ANH NGỮ (ENGLISH)

CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN ANH NGỮ VÀ VIỆC GIẢNG DẠY CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN

CHO SINH VIÊN KHÔNG CHUYÊN NGỮ

THOUGHT OF AND TEACHING

THE ENGLISH CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Nguyễn Thành Trung (2011), “Câu điều kiện Anh ngữ và việc giảng dạy câu điều kiện cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ, Kỷ yếu hội thảo khoa học tổ Ngoại ngữ ĐHSPTPHCM, TPHCM 06/2011, 171-190.

TÓM TẮT NỘI DUNG THAM LUẬN

            Bài viết của chúng tôi hướng đến Câu điều kiện tiếng Anh và vấn đề giảng dạy nội dung này trong mối tương quan giữa tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt nhằm đưa ra những khái quát bước đầu về vấn đề thú vị này. Trong giảng dạy tiếng Anh, việt so sánh với ngôn ngữ mẹ đẻ (tiếng Việt) đã được lưu ý đến từ khá sớm, vì thế chúng tôi nhấn mạnh việc đối sánh hai ngôn ngữ trong quá trình giảng dạy mẫu câu điều kiện cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ.

Từ góc độ tiếng Anh, bài viết trình bày những kết quả khảo sát, phân tích và luận chứng các dạng câu điều kiện đang tồn tại lẫn hai dạng đề xuất, sau đó phân nhóm với các giá trị ổn định. Bên cạnh đó, mối quan hệ nội tại giữa ba dạng chính của câu điều kiện cũng được chỉ ra. Từ góc độ tiếng Việt, chúng tôi giới thiệu bảng phân loại và các nhận định về 14 cấu trúc câu điều kiện tiếng Việt, đây là một tham chiếu quan trọng khi giảng dạy câu điều kiện tiếng Anh. Trên cơ sở đó, chúng tôi đưa ra các lưu ý và đề xuất về  hệ thống hóa cấu trúc câu điều kiện tiếng Anh, phát triển các dạng câu điều kiện kết hợp, giải quyết vấn đề số lượng câu điều kiện , so sánh hệ thống liên từ điều kiện… nhằm hiệu quả hóa quá trình giảng dạy câu điều kiện tiếng Anh cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ.

ABSTRACT

Our article concentrates on the Conditional sentences and the process of teaching it in the concern to its correlation between English and Vietnamese in order to sketch out an initial summary of this interesting issue. The correlation is early considered as its important role in language cognition, especially in teaching English. So that, conditional sentences is surveyed in English and Vietnamese.

In English, this writing expresses the result of research, statistics and proves nearly all kinds of conditional sentences, then they are divided into groups with specific quantity. Besides, the relationship between these three main types of conditional sentences is also figured out. In Vietnamese, some outlines and the table collecting 14 conditional sentences forms are introduced as a very important point in teaching by comparison with Vietnamese. Based on these data, this article presents some notes and opinions including the way to systematize “If sentences” structures, develop some mix-types, explain the matter of conditional sentences’ quantity and compare the system of conditional conjunctions,… on process of teaching student whose major is not English.

C. NỘI DUNG CHI TIẾT THAM LUẬN

1.  DẪN NHẬP- CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN, NHỮNG VẤN ĐỀ ĐẶT RA

Câu điều kiện (conditional sentences) là một phạm trù ngữ pháp khá lý thú trong tiếng Anh. Trình độ tư duy về ngôn ngữ và cảnh huống của đối tượng phát ngôn được phân hoạch theo các thể thức, lớp ý nghĩa cũng như giải quyết mối quan hệ giữa hai mệnh đề trong câu điều kiện thể hiện một cấp độ phát triển khá cao trong đó con người tự do xây dựng những thế giới hiện tượng riêng cho bản thân và tha nhân, điều này chỉ có thể là kết quả của quá trình “phản tư” mà nhà triết học lỗi lạc của Đức Immanuel Kant đã đề cập trong Phê phán năng lực phán đoán[1]. Tuy nhiên sức hút này khi vận dụng vào quá trình giảng dạy nói chung và với đối tượng là nhóm sinh viên không chuyên Anh ngữ nói riêng, đã phần nào giảm sút nếu như không nói là mất đi vì có một thực tế rằng người học không thể sư dụng câu điều kiện thành thạo sau một thời gian vì một lý do đơn giản: không thể nhớ được công thức! Bản chất của vấn đề này là gì? Phương pháp khắc phục ra sao? Có thực phần này thuộc phạm trù võ đoán (arbitrary) của ngôn ngữ mà người học buộc phải chấp nhận và bắt chước (mimic) theo người bản ngữ? Thực trạng và những băn khoăn trên thúc đẩy chúng tôi lưu ý và tiến hành đề tài “Câu điều kiện Anh ngữ và việc giảng dạy câu điều kiện cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ” với hy vọng phần nào nhìn rõ vấn đề và khắc phục những khó khăn của người học trong điều kiện khả năng hạn chế của chúng tôi khả dĩ.

            Về mặt lý thuyết, ngữ pháp về câu điều kiện đã có một chặng đường dài chứng kiến sự chuyển biến về góc nhìn, từ logic hình thức đến tâm lý học tri nhận. Câu điều kiện được lưu ý khá sớm ở vấn đề tính đúng đắn của hai mệnh đề xét trong mối quan hệ phụ thuộc như một kiểu hàm ý nhân quả có công thức pq; theo đó mệnh đề đi trước thể hiện  một cảnh huống có giá trị đến việc xác định tính đúng đắn của mệnh đề theo sau. [Palmer 1986]. Bên cạnh đó, phạm trù câu điều kiện, dưới góc nhìn của ngữ pháp nhà trường, được chủ yếu miêu tả từ góc độ hình thức thuần tuý thể hiện ở sự khác biệt về dạng động từ. Theo đó câu điều kiện được quy vào ba dạng chính trên tiêu chí tính thực hữu của sự việc (có thực ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai, không thực ở hiện tại, không thực ở quá khứ). Gần đây, ngữ pháp tri nhận dựa trên nền tảng tâm lý học tri nhận đã đưa ra những mô hình về ngôn ngữ với sự lưu ý về sự tác động của ngữ nghĩa vào cấu trúc ngữ pháp. Các nhà ngôn ngữ như Fillmore, Langacker, Sweetser[2]… thay cho các mô hình tiêu chuẩn đã áp dụng các điển mẫu trong phân tích ngôn ngữ. Sweetser đã chỉ ra rằng câu điều kiện không phải là một tổ hợp nhất thành bất biến giữa hai mệnh đề mà phải hiểu đây là một kết cấu những quan hệ riêng biệt giữa các mệnh đề được điều chỉnh bởi sự tri nhận và kinh nghiệm của người nói. Theo đó quan hệ giữa hai mệnh đề p-q được quy về 3 dạng: nội dung mang tính nhân quả, nhận thức mang tính suy luận và hành động ngôn từ thể hiện quan hệ bình luận.

            Đối với mảng ngữ pháp thực hành, thông qua khảo sát nhóm các công trình bao gồm: A Practical English Grammar (A.J.Thomson, A.V.Martinet), English Grammar in Use (Raymond Murphy), Advanced English Practice (B.D Graver), Understanding and Using English Grammar (Betty Schrampfer Azar) và Oxford Guide to English Grammar (John Eastwood) chúng tôi nhận thấy các tác giả thường chia câu điều kiện thành các loại trên hai tiêu chí: tính thực hữu (real, unreal) và thời gian (future, present, past). Theo đó ba loại cơ bản được xác định là:

Loại 1- điều kiện mở [5,6], khả năng thực tế [7,9], có thực trong hiện tại hoặc tương lai [2]. Các tác giả nhóm dạng Imperative (cầu khiến) và mệnh đề chính của loại này.

Loại 2- điều kiện không thực, không thể [5,9], hoàn cảnh giả định  [7], không thực ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai [2], biến đổi theo khung giá trị không chắc chắn (tentative), giả thuyết (hypothetical) đến không thực (unreal condition) [6].

Loại 3- không thực trong quá khứ.

Ngoài ba dạng cơ bản này, B.D Graver [6] và John Eastwood [5] còn phân thêm loại 0 (type 0) nhằm thể hiện quan hệ nhân quả, trong khi A.V.Martinet và Betty Schrampfer Azar nhóm dạng này vào loại 1 với ý nghĩa kết quả tự động, thói quen [9], diễn tả chân lý [2], còn Raymond Murphy [7] thì không thấy nhắc đến.

Một phần thưởng nhưng đồng thời cũng là cạm bẫy cho người học câu điều kiện Anh ngữ là khả năng kết hợp các loại được nêu trên. Trong giới hạn khảo sát của chúng tôi các tác giả như A.V. Martinet [9], Betty Schrampfer Azar [2] và John Eastwood [5] đều có nhắc đến khả năng trộn lẫn loại 2 và 3 như một lưu ý [5] hay một phần riêng biệt có giá trị ngang bằng với ba dạng khác [2]. Thêm vào đó, riêng John Eastwood đề cập đến dạng trộn 1-3 Rõ ràng là số lượng các dạng hỗn hợp (mix) vẫn còn nhiều điều cần bàn.

Ở Việt Nam, Đặng Thị Hưởng trong Practical English Grammar đã tiếp cận câu điều kiện từ góc nhìn phân lập hai mệnh đề và xuất phát bằng phạm trù Mood. Cụ thể, tác giả cho rằng Mệnh đề If được chia làm hai loại, tuỳ theo quan niệm của người nói, thành Indicative và Subjunctive (dựa trên mối tương quan của tense và time); mệnh đề chính theo đó gồm hai bộ phận là Modal và Infinitive sẽ biến đổi nếu đề cập về quá khứ, hiện tại hoặc tương lai. Hệ thống này xuất phát từ góc nhìn lý thuyết và giải quyết vấn đề câu điều kiện rất linh hoạt, vì thế đây là nguồn tư liệu lý luận quý giá cho người viết. Tuy nhiên khi ứng dụng vào thực tế thì hướng tiếp cận này tỏ ra khá kén chọn người tiếp nhận và rõ ràng là gây khó khăn cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ khi phải làm việc với phạm trù Mood. 

            Chúng tôi ngờ rằng trong hoàn cảnh khác biệt về nhận thức câu điều kiện tiếng Anh và ngôn ngữ gốc (tiếng Việt) dẫn đến việc học thuộc lòng cấu trúc của sinh viên là nguyên nhân chính tác động tiêu cực đến kết quả tiếp thu điểm ngữ pháp này. Theo đó giả thuyết của chúng tôi là nếu trình bày câu điều kiện một cách hệ thống, chỉ ra được mối liên hệ vận động của các thành tố kết hợp với đối sánh tiếng Việt sẽ có cơ may vạch ra một viễn tượng khả quan hơn chăng? Như vậy, với mục tiêu là lý giải, đối sánh và rút ra một số nhận định, kinh nghiệm trong quá trình giảng dạy câu điều kiện tiếng Anh cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ, phương pháp chúng tôi chọn là vận dụng lý thuyết điển mẫu (prototype theory) của ngôn ngữ học tri nhận nhằm mở ra một góc nhìn rộng có thể dung nạp các kiểu câu điều kiện nhờ vào thang giá trị so sánh với điển mẫu chứ không loại bỏ do thiếu bất kỳ một đặc trưng nào trong hệ thống, cũng có nghĩa là điền đủ các dạng thức kết hợp về mặt lý thuyết. Theo đó chúng tôi xác định hệ thống đối tượng thao tác như sau:

Bảng 1.1. Đối tượng phân theo thang giá trị điển mẫu

Cấp độ trên cơ bản (superordinate level)

Conditional clauses

Cấp độ cơ bản (basic level)

Type 1, type 2, type 3, type 0/4

Cấp độ dưới cơ bản (subordinate level)

Các dạng Mix

Cấp độ cơ bản cho Mix

Cấp độ dưới cơ bản cho Mix

Dạng 2-3, 3-2

Các dạng còn lại

Bên cạnh đó chúng tôi thiết nghĩ phương pháp so sánh đối chiếu vẫn phát huy hiệu quả trong hoàn cảnh cần có một góc nhìn đối chiếu, tương quan giữa hai ngôn ngữ với tư cách là tiếng mẹ đẻ (Việt ngữ) và ngoại ngữ (Anh ngữ). Vì vậy chúng tôi dùng phần 2 để trình bày những điểm khái quát nhất về câu điều kiện trong tiếng Việt như là một tham chiếu cần thiết trong quá trình tiến hành đề tài cũng như trong giảng dạy câu điều kiện Anh ngữ.

