

Umbres, R. & Baumard, N., (forthcoming) Cooperation in Hilary Callan (Ed.) Wiley-Blackwell's International Encyclopedia of Anthropology


Jacquet, P., Baumard, N. and Chevallier, C., (2016) Does Culture Get Embrained?, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Sheskin, M., Lambert, S. & Baumard, N., (2016) Biological Markets Explain Human Ultrasociality, Commentary to 'The economic origins of ultrasociality', Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Boyer, P. and Baumard, P. (2016) ProjectingWEIRD features on (non-WEIRD) ancient religions, Commentary to 'The Cultural evolution of Prosocial Religions', Behavioral and Brain Sciences.



Baumard, N. & Chevallier, C. (2015) The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (see also my article in The New Scientist Why are religions so judgemental? Ask evolution)

Baumard, N., Hyafil, A. & Boyer, p. (2015)
What Changed During the Axial Age: Cognitive Styles or Reward Systems?, Communicative and Integrative Biology.

Debove, S., André, J.B. & Baumard, N., (2015) Partner choice creates fairness in humans, Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (Raw data and analysis file here)

Chevallier, C., Xu, J., Adachi, K., van der Henst, J.B. & Baumard, N., (2015) Preschoolers’ understanding of merit in two Asian societies, Plos One.

Debove, S., Baumard, N. & André, J.B., (2015) Evolution of equal division among unequal partners, Evolution.(Raw data and analysis file here)

Baumard, N., Hyafil, A., Morris, I., and Boyer, P., (2015) Explaining the Axial Age: How Affluence Favored Ascetic Wisdoms and Moralizing Religions, Current Biology (Supplemental Information) See also Science's coverage, as well as Konika Banerjee and Paul Bloom's comment article in Current Biology.


Baumard, N., (in press) Evolutionary Psychology and Public Policy, in D. Buss (Ed.) The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, John Wiley & Sons (This paper originates as a contribution in preparation of the World Bank Report 2015 on Behavioral Economics and Development Policies, here is the original version)


Sheskin, M., Chevallier, C., Lambert, S., and Baumard, N. (2014) Life-history theory explains childhood moral development, Trends in Cognitive Sciences.

Baumard, N. & Sheskin, M. (2014) Partner Choice and the Evolution of a Contractualist Morality, in Decety, J. & Wheatley, T., The Moral Brain, M.I.T. Press.

Baumard, N.& Boyer, P.  (2014) Empirical problems with the notions of "big gods" and of prosociality in large societies (Commentary on Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict by Ara Norenzayan), Religion, Brain and Behavior.

Baumard, N. (2014) For public policies, our evolved psychology is the problem AND the solution (Commentary to 'Evolving the Future: Toward a Science of Intentional Change' by Wilson, Hayes, Biglan and Embry), Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37 (4) pp. 418-418. 


Baumard, N., André, J.B. and Sperber, D., (2013) A Mutualistic Approach to MoralityBehavioral and Brain Sciences (target article), 36 (1) 59-122.

Baumard, N. & Boyer, P., (2013) Explaining Moral Religions, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17 (6) pp. 172 - 180.

Baumard, N. & Boyer, P. (2013)
Religious Beliefs as Reflective Elaborations: A Modified Dual-Process Model, Current Directions in Psychological Science. (See also Herbert Wray's post on the Huffington post)

Liénard, P., Chevallier, C., Mascaro, O., Kiura, P., and Baumard, N. (2013) Early understanding of merit in Turkana childrenJournal of Cognition and Culture, 13 (1), 57-66.

Baumard, N. (2013) Cultural Norms: Transmitted Behaviors or Adaptive Responses? Commentary on Drew Gerkey's Cooperation in Context, Public Goods Games and Post-Soviet Collectives in Kamchatka, Russia, Current Anthropology, 54 (2), pp. 144 - 176.


Baumard, N., Mascaro, O. and Chevallier, C. (2012) Preschoolers are able to take merit into account when distributing goodsDevelopmental Psychology48(2) 492-498.

Baumard, N. & Chevallier, C., (2012) What goes around comes around: The evolutionary roots of the belief in immanent justiceJournal of Cognition and Culture12 67-80

Sperber, D. & Baumard, N. (2012) Morality and reputation in an evolutionary perspective, Mind and language, 27 (5), 495-518 (see also the french version in Origgi, G. (2013) La réputation, Communications, 93).

Baumard, N. (2012) The moral problem of group selection Commentary on Pinker's The false allure of group selection, Edge.

Baumard, N. (2012) The evolution of cooperation: from networks to institutions, Commentary on Dunbar's Networking Past and Present, Social Evolution Forum, May 2012. (See also Gintis's Commentary on Dunbar and Baumard).

Baumard, N. (2012)  The restorative logic of punishment: Another argument in favor of weak selection, Comment on Guala's "Reciprocity: weak or strong? What punishment experiments do (and do not) demonstrate", Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35 (2).

Baumard, N. & Sperber, D. (2012) Evolutionary and Cognitive Issues in the Anthropology of Morality , in Fassin, D. (Ed.), A Companion to Moral Anthropology, Wiley-Blackwell


André, J.B. and Baumard, N. (2011) Social opportunities and the evolution of fairnessJournal of Theoretical Biology, 289, 128-135. [see also the Supporting Information]

Bourrat, P., Baumard, N., and McKay, R.(2011) Surveillance Cues Enhance Moral CondemnationEvolutionary Psychology
9(2), 193-199. 

André, J.B. & Baumard, N., (2011) The evolution of fairness in a biological marketEvolution, 65 (1) 1447-1456.[see also the Supporting Information]

Baumard, N. & Liénard, P. (2011) Second or third party punishment? When self-interest hides behind apparent functional interventions (Letter in response to Mathew and Boyd's Punishment sustains large scale cooperation in prestate warfare), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (39).

2010 and before

Baumard, N. (2010), Has punishment played a role in the evolution of cooperation? A critical review, Mind and Society, 171-192,
9, 2.

Baumard, N., Boyer, P. and Sperber, D. (2010) Evolution of Fairness: Cultural Variability, (A Letter in response to
Henrich et al.'s "Markets, Religion, Community Size, and the Evolution of Fairness and Punishment") Science 23 July 2010 329: 388-389

Baumard, N. & Sperber, D. (2010) Weird people, yes but also weird experiments Comment on Henrich et al.'s "WEIRD people", Behavioral and Brain Sciences
, 33, 80-81.

Baumard, N. (2007). Comment réconcilier évolution, cognition et culture : une approche contractualiste de la morale. In C. Clavien & C. El Bez (Eds.), L’éthique : l’inné et l’acquis, Lausanne : Presses Universitaires de Lausanne.

Baumard, N. (2007). La morale n’est pas le social, Terrain, 48, 49-72.