2. NỘI DUNG- GIỚI THIỆU CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TIẾNG ANH TRÊN CƠ SỞ ĐỐI SÁNH CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TIẾNG ANH VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT

2.1. Câu điều kiện trong tiếng Anh

Đây là những khái quát cơ bản nhất mà chúng tôi trình bày khi giới thiệu về câu điều kiện tiếng Anh cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ, thực chất đây là những bước đi dựa trên mô hình ngữ pháp truyền thống có bổ sung một số nội dung của ngôn ngữ học nhận.

Bước thứ nhất - định nghĩa: Câu điều kiện tiếng Anh là một mệnh đề trạng ngữ bắt đầu bằng If, unless hay các liên từ tương đương khác thể hiện một trạng thái hay tình huống trong một mệnh đề phụ thuộc vào điều gì có lẽ hoặc sẽ xảy ra (hoặc không thể- NTT), được diễn tả trong mệnh đề còn lại.[3]

Bước thứ hai - bàn về liên từ If: Có thể thấy If là dấu hiện thực hữu nhất để xác định câu điều kiện và các mệnh đề thành phần của nó. Có thể xem if mang hàm ý liên kết logic nhân quả có mối liên hệ không thể chối cãi với hình thái động từ, trật tự mệnh đề và các nhân tố ngữ dụng trong việc quyết định ý nghĩa của câu điều kiện. Bản thân If đánh dấu tính phi thực hữu của mệnh đề nó trình xuất, ở đây cũng đồng nghĩa với kiểu If là một chỉ tố xây dựng “không gian tinh thần” (mental spaces - chữ của Fauconnier, chuyển dẫn [3:15]) với ba chức năng chính trên ba cấp độ. Ở cấp độ tín hiệu, if báo hiệu sự tạo tác và diễn hành của không gian tinh thần, không gian điều kiện. Ở cấp độ từ vựng, if thể hiện tính chất phi khẳng định hoặc tính chất phi thực của mệnh đề. Và cuối cùng if kết nối hai mệnh đề trong một giả định ràng buộc các mối quan hệ hình thức ngữ pháp và ngữ nghĩa ở cấp độ kết cấu.

Bên cạnh if còn có những liên từ khác như Even if, whether, unless, but for, otherwise, provided, suppose,… mà chúng tôi sẽ bàn ở phần sau.

            Bước thứ ba - chỉ ra mối quan hệ giữ hai mệnh đề: nhìn chung, hiện nay có thể đề cập đến 05 điểm cơ bản. Thứ nhất, về nội dung mệnh đề if là điều kiện đủ cho mệnh đề chính. Thứ hai, về nhận thức tính đúng của mệnh đề giả thiết có thể kết luận vế tính đúng của mệnh đề kết quả. Thứ ba, về hành động ngôn từ, mệnh đề điều kiện là nguyên nhân hoặc dấu hiệu cho phép hành động ngôn từ trong mệnh đề đi sau. Như vậy, quan hệ nhân quả giữa hai mệnh đề là khá rõ nét. Thứ tư, giữa hai mệnh đề còn có mối quan hệ tuyến tính theo thời gian tức là mệnh đề if diễn tả một sự tình xảy ra trước rồi mới đến sự tình để mệnh đề chính. Kiểu quan hệ siêu văn bản thể hiện ở mệnh đề điều kiện đi sau chỉnh sửa, bổ túc nội dung của mệnh đề chính đi phía trước, là kiểu thứ năm. [xem 3:43-49]

Bước cuối cùng là phân loại và cho ví dụ: chúng tôi trình bày theo hướng chia câu điều kiện tiếng Anh thành bốn dạng cơ bản với cấu trúc và ví dụ như sau

Bảng 2.1.1. Bốn dạng cơ bản câu điều kiện tiếng Anh

TYPE

IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

1- Ability in present, future

Simple Present

Am, is, are//Verb

Simple Future

Will be/ verb bare

Example

If we don’t hurry, we’ll miss the train

2- Unreal in present, future

Simple Past

Was, were//V2/ed

 

Would + be/V bare

Example

If I had lots of money, I would travel round the world

3- Unreal in past

Past Perfect

Had+ V3/ed

 

Would + have + Pp

Example

If you had taken a taxi, you would have got here in time

0/4- Reason result relationship, series…

Simple Present

Am, is, are//Verb

Simple Present

Am, is, are//Verb

Example

If you heat iron, it expands

Dạng kết hợp (mix) được khái quát theo bảng 2.1.2. sau:

TYPE

EXAMPLE

1-2

If human being’s ancestor is monkey (based on the Darwin’s theory of evolution), everyone could move from trees to trees easily.

1-3

If you know London so well, you shouldn’t have got lost.

2-1

If I were the President of China, China will become the most powerful country.

2-3

If I were the God, human being would not have been created.

3-1

If you had not missed the plane, you will meet her tomorrow.

3-2

If we had not met each other, there would not be sorrowful.

Như vậy, tính chất ý nghĩa của mệnh đề thành phần được phân định dựa vào sự biến đổi dạng động từ; động từ thay đổi dạng sẽ dẫn đến ý nghĩa biến đổi theo. Vấn đề là giúp sinh viên hiểu và nhớ được công thức. Trong hoàn cảnh hiện nay công tác giảng dạy thường đặt trọng tâm ở bước thứ nhất và thứ tư, chúng tôi muốn nhấn mạnh bước thứ hai và thứ ba như những bộ phận trong hệ thống các bước để giải quyết vấn đề cốt yếu nêu trên. Đồng thời nếu có một cái nhìn đối sánh với câu điều kiện tiếng Việt thì hiệu quả tiếp nhận cũng sẽ khả quan hơn.

2.2. Câu điều kiện trong tiếng Việt

            Như đã xác định, chúng tôi không có tham vọng giải quyết thấu đáo vấn đề câu điều kiện tiếng Việt trong khuôn khổ đề tài này. Việc lạm bàn sau đây nhằm mục đích cung cấp những khái quát nền tảng dưới dạng tổng kết cho sinh viên nắm được một hệ thống tương đối ổn định nhằm dễ dàng hơn trong việc tri nhận và so sánh với câu điều kiện tiếng Anh. Muốn vậy, cần có một khảo sát chuyên sâu tiến hành cùng phương pháp ngữ pháp tri nhận trên câu điều kiện tiếng Việt để đóng vai trò như một đối sánh tương thích. Vì lẽ đó chúng tôi giới thiệu ở đây hệ thống câu điều kiện theo tổng kết của tác giả Nguyễn Khánh Hà dưới góc độ ngôn ngữ học tri nhận, đây là kết quả 05 năm nghiên cứu của tác giả (2002-2007) tập trung thành luận án Tiến sĩ chuyên ngành Ngôn Ngữ mang tên Câu điều kiện trong tiếng Việt. Theo tác giả, câu điều kiện là một phạm trù không có ranh giới rõ nét, bao gồm những thành viên có địa vị không ngang hàng nhau. Thành viên ở vị trí trung tâm được coi là trường hợp điển mẫu của phạm trù (xác định trên tiêu chí đặc điểm ngữ nghĩa- NTT). Các thành viên không điển mẫu phân bố xung quanh trường hợp điển mẫu… [NKH 2009:224]. Theo đó, tác giả phân thành 14 nhóm như sau

Bảng 2.2.1- Tổng kết cấu trúc điều kiện tiếng Việt

Đặc điểm nhóm

Tên nhóm

Kiểu kết cấu trong nhóm

1.Nhóm kết cấu có liên từ/cặp liên từ

(1) Dù A (thì) vẫn B

- Cho dù A (thì) cũng/vẫn/cũng vẫn B

- Dẫu cho A (thì) cũng/vẫn/cũng vẫn B

- Dẫu A (thì) cũng/vẫn/cũng vẫn B

- Dù A (thì) cũng/vẫn/cũng vẫn B

- Dù cho A (thì) cũng/vẫn/cũng vẫn B

(2) Giá A thì B

- Giá A (thì) B

- Giá gì A (thì) B

- Giá mà A (thì) B

- Giá như A (thì) B

- Giá phỏng A (thì) B

(3) Giả sử A thì B

- Giả dụ A (thì) B

- Giả như A (thì) B

- Giả sử A (thì) B

- Giả thiết A (thì) B

- Giả tỉ A (thì) B

- Hoặc giả A (thì) B

- Ví phỏng A (thì) B

- Ví thử A (thì) B

(4) Hễ A thì/ là B

- Cứ A thì/ là B

- Hễ A thì/ là B

- Hễ cứ A thì/ là B

(5) Một khi A thì B

- Một khi A (thì) B

- Phàm A (thì) B

- Đã A thì/ là B

(6) Nhỡ A thì B

- Lỡ A (thì) B

- Ngộ nhỡ A (thì) B

- Nhỡ A (thì) B

- Rủi A (thì) B

(7) Nếu A thì B

- Nếu A thì B

- Nếu mà A thì B

- Nếu như A thì B

- Nếu A, B

- B nếu A

(8) Nhược bằng A thì B

- Nhược bằng A (thì) B

(9) B, miễn là A

- B, miễn A

- B, miễn là A

- B, miễm sao A

- B, với điều kiện là A

(10) B, trừ phi A

- B, trừ khi A

- B, trừ phi A

(11) [A] bằng không/ kẻo B

- [A] kẻo B

- [A], bằng không B

2. Nhóm kết cấu có cặp từ hô ứng

(12) Có A mới B

- Có A mới B

- Phải A mới B

(13) A bao nhiêu B bấy nhiêu

- A bao nhiêu B bấy nhiêu

3. Nhóm kết cấu không có cặp từ liên từ/ cặp từ hô ứng

(14) A (thì) B

- A thì B

- A, B

 

-  A mà … thì B

Bảng 2.4. Bảng tổng hợp các kiểu câu thuộc phạm trù câu điều kiện [Nguyễn Khánh Hà 2009:65]

Trong đó, nhóm kết cấu điều kiện Nếu A thì B được xem xét dựa vào tần số mức độ xuất hiện cao và thoả mãn các tiêu chí về hình thức và ngữ nghĩa nên được khảo sát riêng và phân loại thành 04 kiểu quan hệ ngữ nghĩa gồm: quan hệ nhân quả, quan hệ giả thuyết - kết luận, quan hệ điều kiện - hành động ngôn từ và quan hệ giả cú pháp; từ đó dạng này được tiếp tục phân thành 08 kiểu câu dựa trên ngữ nghĩa gồm: câu điều kiện dự báo, câu điều kiện phản thực, câu điều kiện phản nhân quả, câu điều kiện suy luận, câu điều kiện hành động ngôn từ, câu điều kiện siêu ngôn ngữ, câu điều kiện so sánh, câu điề kiện ngoa dụ. Trong đó kiểu câu Nếu A thì B dự báo thoả mãn tính điển mẫu nhất.

Có thể nhận thấy tiêu chí phân định các nhóm kết cấu được trình bày trên đây là công cụ từ vựng căn cứ vào mối liên hệ tương cận về nghĩa của hệ thống liên từ hoặc từ hô ứng. Điều này phù hợp với một thực tế rằng tiếng Việt là một ngôn ngữ đơn âm trong so sánh với tiếng Anh là một ngôn ngữ đơn âm. Vì vậy, nếu phương tiện ngữ pháp của tiếng Anh là biến đổi dạng của động từ trên cơ sở thay đổi, gia giảm các hình vị mang nghĩa (như s/es mang nghĩa số ít, ed mang nghĩa quá khứ) thì phương tiện thể hiện nghĩa ngữ pháp của tiếng Việt là từ vựng- thêm các đơn vị từ vựng là phương pháp tiếng Việt thể hiện nghĩa ngữ pháp. Đây là điểm lưu ý quan trọng khi tiến hành giới thiệu câu điều kiện tiếng Anh bởi sự thay đổi về phương pháp cấu trúc ngữ pháp nếu không được nhắc nhở và giải thích tường tận sẽ gây nên những khó khăn về tư duy và tiếp nhận của sinh viên.

2.3. Suy nghĩ về việc giảng dạy câu điều kiện tiếng Anh cho sinh viên không chuyên ngữ

            Trên cơ sở đối sánh câu điều kiện tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt cũng như thực tế hướng dẫn học viên khối không chuyên Anh ngữ tiếp cận với câu điều kiện tiếng Anh, chúng tôi có một số suy nghĩ và đề xuất như sau:

            Thứ nhất, cần có cái nhìn hệ thống để ghi nhớ và sử dụng ba loại câu điều kiện cơ bản chính xác. Muốn vậy, mối liên hệ theo chiều dọc cần được chỉ rõ.

Bảng 2.3.1. Cấu trúc ba dạng cơ bản câu điều kiện tiếng Anh

TYPE

IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

1- Ability in Present, Future

Simple Present

Am, is, are//Verb

Simple Future

Will be/ verb bare

2- Unreal in Present

Simple Past

Was,were//V2/ed

 

Would + be/V bare

3- Unreal in Past

Past Perfect

Had+ V3/ed

 

Would + have + Pp

Chúng tôi, xét một cách nghiêm ngặt, đã lược bỏ dạng giả định trong tương lai in the future ở dạng 2 theo đề xuất của John Eastwood: If you lost the book, you would have to pay for a new one [5:336] vì đây đơn thuần là cách dùng lịch sự hơn trong việc nhắc nhở của người quản thủ thư viện; hoặc If I had enough money, I could buy a car [2:382] của Betty Schrampfer Azar vì nét nghĩa khả năng hiện tại này nằm ở sự khu biệt hai modal verb chứ không ở bản thân cách dùng, chia thì động từ của câu điều kiện. Vì vậy, nếu có thể tạm thời trừu xuất các nét rườm mà chỉ nêu ra điểm khu biệt giữa ba loại câu điều kiện cơ bản thì sẽ nhận ra ba loại này lần lượt đề cập đến vấn đề ở tương lai, hiện tại và quá khứ. Theo đó, từ type 1- Future đến type 2- Present giá trị thời gian (time) lui về một bậc ở quá khứ kéo theo sự nhảy lùi một bậc về thì (tense) ở cả hai mệnh đề của câu điều kiện: Simple Present Simple Past, Will be/ verb bare Would + be/V bare. Cấu trúc này được bảo toàn ở các type khác trên cả hai mệnh đề theo cùng một cách thức. Điểm này nếu được nắm vững sẽ giúp tiết kiệm sức lực học thuộc lòng ba mẫu công thức mà nhiệm vụ lúc này chỉ còn là nhớ loại 1 (trùng khớp với cách dùng trong tiếng Việt) từ đó suy luận và tái lập các loại còn lại. Riêng loại 0/4 thường không cần phải ghi nhớ vì có cấu trúc đồng thì ở hai mệnh đề.

Trường hợp mệnh mối quan hệ mệnh đề chính từ type 2 về type 3 có thể liên hệ đến dạng Speculating với các Modal Verbs điển hình để minh chứng:

Speculating in the Present: She may be here

Speculating in the Past: She may have been here because she left home early morning.

Như vậy, học viên vừa không những đào sâu cấu trúc câu điều kiện đang học mà còn mở rộng đến dạng suy đoán với modal verb.

            Thứ hai, sau khi nắm vững công thức của các dạng cơ bản xem như nền tảng, chúng tôi hướng đến mục đích giúp học viên có thể sử dụng tự tin và nhuần nhuyễn các dạng trên thông qua việc bàn về các dạng kết hợp (mix). Như đã trình bày, việc phân loại và sắp xếp các dạng Mix đã dẫn đến nhiều kết quả khác nhau cơ bản có thể khái quát thành các dạng như sau

Bảng 2.3.2. Bảng tổng hợp một số dạng câu điều kiện kết hợp

 TYPE

EXAMPLE

1-2

X

1-3

If you know London so well, you shouldn’t have got lost. [5:338]

2-1

X                         If I had lots of maney, I will travel round the world [5:336]

2-3

If Tom was a bit more ambitious, he would have found himself a better job years ago. [5:338]

3-1

If they posted the parcel yesterday, it won’t get here before Friday. [5:337]

3-2

If you hadn’t woken me up in the middle of night, I wouldn’t feel so tired now. [5:338]

Hiện nay theo cứ liệu khảo sát của chúng tôi thì dạng 1-2 chưa thấy đề cập còn dạng 2-1 thì được khẳng định là chúng ta thường không kết hợp dạng điều kiện mở và không thật [5:336]. Theo chúng tôi thì việc mở rộng các dạng kết hợp một cách triệt để có thể cung cấp cho đối tượng tiếp nhận sự tự do tương đối trong nhận thức và sử dụng câu điều kiện, theo đúng nền tảng tinh thần của ngữ pháp tri nhận và ý tưởng của Sweetser (1990): “Ngữ pháp” không chỉ là sự miêu tả có tính hình thức về ngôn ngữ, mà quan trọng hơn, “ngữ pháp” là sự trình bày tri nhận của người nói về các quy ước ngôn ngữ… Đơn vị (tức đơn vị ngôn ngữ theo quy ước được ngữ pháp liệt kê- NTT) là một cấu trúc mà người nói nắm vững đến độ có thể tiếp nhận nó theo một mô hình tự động, không cần phải tập trung chú ý đặc biệt vào các bộ phận đơn lẻ của nó. [3:6-7]

Chúng tôi thiết nghĩ có thể mix được tất cả các dạng (trừ dạng 0/4 vì bản chất đồng thì của chúng), như vậy với 03 dạng được ghép đôi với nhau, về lý thuyết có thể thu được 06 dạng phân biệt. Vấn đề là khi tổ hợp xảy ra có những dạng rất khó xuất hiện vì lớp ý nghĩa không thông dụng hay có phần khiên cưỡng (dạng 1-2 và 2-1). Tuy vậy vấn đề nằm ở chỗ nếu có thể tạo ra một ngữ cảnh trong đó các dạng mix có ý nghĩa thì đây chính là luận chứng cho các dạng mix chưa xuất hiện. Rõ ràng các ví dụ về kết hợp dạng 1 và 2 ở phần 1 của chúng tôi cần được giải trình thêm.

a)1-2: If human being’s ancestor is monkey (based on the Darwin’s theory of evolution), everyone could move from trees to trees easily.

Tổ tiên của con người là động vật linh trưởng, khỉ là đại diện, nói một cách trừu tượng hoá khôm kém phần nôm na thì mệnh đề Tổ tiên của loài người là khỉ có giá trị chân lý theo tinh thần thuyết Tiến hoá Darwin, vì vậy dạng Open (1) là phù hợp. Một lẽ đơn giản là khỉ có thể chuyền cành vì thế theo mệnh đề trên mọi người đều có thể chuyền cành dễ dàng; điều này là không thực tế, hẳn phải thuộc dạng 2.

Bên cạnh đó chúng tôi cũng có thể dùng ví dụ: If she is in the lobby, the plan arrived early [Dancygier 1982:62]- chuyển dẫn từ Nguyễn Khánh Hà [3:5] để luận chứng. Thực chất mệnh đề if ở dạng 2 chính là nhằm thể hiện sự mong muốn và tiếc nuối của người nói về cảnh huống giả định này.

b)2-1: If I were the President of China, China will become the most powerful country.

Tôi ở đây là người viết, có thể mở rộng ra đến tất cả các đối tượng người Việt Nam hoặc bất kỳ dân tộc nào ngoại trừ Trung Quốc; nếu tôi là chủ tịch nước Trung Hoa- đây là một giả định không thật thuộc dạng 2. Trung Quốc sẽ trở thành cường quốc số một thế giới- chuyện này đúng là không thực trong hiện tại nhưng hoàn toàn là có khả năng trong tương lai, nhất thiết phải chia ở dạng 1.

            Thứ ba, như một sự tổng hợp, chúng tôi muốn đề cập đến câu hỏi thông dụng mà nhiều sinh viên đã đặt ra: “Tóm lại, có bao nhiêu kiểu câu điều kiện?”. Ban đầu là 04 dạng cơ bản bổ sung thêm 04 dạng kết hợp của các tác giả và 02 dạng kết hợp chúng tôi vừa luận giải thì thu được 10 đơn vị. Tuy nhiên, nếu phân biệt rạch ròi về ý nghĩa của từng mẫu khảo sát thì số lượng này còn phát triển lên rất nhiều. Lấy ví dụ trường hợp hợp động từ Tobe trong loại số 2. Bởi động từ tobe là động từ duy nhất trong tiếng Anh có dạng quá khứ đơn giả định (subiunctive past simple tense) khác với dạng quá khứ đơn trình bày (indicative past simple tense) [4:34]. Điều này ảnh hưởng đến nghĩa của mệnh đề If theo sơ đồ khái quát sau:

Dạng

Ví dụ

Ý nghĩa

Indicative If clause

If I/he was there yesterday…

Người nói không biết, không chắc điều này

Subjunctive If clause

If I/he were there now…

Người nói biết điều này là trái với thực tại

Sự phân biệt này sẽ làm cho khi xuất hiện mệnh đề if loại 2 sử dụng động từ Tobe sẽ đồng thời mang theo hai khả năng; cộng dạng cơ bản và hai dạng mix phù hợp thì sẽ có thêm 3 nghĩa mới,.. Cứ như vậy mỗi ý nghĩa về tính thực hữu và thời gian ở loại 1 và 2 hoặc kết hợp mệnh đề chính ở dạng Imperative (yêu cầu) với các dạng khác,… sẽ làm xuất hiện những ý nghĩa phát sinh tuần tự. Tuy việc con số cuối cùng của việc khảo sát này là hoàn toàn có thể nhưng thiết nghĩ không dẫn đến đặc điểm khu biệt lớn. Vì vậy, chúng tôi tạm thời có thể khẳng định có 10 dạng câu điều kiện trong tiếng Anh.

            Thứ tư, cần lưu ý đến hệ thống liên từ chỉ điều kiện trong tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt. Như chúng tôi từng đề cập, việc đối sánh hai ngôn ngữ là điều kiện để sinh viên tiếp thu tốt hơn câu điều kiện tiếng Anh. Tuy nhiên do bản chất ngôn ngữ, tiếng Anh sử dụng dạng động từ để thể hiện sự khác biệt về nghĩa câu điều kiện trong khi tiếng Việt chủ yếu phân lập câu điều kiện trên phương diện từ vựng chứ không ở thể động từ. Vì thế nếu cần so sánh thì hệ thống liên từ điều kiện của tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt chính là điểm khả dĩ và hứa hẹn. Đứng từ góc độ tiếng Anh, chúng tôi lập bảng đối chiếu như sau:

Bảng 2.3.3. Đối sánh liên từ điều kiện trong tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt

 

Liên từ chỉ điều kiện trong tiếng Anh

Liên từ chỉ điều kiện trong tiếng Việt

1

If

(and)

Nếu ........... thì

Giả sử......... thì

Hễ ...............thì

Giá mà ........thì

2

Even if

Whether … or….

Ngay cả khi…. thì

Bất kể là… hay ... thì

3

Unless (if not) (=otherwise/ or)

Trừ phi ........thì

4

But for

Nếu trừ (cái gì)… thì

5

Providing / provided (that)

As long as/ so long as

Only if/ if.... only (=not unless)

On condition that

Miễn là

Miễn là..... thì

Giá như

Với điều kiện là

6

In case of

In the event that

In that case

Trong trường hợp là

7

Assuming that

Given that

Cứ cho là

8

Suppose / supposing (that)

What if

Giả sử là

Giả định (rằng)

9

When/ whenever

Khi mà

10

With

Với… thì

            Thông qua bảng khảo sát có thể nhận thấy những điểm tương đồng lẫn dị biệt giữa câu điều kiện tiếng Anh và câu điều kiện tiếng Việt.

Trước hết, về mặt tương đồng, có thể thấy các liên từ chỉ điều kiện trong hai ngôn ngữ về đại thể khá tương đồng. Những ý nghĩa điều kiện, giả định được chuyển tải gần như song song giữa hai ngôn ngữ. Như vậy việc học câu điều kiện tiếng Anh không thể dừng lại ở dạng phổ biến nhất là If mà phải mở rộng ra các dạng thức khác, không phải trong thế cô lập kiểu dịch nghĩa tiếng Việt như hiện nay, mà cần theo hướng đối sánh với ngôn ngữ tiếng Việt để thấy được điểm tương đồng về tư duy. Đó chính là môi trường và tâm thế thuận lợi để học viên tiếp cận câu điều kiện tiếng Anh.

Thứ đến, giữa hai hệ thống liên từ điều kiện này có tồn tại những dị biệt rất đáng lưu ý. Từ góc độ tiếng Anh, có thể nhận thấy ở mục số 9, khi diễn tả những điều hiển nhiên, kết quả chắc chắn thì if  mang nghĩa như when/ whenever: If (when) you hear ice, it thaws- Nếu đun nóng đá, nó sẽ tan. Tuy nhiên nếu xét theo quan điểm của Nguyễn Khánh Hà trình bày về 14 nhóm kết cấu câu điều kiện tiếng Việt thì Khi (when) mang ý nghĩa trình bày chứ không đề xuất giả định, vì vậy ý nghĩa điều kiện của cấu trúc có khi không được thành lập. Như vậy, trong câu điều kiện tiếng Việt không chấp nhận dạng này như tiếng. Trong tiếng Anh, ngữ But for mang nghĩa Nếu trừ (cái gì)… thì được trình bày trong ví dụ: But for the climate, Edinburgh would be a perfect place to live [5:339]- Nếu không tính tới thời tiết thì Edinburgh là một nơi tuyệt vời để sinh sống. Cấu trúc này cũng không được thể hiện ở các nhóm cấu trúc điều kiện tiếng Việt.

Từ góc độ tiếng Việt, các cấu trúc nhỡ- 6, nhược bằng- 8, bao nhiêu bấy nhiêu- 13 dường như không tìm được biểu hiện tương hợp nhất trong tiếng Anh. Nhóm Trừ khibằng không/kẻo (tức nhóm 10 và 11) trong tiếng Việt qua tiếng Anh chỉ còn Unless.

Với Unless cần lưu ý rằng bản thân liên từ này đã mang nghĩa phủ định, đây là ý nghĩa rất cơ bản nhưng thực tế cho thấy rằng khá nhiều sinh viên đã sử dụng mẫu unless không chính xác theo kiểu: Unless you refund my money, I shall not take legal action. Điều này có thể lý giải từ ảnh hưởng ngôn ngữ mẹ đẻ đến tiếp nhận ngoại ngữ đích. Tiếng Việt có khuynh hướng phát triển ngôn ngữ thành đôi theo mô hình so hành, đối xứng một cách hài hoà, nhịp điệu nghiêng về khuynh hướng thẩm âm (đặc trưng của một ngôn ngữ có hệ thống thanh điệu). Hiện tượng -iếc hoá trong ngữ âm, từ láy trong từ vựng, và song song các dấu hiệu ngữ pháp là minh chứng rõ nhất. Tiếng Anh phát triển theo mô hình ngữ pháp chặt chẽ hình thành nhiều cấu trúc có sự tham gia của các đơn vị ngữ pháp, ví dụ như cấu trúc Although/ though mở ra một mệnh đề, mệnh đề còn lại xuất hiện độc lập và được phân xuất bằng dấu [,] (comma), khi đó một sinh viên Việt Nam khi dùng sẽ dễ viết câu: Although…, but do ảnh hưởng cấu trúc song đối Tuy…nhưng trong tiếng Việt. Ví dụ trên kh dịch ra tiếng Việt sẽ là: Trừ phi anh trả tiền cho tôi, nếu không tôi sẽ đưa chuyện này ra pháp luật. Chúng ta nhận ra kiểu song hành của Trừ phi… nếu không; chính ngữ nếu không phát sinh mang nét nghĩa phủ định đã ảnh hưởng và làm xuất hiệ thêm một nghĩa phủ định hoá giả nghĩa phủ định trong Unless, kết quả là câu trên dịch sang tiếng Việt thì có lý nhưng trong tiếng Anh thì vô nghĩa. Ý thức được ảnh hưởng từ tiếng Việt sẽ giúp cho sinh viên tránh được lỗi sai về logic khá phổ biến này. Giải pháp chúng tôi đề xuất là hoặc cẩn trọng suy xét hoặc đặt unless vào giữa câu (thực tế chứng minh là giải pháp thứ hai tuy đơn giản nhưng mang lại hiệu quả đáng ngạc nhiên).

III. KẾT LUẬN- CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN, MỘT PHƯƠNG THỨC TIẾP CẬN VÀ GIẢNG DẠY

Thông qua đề tài Câu điều kiện Anh ngữ và việc giảng dạy câu điều kiện với đối tượng là sinh viên không chuyên ngữ chúng tôi đã thể hiện những suy nghĩ bước đầu về cách thức tiếp cận từ đó quyết định phương pháp giảng dạy vấn đề này. Có thể thấy ngôn ngữ học tri nhận đã cung cấp một thông lộ tuận tiện cho việc khái quát và cấu trúc các phạm trù ngữ pháp nói chung và câu điều kiện nói riêng. Theo đó câu điều kiện tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt được đối sánh thông qua những nguyên lý chung, cấu trúc ngữ pháp, phương tiện từ vựng… với mục đích ưu hoá tiến trình giới thiệu điểm ngữ pháp thú vị này. Từ lý thuyết, chúng tôi đã triển khai trên cơ sở thực tế giảng dạy những điểm lưu ý về cách nắm kiến thức theo hai chiều sâu và rộng để sinh viên sử dụng câu điều kiện tiếng Anh một cách nhuần nhuyễn và tự nhiên nhất có thể. Hạt nhân cơ bản nhất ở đây là ý tưởng trình bày câu điều kiện tiếng Anh không phải như một điểm bất khả giải (arbitrary- võ đoán) mà là khả giải trong sự tương hợp với đối tượng là sinh viên không chuyên ngành tiếng Anh.

HỆ THỐNG BẢNG BIỂU TRONG BÀI VIẾT

Bảng 1.1. Đối tượng phân theo thang giá trị điển mẫu

Bảng 2.1.1. Bốn dạng cơ bản câu điều kiện tiếng Anh

Bảng 2.1.2. Sáu dạng kết hợp câu điều kiện tiếng Anh

Bảng 2.2.1- Tổng kết cấu trúc điều kiện tiếng Việt

Bảng 2.3.1. Cấu trúc ba dạng cơ bản câu điều kiện tiếng Anh

Bảng 2.3.2. Bảng tổng hợp một số dạng câu điều kiện kết hợp

Bảng 2.3.3. Đối sánh liên từ điều kiện trong tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt

TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO

1. Võ Thị Kim Anh, Chức năng ngữ dụng của câu điều kiện trong tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt, tạp chí Khoa học và Công nghệ, đại học Đà Nẵng, số 05 (40).2010

2. Betty Schrampfer Azar (1998), Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd edition, Pearson ESL.

3. Nguyễn Khánh Hà (2009), Câu điều kiện tiếng Việt nhìn từ góc độ ngôn ngữ học tri nhận, NXB KHXH HN, Hà Nội.

4. Đặng Thị Hưởng (1998), Practical English Grammar, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Department of English.

5. John Eastwood (1997), Oxford Guide to English Grammar, Oxford University Press

6. B.D Graver (1986), Advanced English Practice, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Hongkong.

7. Raymond Murphy (1994), English Grammar in Use, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press.

8. Palmer, F, R. (1986), Mood and Modality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

9. A.J.Thomson, A.V.Martinet (1986), A Practical English Grammar, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, USA.

 



[1] Immanuel Kant, Kritik der Urteilskraft, Bùi Văn Nam Sơn dịch (2007), Phê phán năng lực phán đoán, NXB Tri Thức, TPHCM.

[2] Fillmore, Ch.J. (1986), Varieties of Conditional Sentences, ESCOL 3.

Langacker, R (1987), Foundations of cognitive grammar, Vol 1: “The Theoretical Prerequisites”, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Sweetser, E (1990), From the Etymology to Pragmatics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[3] Jack C.Richards (1993), Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Longman, Singapore, p.76.



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAG QUESTION

(CÂU HỎI ĐUÔI)

I. DEFINITION

            Tag question is a very common question in English. Although its answer is the same as Yes/No question but Tag question conveys the special feature in meaning.

II. STRUCTURE

            Tag question is constructed after a statement or negative sentence, is separated by the comma (,); the speaker, therefore, has their own answer but they, often, are not sure about that so there are 2 case expressed by intonation:

If they are sure

Fall their tone down

If they are not sure

Rise their tone up

Tag question concludes an auxiliary which is suitable to the tense (before the comma), negative word “Not” or not and a personal pronoun that matches to the Subject of the utterance before the comma. S + V + O , [ ] + pronoun?

Eg:      _ You are afraid, ……………………………..?

_ You didn’t do your homework, ………………………………..?

III. FORMING

_General principle

 +If the sentence before the comma is negative, tag question is positive.

 +If the sentence before the comma is positive, tag question is negative.

 _Specific forms

Tense

Forming

Examples

Simple present

To be

Am/ is/ are (not)?

I’m right, ……….*? I’m not guilty, ……..?

Ordinal Verb

Do/ does (not)?

They like me, …………………?

Simple Past

To be

Was/ were (not)?

She was friendly, ……………….?

Ordinal Verb

Did (not)?

He didn’t come here, …………………?

Present perfect/

Present Perfect Continuous

Have/has+ PP

Have/has being + PP

Have/ has (not)?

They have left, ……………………?

The rain has stopped, ……………..?

 

Past perfect/

Past Perfect Continuous

Had+ PP

Had being + PP

Had (not)?

She had met you before, ……………...?

I had not died, …………………….?

You had not being waited for her,………...?

Simple Future

Will/shall+ inf

Will/shall (not)?

It will rain, ……………….?

Your wife will come to the party,………....?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_Answer: Negative tags expect a yes answer, and positive tags expect a no answer.

You don’t like him, do you? à ……., …….. (you like); ………., ………… (you don’t like)

They haven’t repaired it, have they? ……, it’s still out of work./….., they said tomorrow./ ……, they have not./ ……………………, it’s ok now./ …........., they have.

_Notes

+To structure of  “used to”:           She used to live here, ………………?

+To some fix forms such as:          He’d better stay, ……………………?

You’d rather you did not tell her, …………………..?

+Special Subjects: Nobody, no one, everyone, everybody, someone,…

Nobody likes this, …………..?

+Demand:                  Go out with me,……………….? Do not refuse,…………………..?

+Affirmative, Affirmative:                         Can I work next Tuesday, ……………………?& 

+Imperative:


 

EXERCISES

1. I wish to receive your love,………………………?

2. What a beautiful house, ………………………?

3. They must show their loyalty as a necessary requirement, ………………………?

4. You must not betray the true love, ………………………?

5. He must be a very intelligent student, ………………………?

6. My bike must have been stolen, ………………………?

7. Let me help you, ………………………?

8. Let us use the phone, ………………………?

9. Let me have some drink, ………………………?

10. Let’s go out, ………………………?

11. He hopes to be passed your recruitment, ………………………?

12. What an intelligent boy, ………………………?

13. I think (figure, assume, fancy, imagine, reckon, expect, seem, feel) it is true, ………………?

14. I don’t believe you can do that, ………………………?

15. They suppose we shall be back in an hour, ………………………?

16. It’s seems that you love me, ………………………?

17. Few people knew the answer, …………………?

18. No one came, …………………?

19. He’s excited to do that, ………………………?

20. Have some drink, ………………………?

21. Very little progress has been made, …………………?

22. Open the door, ………………………?

23. One can love and be loved,………………………?

24. People eat to live, they don’t live to eat, ………………………?

25. There was something wrong for us not to figure out any clues, ………………………?

26. It makes no sense, …………………?

27. There are only five students present, …………………?

28. Do you want a cup of coffee, ………………………?

29. What you have said is not wrong, ………………………?

30. You seldom see them, …………………?

31. The reason why he did that seems a secret, ………………………?

32. He ought to have let us know about that problem, …………………?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENTS

1. Generally, the singular Subject leads to a singular Verb and vice versa.

2. Some Nouns end with “S” but convey singular notion so the Verbs here are singular

_Subjects: mathematics, physics, statistics, athletics, politics, linguistics, economics, phonetics…

_Proper names show city or country: Algiers (Algeria’s cap), Athens, Brussels (Belgium), Marseilles, Naples (bay of Italy), United States, United Nations, The Philippines, The Netherlands (Holland).

_Diseases: mumps, measles, rickets

3. Some Nouns in plural naturally lead to plural verb

_Clothes, scissors, trousers, pants, goods, thanks, shorts, jeans, tongs, glasses, tweezers, compasses…

→A pair of +………. = singular noun

4. Some verbs do not exist in plural form so they always are identified in singular

_Grass, advice, knowledge, traffic, progress, information, news, machinery, luggage, rubbish, equipment, scenery, money, homework, housework, furniture, etc.

▲Dutch beer and American beer are lighter than British.

5. Some Nouns with singular appearance but plural meanings so they lead plural verbs

_the rich, the poor, the dead, cattle, poultry, people, police, community, family…

as we consider them as a united whole, group,   =  singular - A flock of bird, a school of fish…

Adj which does not show the human being (poor, rich) is used as singular

The good in him overweighs the bad.

6. As their meaning focus on, some preposition phrases, idioms which interbed itself into Subject and Verb, that does not affect the characteristic of this relationship--- One of the ten men is….

_As well as, together with = along with, accompanied by, besides, no less than, in addition to

Mr. A. and her sons is coming// The report together with the final exams completes, etc.

Vice versa, if they change the relationship, the Verb is decided by the nearest Subject

_Or, nor, not only… but also, plenty, half, part, some....

Not only government but also the president is responsible for this recession.

7. Non- defining Nouns is followed by singular Verbs (formal) or plural Verbs (informal)

_One, each, everyone, someone, something, none, neither, either (there is no nor, or),…

Some/half/most of the money is yours #  Some/half/most of the student are absent

8. Some Subjects linked by AND are considered as plural

But:     _Each/many a/every N + and + Each/many a/every N------- singular

            _If they show one thing--- singular

Bread and butter is my best favorite, The war and peace is the most popular novel of LevTolstoi, Early to bed and early to rise makes man healthy. (non defining clause); No teacher and no student is absent today. Many a worker goes to work on time.

The secretary and (V) accountant of the company is not present.

9. Nouns showing unit of measurement, time, currency, distance---- singular

Ten $ is as much as I can give you, It is 20 meters to the station, 4 month is long time to wait

10. After some pronouns: all, it is often to be used in

_plural for human being: All are satisfied with the happy ending

_singular for thing: All is ready, let’s begin

11. The noun in apposition: I, one of your masters, am commanding you.

12. Some situation that should be carefully considered

_Dummy subject “There” and fraction- the verb is belong to the real Subject which is latter and the Verb linked to the first Noun in the series

There are cherry trees in the garden// Three is a book and three notebooks on the table.

Three-fourths of the roof is paint// Three-fourths of the apples are yours

_ Dummy subject “It” not only singular Noun but also Plural Noun is suitable: It was Mary and Ann.

_A number of     |  plural N--------------- plural   : A number of students are waiting for the teacher

The number of   |  plural N--------------- singular: The number of …….. teacher is 30. (in total)

_One of the girls who are standing there is my friend

Only one of the girls who is standing there is my friend

_There is more than one answer for this question

There are one or more answers for this question.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PASSIVE VOICE

MA. THANH TRUNG, NGUYEN

I. GENERAL VIEW

1.1. Voice

_What is voice? ……………………………………………………………………………….

_How many kinds of voice are there?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

1.2. Passive Voice

_The passive is often used in …………………………………………………………………

_Category of verb that relates to passive

#+Transitive verb ………………………………………..

+Ditransitive verb ……………………………………….

+Complex transitive verb ……………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

+Intransitive verb ……………………………………………………………………………..

◙ ………………………………………….. à A song…………………………….................

◙ ………………………………………….. à The cat ………………………………………

# + Some state verbs cannot be passive: ………………………………………………… etc.

+Action verbs can be passive, of course, ………………………………………………….

 ………………………………….. à The wall…………………………………………

……………………………………à The wall ………………………………………..

+ Some state verbs can be passive: …………………………………………………………...

_It is common, if not more familiar than in other languages, for people to use Passive voice in English; converting between active and passive may be useful for practice purpose but the process is essentially an artificial one. Uses, therefore, is important.

 

II. USES

2.1 For the meaning

_Passive voice is used to ……………………………………………………………………...

_A sentence contains a topic and new information about it; the new information………………………………………………………………………………..

E.g.: The police arrested the escaped convict two days later.

à  The escaped convict……………………………………………………………………….

Some ideas may be expressed naturally in both active and passive form.

E.g.: France beat England in yesterday’ rugby. à England…………………………………..

2.2. Without agent

_It’s common to omit ……………………………….., e.g.: “Hamlet” …………….. in 1601.

_Agent …………………..., e.g.:  A large number of Faust films ………………….. (make).

_..............agent, e.g.: My car ………..(stole). The building had to ………………(demolish).

2.3. Impersonal style

_Scientific process: …………………………………………………………………………...

_Rules, procedures: …………………………………………………………………………...

_Formal writing: ………………………………………………………………………………

2.4. Well expressed

_To avoid an awkward change of sub in the middle of a sentence

E.g.: The President arrived back in London, and reporters immediately besieged him.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

III. TENSES AND ASPECTS

_Form: be + Past participle

Tense/ Aspect

Passive form: be +PP

E.g.: 7 executive officers run the union.

Tense

 

Past

Past of be

PP

 

Present

Present of be

 

Future

Future of be

 

Aspect

 

Perfect

Perfect of be

 

Progressive

Continuous of be

 

Other forms

 

Infinitive

-Ing form

Used to

Modals

Need to/have to

Need [+ V.ing]

+ to be PP

+ being PP

+ be PP

+ be PP

+ be PP

+ being PP

 

 

 

 

 

 

+Negative: Not comes after …………………………………………………………………...

+Question: There is inversion of ……………………………………………………………...

_With phrasal and prepositional verb, adverb or preposition comes ……………………….

E.g.: They cut down the tree last week. à The trees …………………………………………

People should do away with such out-of-date practices. à Such……………………………

Are they always making fun of this poor child? à …………………………………………..

_ Particle is also used as a modifier, like an adjective: broken vase- What is different point?

The vase was broken; it lay in pieces on the floor.                    ………………………………

The vase was broken by the guest: he knocked it over.             ………………………………

_Beside Present/ Past Continuous and the form of be going to other progressive forms are rarely used in Passive (Present/Past Perfect Continuous and Future Continuous)

IV. SOME REMARKABLE FORMS

4.1. Modal verbs

_Form: Modal + be + PP

E.g.: We cannot award him good marks on the work he has done.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

_Modal verb can also go with the perfect: Modal + have been + ppà speculates in past

E.g.: I can’t find that piece of paper.àIt ……………………………….. …….(throw) away.

It was foggy. à The plane ………………………………………..............by the fog. (delay)

They cut electricity; this bill ………………………………………………..weeks ago. (pay)

4.2. Get

_In informal English, passive is formed with get rather than with be. The passive with get expresses ……………………………….., something happening by accident or incidentally.

E.g.: They built Wembley Stadium in 1923. à Wembley Stadium……………………..(get)

How often do you clean the office? à How often …………………………………………...

I forgot to leave the dustbin out, so it ……………………………………………(not, empty)

_Some idioms with get: ……………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

_Get can be followed by an adjective in -ed: …………………………………………………

E.g.: I………… ………………………………….(interest) in the film when the phone rang.

4.3. Ditransitive verbs

_There are two ways to be passive, e.g.: The nurse gives the patient a sleeping pill.

+DO is S. à…………………………………………………………………………………...

+IO is S. à ……………………………………………………………………………………

It is quite normal for the person receiving something to be the subject.

E.g.: She gave me a baby. à………………………………………………………………….

God accepted to grant Faust’s soul to Mephisto. à ………………………………………….

4.4. Reporting verbs

_There are two patterns: E.g.: They say that fish open their eyes sleeping.

# It + passive verb + finite clause: ………………………………………………....................

There...………………………………………....................

# Subject + passive verb + to-infinitive: ..……………………………………….....................

_ The infinitive can also be perfect or continuous:

E.g.: Report says that the army was crossing the frontier at that time.

à The army …………………………………………………………………………………..

4.5. Infinitive/ Active particle

_Infinitive: #E.g.: Police advise drivers to use an alternative route.

+ Drivers are …………………………………………………………………….. (advise to)

+ Drivers are …………………………………………………………………… (advise that)

#In passive pattern we always use a to-infinitive even if it’s bare infinitive in the active.

E.g.: Terrorists made the hostages lie down. à ………………………………………………

I saw you dance yesterday. à…………………………………………………………………

#We do not often use let in the passive but …………………………… instead.

E.g.: Terrorists allowed hostages to talk to each other. à Hostages …………………………

Terrorists let hostages go. à ………………………………………………………………….

_ Active particle # E.g.: We saw them going out. à …………………………………………

The officer kept us waiting for half an hour. à ………………………………………………

4.6. Have and get

_ In active: have/get + Obj. + infinitive = ……………………………………………….; have takes ………….. being more common in the US; get takes …………….. being informal.

E.g.: …………………………………………………………………………………………...

_ In passive: have/get + Obj + PP. = ………………………………………………………….

Notes: +Get is informally used in the meaning “cause oneself to do sth.”

E.g.: I must get my home done; we finally got everything packed into suitcase.

+ Have carries the meaning of getting experience:

We had a window broken in the storm. My sister has had some money stolen.

4.7. To infinitive and Gerund

 

Active

Passive

To-inf

They criticize me in public. It’s awful

It’s ………………………………

…………………………………..

Perfect to-inf

I want you to clear this rubbish away before I get back.

I want this ………………………

…………………………………...

Gerund

They laugh at her, and she‘s afraid of that.

I remember my father taking me to the zoo.

She is afraid …………………….

 

I remember ………………………

Perfect Gerund

They’ve made fool of me; I’m annoy at that.

I’m ………………………………..

…………………………………….

4.8. Passive in meaning

_ Active gerund after …………………………………,etc. has passive meaning itself already.

These windows ……….. painting; the drawer ……………… tidying out.

_Adjective phrases: The machine isn’t safe to use à plus by = passive

The machine isn’t safe to be used by me.

_Some verbs have passive meaning

The singer’s latest record is selling like fresh fish. This sentence doesn’t read quite right.


 

V. EXERCISES

5.1. Rewrite in Passive the sentences or clauses containing a verb in italics.

1. The fact that the new scheme raised such a storm of disapproval means that no one can have explained it properly to the public.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

2. His father warned him not to let others lead him astray.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

3. The chairman of the committee complained that they were taking up too much time in discussing trivialities.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

4. People put down the boy’s rudeness to his parents’ having spoiled him.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

5. Not until later did they discover that someone had stolen the picture.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

6. Never before had they send anyone to prison for that particular crime.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

7. They could make the law effective only in this way.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

8. They have said a cigarette end was the cause of the fire.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

9. The army put down the rebellion and declared martial law.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

10. The students think that this one is the best.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

11. Had they told me that some one was to bring up the subject of finance at the next meeting, I wouldn’t have mentioned it.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

12. He dislikes his fellow- worker thinking him a fool.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

13. Port authorities were marshalling all available labor to deal with those unusual large numbers of visitors.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

14. Should someone prove beyond doubt that an accident caused the fire, the police will, naturally, release the man they are at present holding on suspicion of arson.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

… ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

15. On their informing him that the police wanted him, the man realized that his accomplice had betrayed him.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

16. The discovery of nuclear fission has made cheap domestic power possible in the not too distant future.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

17. A religion sect in England still believes that the earth is flat.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

18. The painters will be painting the house from Tuesday to Saturday.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

19. We shall lock the house up for the summer and the old gardener will look after it.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

20. The school governors gave her a scholarship to the University.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

21. He promised you that they would meet you at the station.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

22. Certainly we shall count on you to devote yourself to the work we are giving you to do.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

23. Don’t let the others see you. à …………………………………………………………...

24. No one has drunk out of this glass. à ……………………………………………………

25. People no longer say that anyone inhabits the moon any more than Mars.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

 

5.2. Rewrite in Passive as being directed

1. She asked the key keeper that who had removed the painting before she had returned to take it the previous day. (Direct speech)

à The key keeper …………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. The child asked me what made these holes. (Direct speech)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

3. He is arranging for an artist to paint his wife’s portrait. (have)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

4. Being made man and wife in 1980; five year later they were no longer man and wife.(get)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

5. Drive carefully if you don’t want to risk the police endorsing license again. (have)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

6. The authorities are encouraging mothers to arrange for the vaccination of their children. (get)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

7. It is believed that the Chancellor is thinking of imposing new taxes to raise extra revenue. (infinitive)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

8. It was alleged that the Prime Minister had misled the House. (infinitive)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

9. It was believed that the explosion had been caused by a mine. (infinitive)

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

 

5.3. Rewrite in Active the sentences or clauses containing a verb in italics.

Passive to Active

1. The fire was finally got under control, but not before extensive damage had been caused.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

2. Don’t let yourself be depressed by your failure.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

3. In view of the widespread concern that is felt by the community at the plan for a main road to be built through the village, it has been decided by the local Council that a special inquiry should be held.

à…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......

………………………………………………

 

4. The house had been broken into, and two thousand pounds’ worth of jewellery had been stolen.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

5. Only after it had been subjected to searching laboratory tests by the scientist was the new vaccine put on the market by the company.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………...

6. The plan hadn’t been at all well thought out by the leader.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

7. It ought to have been made quite clear to the shareholders before the annual meeting was held that they would not be allowed to vote for a new Board by proxy.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………...

8. Your lawyer’s advice should have been obtained before ant decision was made by you for the matter to be taken further.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………...

9. He needn’t have been caused so much distress by being told by the army authorities that his brother had died in action, as it was later discovered that a mistake had been made as to the missing man’s identity.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………...

10. Information about the source from which the starting news had been obtained was withheld by the reporter.

à ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………...

5.4. Speaking

1. What should someone be given when he’s hysterical?

2. Wages or a salary – which is an officer paid?

3. In a cross-examination, who is asked what by whom?

4. What is a patient given before an operation?

5. What opportunity would you like to be offered?

6. What foreign languages were you taught at school?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RELATIVE CLAUSES

I. DEFINITION

_Clause is a group of words containing a Subject and a Verb

+Independent clause (main clause) is a complete sentence, contains main Subject and main Verb.

+Dependent clause is not a complete sentence, must be connected to an independent clause.

_Relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause connected to the main clause by some relative pronouns such as: who, whom, whose, which, that or some relative adverbs such where, when, why. Relative clause locates after Noun, Pronoun, which is in main clause, to modify and distinguish them from other Nouns, Pronouns. Its function is the same as adjective so it is called, sometimes, adjective clause.

II. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

            Relative pronouns connect dependent clause to independent clause.

1.Who:  relative pronoun showing man with the role of Subject, follows the preceder expressing man to be Subject for the following Verb. (Be followed by verb)

Eg:      My father is sitting by the fire. à The man…………………………………………………….

            That boy helped me to find your house. à  That is …………………………………………..

2.Whom:  relative pronoun showing man with the role of Obj, follows the preceder expressing man to be Object for the following Verb (Whom is followed by a Subject). Whom is usually used in formal English, in other cases, Who takes its place.

Eg:      You saw my aunt yesterday. à The woman …………………………………………………...

            We are looking for Tom. à The boy ……………………………………………………………

3.Which: relative pronoun showing thing with the role of Obj or Subject for its following Verb. Which can be followed by Verb or Subject.  

Eg:      This is the book. I like it best. à  This ………………………………………………………….

            The hat is red. It is mine. à  The ……………………………………………………………….

_which with the function of Obj can be removed

Eg:      I like this book best. à This is …………………………………………………………………..

I bought a very beautiful dress yesterday. à  The dress ……………………………………………

4. That: relative pronoun showing thing and man, can replace Who, Whom, in restricted relative clauses.

Eg:The girl and her dog are running in the park. à You can see………………………………

5.Whose: relative pronoun showing thing and man, replace possessive adjective. Whose is followed by a Noun; (whose= of which)

Eg: The boy is Tom. You borrowed his bicycle yesterday. à The boy …………………………….

      John found a cat. Its leg was broken. à John …………………………………………………….

 

 III.  RELATIVE ADVERBS

1. When: relative adv showing time, follows preceder showing time, is used to replace at, on, in + which, then

Eg: People hold a meeting on May Day. à May Day is ……………………………....................... (= ……………. which).

 He managed the company at that time. à That was ………………………………………………… (= ……………..which). 

2. Where: relative adv showing place, is used to replace at, on, in + which; there)

Eg: We used to live in that house. à That is …………………………………………………………..

Do you know my hometown? à Do you know the country ………………………………………...?

I come from Hanoi.à Hanoi …………………………………………………………………………....

3. Why: relative adv showing reason, follows “the reason”, is used to replace “for the reason”

Eg: You are so sad. I want to know the reason. à Please …………………………………………. (= for which);

 

IV. CLASSIFY

1.Restrictive relative clause

_Restrictive relative clauses modify the preceding Noun; it is an important part of the sentence, the main verb will be ambiguous if Restrictive relative clause is removed.

Eg My sister is  wearing the blue dress. à The girl ………………………………………………….

I borrow your book. It is very interesting. à The book ………………………………………………

2. Non- restrictive relative clause

_ Non- restrictive relative clause modify the preceding Noun; it is more detail explanation, the main verb will be still clear if Non- restrictive relative clause is removed.

_ Non- restrictive relative clause is usually to be separated from the main verb by the comma (,). The preceding Noun is often Proper name or there are: This, that, these, those, my, his, her…that precede the Noun.

_That can not be used in Non- restrictive relative clause.

Eg: My father is 50. He is a doctor. à My father …………………………………………………….

This is my daughter. You meet he yesterday. à This girl…………………………………………….

3. Succeeding relative clause (it is not appropriate in formal English)

_ Succeeding relative clause explains the whole sentence; in this case, Which, the only relative pronoun, and comma (,) are used to separate 2 clauses. This relative clause often ends the sentence. 

Eg: I’m surprised to know he admires Mr Brown. à He ……………………………………………

Tom‘s sad because Mary tore his letter. à Mary……………………………………………………..

 

V. SHORTEND FORMS OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

1. Using participle phrases

1.1.Present participle phrase replaces that clause (Remove Relative pronoun, auxiliary; use V.ing- form for main verb)

Eg The man who is sitting next to you is my uncle. à The man …………………………………….

Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night? à Do you know …………………………………………………………?

1.2. Using past participle: is used for Verbs in relative clause which is passive. (Remove relative pronoun, auxiliary and start by past participle)

Eg1 The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting.

à The books ………………………………………………………...

Eg2 The students who were punished by the teacher are lazy.

à The students ………………………………………………………

Eg3 The house which is being built now belongs to Mr. Pike.

à The house …………………………………………………………

2. Using “to infinitive” or “infinitive phrase” (for sb to do): remove relative pronoun, Subject and Auxiliary, use “infinitive” to start he phrase

Eg English is an important language which we have to master.

à English ……………………………………………………………...

There is a good restaurant where we can eat good food.

à There ………………………………………………………...

That is the hotel where we can stay. à  That ………………………………………………………….

Here is the form that you must fill in. à Here ………………………………………………………...

3. Using noun phrases: non restrictive relative clause can be shortened by using Noun phrase

Eg1 George Washington, who was the first president of the United States, was a general in the army. à George Washington, …………………………………………………………………………...

Eg2 We visited Barcelona, which is a city in northern Spain.

à We………………………………………………………………………….

 

VI. SOME NOTES

1. Omit relative pronouns taking the role of Obj in restrictive relative clause

Eg We met a boy yesterday. You know him? à Do you ……………………………………………..

   I bought that house. à   That’s ……………………………………………………………………….

_But relative pronouns taking the role of Obj in non restrictive relative clause can not be omitted.

Eg: I spoke to Mr Tom on phone. He is very interested in our plan.

à Mr Tom…………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. When we focus on the Noun as the Obj of preposition, we can put the preposition before the relative pronouns in formal English, just for Whom and Which

Miss Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied with her last year.

à Miss Brown,……………………………………………………………………………………………..

à We would have got lost without the map. Fortunately we had it.

à Fortunately we ………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. Remember these starting structures: All, most, none, neither, any, either, some, (a) few, both, half, each, one, two, several, many, much, + of which/whom

Daisy has three brothers. They are teachers.à Daisy ……………………………………………….

I tried on three pairs of shoes. They are not fitted me. à I tried…………………………………….

He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them.

à He ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Two boys came into my class. I had never seen them before.

à Two boys, ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

They have got two car. One of them is seldom used.

àThey ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

There were a lot of people at the meeting. I had met few of them before.

àThere were ………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Use ‘that’ for these following cases

a. The preceder is Noun showing man and thing.

He had seen a lot of places and people in London. Then he told me about them.

à He told me ………………………………………………………………………………………………

b. After superlative: first and last

I have seen a lot of film. This is the most interesting one.

à This is ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

She’s visited many cities. Moscow is the finest one.

à Moscow …………………………………………………………………………………………………

She broke silence firsly. à  She was …………………………………………………………………...

c. After “all, only” and “very”

This is what he can sayà All that ……………………………………………………………………….

They had only one book. I bought it. à I bought ……………………………………………………..

I would like to see a very man as youà You’re ……………………………………………………….

d. After some indefinite pronouns

The thing he said is not worth listening to.à He never says ………………………………………..

It is interesting. I will tell you. à I’ll tell you ………………………………………………………....

5. In some situations, comma separates 2 sentences in very sensitive difference

This distinction is focused on the feature of element and the whole.

Comma (,) to distinguish

(,)

Meaning of whole, only one- can not be omitted

No (,)

Meaning of component, can be omitted

Eg: Identify the differences between these sentences

1.We took some children on the picnic. The children, who wanted to play soccer, ran to the field as soon as we arrive at the park.

We took some children on the picnic. The children who wanted to play soccer ran to the field as soon as we arrive at the park.

2. He reached in the basket and threw away the apples which were rotten.

He reached in the basket and threw away the apples, which were rotten.

3. Cindy was happy when she opened the present, which was from her father.

Cindy was happy when she opened the present which was from her father.


 

VIII.EXERCISES ON RELATIVE CLAUSES

I. Combine each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun or relative adverb

1. She is the most intelligent woman. I’ve ever met this woman.

2. This doctor is famous. You visited him yesterday.

3. These children are orphans. She is taking care of these children.

4. The two young men are not good persons. You are acquainted with them.

5. My father goes swimming everyday. You met him this morning.

6. The man is my father. I respect this man most.

7. The man is my father. I respect his opinion most.

8. Mary and Margaret are twins. You met them yesterday.

9. I’ll introduce you to the man. His support is necessary for your project.

10. The middle-aged man is the director. My father is talking to him.

11. The boy is my cousin. You make fun of him.

12. The student is from china. He sits next to me.

13. I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me.

14. The professor is excellent. I am taking his course.

15. Mr. Smith said he was too busy to speak to me. I had come to see him.

16. I saw a lot of people and horses. They went to market.

17. Tom has three sisters. All of them are married.

18. I recently went back to Paris. It is still as beautiful as a pearl.

19. I recently went back to Paris. I was born in Paris nearly 50 years ago.

20. Do you know the music? It is being played on the radio.

21. You didn’t tell us the reason. We have to cut down our daily expenses for that reason.

22. The day was rainy. She left on that day.

23. I’ve sent him two letters. He has received neither of them.

24. That man is an artist. I don’t remember the man’s name.

25. One of the elephants had only one tusk. We saw these elephants at the zoo.

26. That car belongs to Dr. Clark. Its engine is very good.

27. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it.

28. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.

29. Rod Lee has won an Oscar. I know his sister.

30. Is this the style of hair? Your wife wants to have it.

31. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out.

32. 7.05 is the time. My plane arrives then.

33. Max isn’t home yet. That worries me.

34. Do you know the building? The windows of the building are painted green.

35. Last week I went to see the house. I used to live in it.

36. I don’t know the girl’s name. She’s just gone into the hall.

37. Be sure to follow the instructions. They are given at the top of the page.

38. Hoan Kiem Lake is a historical place. Its water is always blue.

 

II. Fill in the blanks with Relative pronouns or Relative adverbs where necessary

1. Let me see all the letters _______ you have written.

2. Is there any one ________ can help me do this?

3. Mr. Brown, _________ is only 34, is the director of this company.

4. I know a place __________ roses grow in abundance.

5. It was the nurse ________ told me to come in.

6. The teacher with ________, we studied last year no longer teaches in our school.

7. They showed me the hospital ________ buildings had been destroyed by US bombings.

8. We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front.

9. Dr. Fleming, _______ discovered penicillin, was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1945.

10. He joined the political party _______ was in power.

11. Love, ________ is a wonderful feeling, comes to everyone at some time in his life.

12. Freedom is something for _______ millions has given their lives.

13. It is easy to find faults in people ________ we dislike.

14. The really happy people are those _______ enjoy their daily work.

15. We must find a time _______ we can meet and a place _______ we can talk.

 

III. Use a Relative pronoun preceded by a preposition to combine each pair of sentences below:

1. This is a rare opportunity. You should take advantage of it to get a better job.

2. The boy is my cousin. You made fun of him.

3. This matter is of great importance. You should pay attention to it.

4. The woman lives next door to me. You gave place to her on the bus.

5. The examination lasted two days. I was successful in this examination.

6. This is the result of our work. I’m pleased with it.

7. There is a No parking sign. I do not take notice of it.

8. Mr. Brown is the man. I am responsible to him for my work.

9. Do you see my pen? I have just written the lesson with it.

10. We are crossing the meadow. We flew kites over it in our childhood.

 

IV. Use Relative adverb to combine each pair of sentences below:

1. This is the house. We often stay in this house in summer.

2. I’ll show you the second hand bookshop. You can find valuable books in this shop.

3. I have not decided the day. I’ll go to London on that day.

4. He was born on the day. His father was away on that day.

5. The book is a telephone directory. We can look up telephone numbers in this book.

6. Mrs. Brown rang Dr. Brown. He was going to carry out an urgent operation at that moment.

7. The airport is the most modern one. We’re going to arrive at this airport.

8. She doesn’t want to speak of the cause. She divorced her husband of this cause.

9. The days were the saddest ones. I lived far from home on those days.

10. I never forget the park. We met each other for the first time at this park.

 

V. Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases

1. Do you know the woman who is coming towards us?

2. I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

3. The children who attend that school receive a good education.

4. The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

5. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

6. They live in the house that was built in 1890.

7. The papers that are on the table belong to Patricia.

8. The man who is talking to the policeman is my uncle.

9. The number of students who have been counted is quite high.

10. George is the man who was chosen to represent the committee at the convention.

 

VI. Replace the underlined clauses by an infinitive or infinitive phrase

1. I don’t like him playing in the street. I wish we had a garden that he could play in.

2. He simply loves parties. He is always the first who comes and the last who leaves.

3. The last person who leaves the room must turn off the lights.

4. The first man who was interviewed was entirely unsuitable.

5. I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything that I could open it with.

 

VII. Rewrite these sentences using a relative clause in place of the infinitive or infinitive phrases

1. The floor is dusty but I haven’t got a brush to sweep it. (with)

2. The pilot was the only man to survive in the crash.

3. He was the second person to be killed in this way.

4. I have just found a river to swim. (in)

5. This is a form for you to fill. (in)

 

VIII Choose the best answer

1)   The book ____ I bought at the bookstore yesterday is expensive.

                   A. who         B. whose                               C. that                D. B & C are correct

2)  What’s the name of the blonde girl ____ just came in?

                    A. who     B. whose          C. whom          D. A & B are correct

3)   I don’t like people ____ lose their tempers easily.

                   A. who      B. whose          C. that              D. A & C are correct

4)   Mexico City, ____ has a population of over 10 million, is probably the fastest growing city in the world.

                    A. which  B. whose          C. that              D. A & B are correct

5)   This is Henry, ____ sister works for my father.

                    A. who     B. whose          C. that              D.All are correct

6)   He’s the man ____ people like at first sight.

                  A. who       B. whom          C. that D. A & C are correct

7)   Could you iron the trousers ____ are hanging up behind the door?

                  A. who           B. which                              C. that         D. B & C are correct

8)   Where is the girl ____ sells tickets?

                  A. who            B. whose                             C. whom                     D. A & C are correct

9)   The  man____  we  consider  our  leader  had  much  experience  in  climbing  mountains.

                  A. who            B. whose                             C. whom                     D. A & C are correct

10)   The artist ____ name I couldn’t remember was one of the best I had ever seen.

                  A. who            B. whose                             C. that                         D. A & C are correct

11)   Frank invited Janet, ____ he had met in Japan, to the party.

                   A. who           B. whose                             C. that                         D. A & C are correct

12 The girl ___ design had been chosen stepped to the platform to receive the
                          award.

                   A. whose        B. whom                             C. that                         D. which

13)   I need to find a painting ____ will match the rest of my room.

                    A. whose        B. whom                            C. who                        D. which

14)   There are too many poor people ____ do not have enough to eat in the world.

                   A. whose       B. whom                              C. who                        D. which

15)   The trees ____ have the beautiful flowers grow near the gate of the garden.

A. whose                                   B. whom                     C. who                        D. which

16)   The teacher ____ teaches us French is coming today.

A. whom                                   B. who                        C. that                         D. B & C are correct

17)   What’s the music to ____ you are listening?

A. whose                             B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

18)   I don’t like the stories ____ have unhappy endings.

A. who                                 B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

19)   The students ____ don’t have library cards can’t borrow books from the library.

     A. who                              B. which                  C. whom                  D. A & C are correct

20)   Betty is the most intelligent girl ____ I have ever met.

A. who                                      B. whom                     C. that                         D. All are correct

21)   Do you know the music ____ is being played on the radio?

A. who                                      B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

22)   This channel often shows the cartoons of ____ the children are very fond.

A. whom                                   B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

23)   The dress ____ she bought last week doesn’t fit her well.

A. whom                                   B. which                     C. whose                     D. B & C are correct

24)   Do you know a shop ____ sells good coffee?

A. which                                    B. that                         C. whose                     D. A & B are correct

25)   The teacher punished the student ____ was naughty.

A. whom                                   B. who                        C. which                     D. A & B are correct

26)   She fell in love with a man ____ was from another country.

A. who                                      B. whom                     C. which                     D. whose

27)   I like to write to friends ____ are living far away from me.

A. who                                      B. whom                     C. that                         D. A & C are correct

28)   I bought some pencils ____ are in different colours.

A. whose                                   B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

29)   She ate an apple ____ was still green.

A. who                                      B. which                     C. whose                     D. whom

30)   This is my beloved school ____ I studied when I was young.

A. which                                    B. that                         C. where                     D. A & B are correct

31)   Here’s the paper ____ you need.

A. whom                                   B. that                         C. who                        D. whose

32)   The woman ____ has been arrested lives in an apartment.

A. that                                       B. which                     C. whom                     D. A & C are correct

33)   The teacher notices the students ____ often come to class late.

A. that                                       B. which                     C. who                        D. A & C are correct

34)   The house in ____ I was born is for sale.

A. which                                    B. whom                     C. that                         D. A & C are correct

35)   That is the chair ____ he used to sit on for meals.

A. which                                    B. whose                     C. that                         D. A & C are correct

36)   What is the picture ____ you are looking at?

A. which                              B. when                      C. whose                     D. A & C are correct

37) In the middle of the village, there is a well from ____ the villagers take water to drink.

A. that                                  B. which                     C. whom                     D. A & B are correct

38)   There is a NO PARKING sign ____ I did not take notice of.

A. that                                  B. which                     C. who                        D. A & B are correct

39)   I must thank the people ____ I got the present from.

A. who                                      B. whom                     C. that                         D. All are correct

4o)   Do you know the doctor for ____ I send?

A. whom                                   B. that                         C. who                        D. All are correct

41)   The man about ____ I was telling you is standing over there.

A. who                                      B. that                         C. whom                     D. All are correct

42)   The woman ____ Ann must take care of is very poor and old.

A. whom                                   B. that                         C. who                        D. All are correct

43)   This is the man to ____ I gave some money this morning.

A. who                                      B. whom                     C. that                         D. All are correct

44)   This is the result of our work ____ I’m pleased with.

A. that                                  B. whose                     C. which                     D. A & C are correct

45)   The problem in ____ we are very interested has been discussed in class.

A. that                                  B. whom                     C. which                     D. A & C are correct

46)   The boy ____ you made fun of yesterday is my cousin.

A. who                                 B. whom                     C. that                         D. All are correct

47)Ann, ____ lives next door, is very friendly.

A. who                                 B. whom                     C. that                         D. All are correct

48)   We went to Sandra’s party, ____ we enjoyed very much.

A. which                                    B. whom                     C. that                         D. who

49)   John, ____ I have known for a very long time, is one of my closest friends.

A. whose                                   B. whom                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

50)   Sheila, ____ job involves a lot of travelling, is away from home a lot.

A. whose                                   B. whom                     C. that                         D. which

51)   This new stadium, ____ can hold 90,000 people, will be opened next month.

                   A. that              B. whose                           C. which           D. A & B are correct

52)   My brother, ____ lives in Houston, is a doctor.

A. who             B. whom          C.that               D. A & B are correct

53)   My office, ____ is on the second floor, is small.

   A. whose      B. which          C.  who. .D. A & B are correct

54)   She told me her address ____ I wrote down on a piece of paper.

A. which                                    B. that                         C. whose                     D. A & B are correct

55) The sun, ____ is one of millions of stars in the universe, provides us with heat and light.

        A. which                B. that                         C. who                        D. A & B are correct

56)   Tom made a number of suggestions, most of ____ were very helpful.

A. them                                B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

57)   Mary has three brothers, all of ____ are married.

60)   The meeting ………I went was interesting.

A. to which    B. which                                                 C. that                         D. B & C are correct

58)   We were given a lot of information, most of ____ was useless.

A. which                                    B. it                             C. that                         D. All are correct

59)   There were a lot of people at the party, only a few of ____ I had met before.

A. them                                     B. whom                     C. who                        D. B & C are correct

60)   I sent her two letters, neither of ____ she has received.

A. that                                       B. these                       C. which                     D. whom

61)   A café is a small restaurant ____ people can get a light meal.

A. where                                    B. which                     C. that                         D. All are correct

62)   My room has a very large window ____ you can see the whole lake.

A. which                                    B. that                         C. where                     D. All are correct

63)Alaska, ____ my brother lives, is the largest state in the United States.

A. which                                    B. where                     C. who                        D. All are correct

64) This is the house ____ we often stay the summer.

A. where                                    B. which                     C. that                         D. All are correct

65)   Do you remember the clock tower ____ I first met you?

A. where                                    B. which                     C. that                         D. All are correct

66)  Tell me the reason ____ you were absent yesterday.

A. where                                    B. when                      C. why                        D. that

67)  Do you know the reason ____ Laura doesn’t like me?

A. which                                    B. where                     C. that                         D. why

68)   There was a time ____ dinosaurs dominated the earth.

A. which                                    B. when                      C. that                         D. A & B are correct

69)  The house in ____ I was born and grew up was destroyed in an earthquake ten
                          years ago.

A. which                                    B. where                     C. that                         D. All are correct

70)  Summer is the time of the year ____ the weather is the hottest.

A. when                                     B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

71)  The reason ____ Jim has just lost his job is that he didn’t work hard enough.

A. why                                      B. which                     C. that                         D. B & C are correct

72)  They hid the money in a place ____ it was safe from robbers.

A. which                                    B. where                     C. that                         D. All are correct

73 ) Please tell me the reason for ____ I should let you go.

A. that                                       B. which                     C. why                        D. B & C are correct

74)  I know a wood ____ you can find wild strawberries.

A. where                              B. which                     C. that                         D. All are correct

75)  Can you suggest a time at ____ it will be convenient to meet?

A. which                              B. when                      C. why                        D. that

76)   Is there any reason for ____ you should have a holiday?

A. why                                 B. which                     C. that                         D. A & B are correct

77) Tell me the countries ____ the traffic moves on the left-hand side.

A. where                                    B. which                     C. that                         D. A & B are correct

78)  We keep our bread in the bridge ____ it doesn’t go bad.

A. since                                     B. so that                    C. although                 D. after

79) ____ these cars are cheap, they last a long time.

A. Because    B. In order that   C. Although                                             D. After

80) You should give the iron time to heat up ____ you iron your clothes.

A. because                           B. so that                    C. even though         D. before

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SENTENCE BUILDING

A. SENTENCE THEORY

I. Sentence in the extroversive relationship

This is the relations between sentence to sentence, sentence to the whole context; in extensive expression it is the relationship between the sentence and all of other elements outside that sentence.

Based on the purpose, field and situation of communication, it is familiar to focus on the style of a political commentary and scientific report with these characteristics:

1.1. There are varieties of sentence structures. The demand of information requires the suitable structure:

But it is common for the complex structural sentences and separating them into parts to be used to express concept, law clearly:

1.2. To meet the question of logic and persuading, compound sentence with (pair of) conjunction is apply to form argument: (If, so, because of that, etc.)

1.3. A scientific report has the tendency to use dummy subject, passive voice, etc.:

A political commentary owns some expressive and rich in images sentences:

Exercise: Identify the example for each of point and their topics:

How and where man learnt how to produce flame at will is unknown. It was probably a secondary invention, accidentally made during tool-making operations with wood or stone. Studies of primitive societies suggest that the earliest method of making fire was through friction. European peasants would insert a wooden drill in a round hole and rotate it briskly between their palms. This process could be speeded up by wrapping a cord around the drill and pulling on each end. (A spark, a flint: How fire leapt to life; Vannessa Jakeman, Cambridge IELTS 1)

…Some people said Japan was down for the count, and that was obviously a distorted view: Japan’s banks were tallying bad loans of more than 300 billion USD, dwarfing America’s own housing and loan crisis. Honda told to put brakes on new car prices… But now the samurai is showing sign of life. Is Japan back and badder than ever?

Absolute, true, and mathematical time, in and of itself and of its own nature, without reference to anything external, flows uniformly and by another name is called duration. Relative, apparent, and common time is any sensible and external measure (precise or imprecise) of duration by means of motion; such a measure - for example, an hour, a day, a month, a year - is commonly used instead of true time. (Philosophae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, I. Newton)

Make no mistake, the next generation will ask us one of two questions. Either they will ask: "What were you thinking; why didn't you act?" Or they will ask instead: "How did you find the moral courage to rise and successfully resolve a crisis that so many said was impossible to solve?" 

We have everything we need to get started, save perhaps political will, but political will is a renewable resource. So let us renew it, and let us say together: 

"We have a purpose. 

We are many. 

For this purpose we will rise, 

and we will act."

(Al Gore, Nobel Peace Prize Lecture, 10 December 2007, Stockholm, Sweden)

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attacks deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been  reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu. (Franklin Delano Roosevelt Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation, December 8, 1941)

 

II. Sentence in the introversive relationship

This is the relation of elements inside a sentence

2.1. Word classes: part of speech is generally divided into two broad groups- open classes and closed classes. Open classes including Noun, Verb, Adjective and Adverb are constantly added new member because it is in the sense of reference to things in the world. Closed classes including Pronoun, Numeral, Determiner, Preposition and Conjunction are oriented more towards internal linguistic relationships.

It’s common for word classes to be divided into 9 categories:

2.2.1. Noun

In the broadest sense, noun refers to thing and it can be divided into some groups

Proper Noun

Common Noun: does not refer to unique thing

Countable Noun: refers to object that may be counted

Concrete Noun

Abstract Noun

Refers to unique thing , such as people, places, institutions, etc.

Refers to perceivable objects in the world

Refers to idea, feeling and thing of that kind

Mass Noun: is principle uncountable

2.2.2. Verb

Refers to action, event, process; there are some forms like this: infinitive, third person singular present tense, past tense, present participle, past participle.

Auxiliary verb: grammatical function

Lexical verb

 

 

 

Transitive

Intransitive

 

Dynamic verb

Active

Stative verb

Inert perception

 

Process

Bodily sensation

Cognition

Transitional event

Momentary

Relational

2.2.3. Adjective

Is often characterized as descriptive words

Adjective

Dynamic

Stative

Gradable: may be modified by certain adverbs

Non-gradable

Inherent: Refers the noun directly

Non-inherent

Order of adj: Noun determiner, Possessive Noun, Ordinal number, cardinal number, Noun determiner (indefinite, quantitative), Quality/opinion, size/shape/length/age, Color, Kind/nationality, Material, Noun/gerund, Head Noun.

 

2.2.4. Adverb

Represent a very diverse set of words; there are two kinds that refer to circumstantial information about the action, event or process.

Adverb

Yesterday, now; there, outside; carefully, beautifully

Very hard, extremely

 

2.2.5. Pronoun

Has the main function of substituting for noun, once a noun has been mentioned in a particular text:

Substitute for person

Personal pronoun

I, we, you, they

Reflexive pronoun

Myself, themselves, etc.

Possessive pronoun

Mine, yours, his, hers, etc.

Substitute for person, adj, adv in question

Interrogative pronoun

Who, what, which, when, where, why, how

Substitute for Noun as elements in relative clause

Relative pronoun

Who, whom, which, when, where

Imply a gesture of pointing

Demonstrative pronoun

This, that

All, many, few, everyone, anything, nothing

2.2.6. Numeral

Numberal

Ordinal: order of an item and comprise the series: first, second, third, fourth

Cardinal: specifies quantity: one, two, three

 

2.2.7. Determiner

Is used with noun to define the reference of the noun in some ways

Identifiers

Article

Indefinite article

Definite article

Possessive: my, your, his, her, our, their

Demonstrative: this, that, these, those

Quantifiers

A lot, many, few, several, little

2.2.8. Preposition

_Relate a noun phrase to another unit

Preposition

Time

After the meal

Place

In front of the bus

Logic

Because of his action

_Be tied to a particular verb/ adj to link that verb with its object: wait for the bus

2.2.9. Conjunction

Joins one clause/ noun to another

Conjunction

Coordinating conjunction

And, or, but

Subordinating conjunction

When, if , why, whether

Exercise

1. Identify the word class to which each word in the following sentences belongs:

_After they had visited the British Museum, the twenty foreign visitors made their way quickly to the House of Parliament.

_Alice looked at the jury-box, and saw that, in her haste, she had put the lizard in head downwards, and the poor little thing was waving its tail about in melancholy way, being quite unable to move.

_Tonight, I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. (G.W.Bush)

2. Arrange the adj supplied in the correct order before the nouns

_A household (well-ordered, quiet)        

_A cup of tea (China, hot, delicious)        

_A child (weak, pale, sick)                        

_A boy (intelligent, active, happy)            

_A town (industrial, dirty, nasty)                

_A bowl (Chinese, porcelain, delicate, pink)        

 

2.2. Sentence must be correct in English grammar, it means the builder have to satisfy the descriptions of the regular ways in which English construct the sentences as the generalizations of what happens, made from observing many specific instances and relating them to one another.

_The first mission here is to master some grammar units:

+Word: the unit bounded either side by a space.

+Sentence: the unit that stretches from a beginning capital letter to a concluding full stop.

+Phrase, clause: the intervening units between word and sentence are usually called phrase and clause: phrase is equivalent to the word groupings and the larger unit is clause. Clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and a predicate. The predicate contains information about someone or something that is the subject

Exercise: Analyze the following sentences into clauses, phrases and words in tree diagram:

John kicked the ball and Harry caught it.

The fifty English tourists walked along the Great Wall.

If you write to this address, they will send you a coloured procedure.

The old lady has been anxious about her cats.

Fire!

_The second mission is that it is necessary to understand some kinds of sentences

One way to categorize sentences is by the clauses they contain. (A clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and a predicate.)

Sentence types: One way to categorize sentences is by the clauses they contain. (A clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and a predicate.) Here are the 4 sentence types:

+ Simple: Contains a single, independent clause.

+Compound: Contains two independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction. (The most common coordinating conjunctions are: but, or, and, so. Remember: boas.)

+Complex: Contains an independent clause plus one or more dependent clauses. (A dependent clause starts with a subordinating conjunction. Examples: that, because, while, although, where, if.)

+Compound-complex: Contains 3 or more clauses (of which at least two are independent and one is dependent).

Notes: Writing that contains mostly short, simple sentences can be uninteresting or even irritating to read. Writing that consists of mostly long, a complex sentence is usually difficult to read. Good writers, therefore, use a variety of sentence types. They also occasionally start complex (or compound-complex) sentences with the dependent clause and not the independent clause.

Exercise: Put these examples into suitable groups of sentences

A tree fell onto the school roof in a storm, but none of the students was injured, although many of them were in classrooms at the top of the building.

A tree fell onto the school roof in a storm, but none of the students was injured.

Our school basketball team lost their last game of the season 75-68.

You can write on paper, although a computer is better if you want to correct mistakes easily.

The old hotel opposite the bus station in the center of the town is probably going to be knocked down at the end of next year.

I don't like dogs, and my sister doesn't like cats because they make her sneeze.

I don't like dogs, and my sister doesn't like cats.

You can write on paper, but using a computer is better as you can easily correct your mistakes.

You can write on paper, or you can use a computer.

I don't like dogs that bark at me when I go past.

She did my homework, while her father cooked dinner.

I don't like dogs.

 

2.3. Punctuation

Punctuation conveys grammatical information, so it is able to disambiguate meaning in strings of words:

woman without her man is helpless

2.4. Reasonable semantic relationship

_Wrong in the fact

_The relations between parts are not logic

According to me, etc.

Through you, he is a good friend

_Some parts are not coequal

Let’s find some examples in Greek Mythology, Dante, Shakespeare and Twilight to prove that literature is a human being study.

 

B. SENTENCE PRACTICE

I. SENTENCE

1.1. Common mistakes

1.1.1. Sentence fragments: Sentence fragments lack some vital component of a sentence. It is a dependent clause standing alone without an independent clause.

I don't think I'm going to get a good grade. Because I didn't study.

After riding my bike without problems for over a year, the chain broke. 40 kilometers from my house!

1.1.2. Run-on sentences: These are two sentences that the writer has not separated with an end punctuation mark, or has not joined with a conjunction.  Incorrect punctuation can result in run-on sentences.

If you're going to the shops can you buy me some eggs and flour I want to make a cake.

Team leaders should be aware of group norms, they should try to find out which norms are task related and which are counter productive.

1.1.3. Rambling sentences: A rambling sentence is a sentence made up of many clauses, often connected by a coordinating conjunction such as and, or, so.

John usually gets up before 7 o'clock, but yesterday his alarm clock did not ring, so he was still asleep when his boss called him at 10.30 to ask where he was and tell him that he would lose his job if he was late again.

Although the blue whale has been protected for over 30 years and its numbers are increasing, especially in the North Pacific, where whale hunting has been banned, it is still at risk of extinction as its habitat is being polluted by waste from oil tankers and its main food, the plankton, is being killed off by harmful rays from the sun, which can penetrate the earth's atmosphere because there is a huge hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica.

1.1.4. The lack of subject-verb agreement: To be a fully grammatical sentence, the subject and the verb in the sentence need to agree in number and person.

The article by Smith and Jones discuss the impact of the internet on society.

1.1.5. Splitting of infinitives

To parts of an infinitive usually go together; avoid putting words between them

I told him to carefully drive on slippery streets.

Alice’s daughter asked her to more often visit her.

1.5. Better sentence for good sake

1.5.1. Make your texts interesting by using various types of clauses and structures

_Participle clauses: If a clause is shortened using a participle construction, the clause is called participle clause. Example: Watching TV, she forgot everything around her.

In English, participle clauses are mainly used in writing in order to put a lot of information into one sentence. When shortening or combining clauses with a participle construction, keep the following rules in mind:

Both clauses should have the same subject.

The less important part becomes the participle clause. Important information should always be in the main clause.

Make sure, you use the correct participle form (see above).

The conjunctions as, because, since and relative pronouns who, which are left out.

The conjunctions before, when are used in the participle clause.

The conjunctions after, while can be used or left out.

+ Present Participle

The present participle is the ing-form.

from progressive / continuous tenses (e. g. Present Progressive) – I am speaking.

as an adjective form – The film is interesting.

as a gerund – He is afraid of flying.

The present participle can be used to describe the following verbs: come, go and sit

E.g.: The girl sat crying on the sofa.

The present participle can also be used after verbs of the senses if we do not want to emphasize that the action was completed: feel, find, hear, listen to, notice, see, smell and watch

E.g.: Did you see him dancing?

Furthermore, the present participle can be used to shorten or combine active clauses that have the same subject.

Example: She left the house and whistled. – She left the house whistling.

+ Past Participle

The past participle is the participle that you find in the third column of lists with irregular verbs. You surely know this form:

from perfect tenses – I have spoken.

from passive voice – The letter was written.

as an adjective form – I was bored to death.

The past participle can also be used to shorten or combine passive clauses that have the same subject. E.g.: The boy was given an apple. He stopped crying. – Given an apple, the boy stopped crying.

+Perfect Participle: can be used to shorten or combine clauses that have the same subject if

… one action (the one where the perfect participle is used) is completed before the next action starts. E.g.: She bought a bike and cycled home. – Having bought a bike, she cycled home.

… one action has been going on for a period of time when another action starts.

E.g.: He had been living there for such a long time that he didn't want to move to another town. – Having lived there for such a long time, he didn't want to move to another town.

The perfect participle can be used for active and passive voice.

active voice: having + past participle (Having cooked, he set the table.)

passive voice: having been + past participle (Having been cooked, the food looked delicious.)

_Relative clauses

_Conditional sentences

_Infinitive constructions, introductory clauses with infinitive or gerund

_Prepositional clauses

Remember to use the comma:

+Use a comma after introductory infinitive clauses.

E.g.: To improve her English, she practiced every day.

+Use a comma after introductory prepositional clauses.

E.g.: Before he went to New York, he had spent a year in Australia.

Use a comma after introductory participle clauses. E.g.: Having said this, he left the room.

_Passive voice

_Deduction

A good sentence should not be wordy. Whether possible we can leave out these words by reducing clauses to phrases and phrases to words

Because she feels so hot, Alice turns on the fan.

Tom is a pupil possessed of talent

_Inversion

_Parallel structure

Helen is careful, with keen wit, and has a friendly manner.

My little brother likes swimming and to play football.

1.5.2. Develop a specific sentence

Example:       a) "There is a man over there."

b) "I was very tired."

c) "Can you come?"

 Remember This! When you are writing, always remember to answer the basic questions in detail: Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How?

 

 

II. PUNCTUATION

Exercise:

1. Books, which are unavailable in the library, will be removed from the reading list.

2. When we finished eating the dog barked.

3. The poets tone reflects contemporary attitudes to Aboriginal Australians.

4. Empathy is the key to providing quality patient care. It's importance should not be overlooked in staff training and development programs.

5. The three most important factors are the following; the motivation of the learner, whether it is intrinsic or extrinsic; their ability to tolerate ambiguity; and their attitude to the learning experience.

III. IDENTIFY THE MISTAKE ANY CORRECT IT

1. The leader emphasized the need for justice and equality between his people.

                                              A            B                                   C                D

2. The value of precious gems is determined by their hardness, color, and brilliant.

                               A            B                               C                                          D

3. Hardly he had entered the office when he realized that he had forgotten his wallet.

             A                               B                                          C                D

4. While they were away at the beach, they allowed their neighbors use their barbeque grill.

       A              B                                                                  C             D

5. The town we visited was a four-days journey from our hotel, so we took the train instead of the bus.                                 A             B                                                         C                              D

6. John’s wisdom teeth were troubling him, so he went to a dental surgeon to see about having

them pull.                             A                                                                                 B

   C   D

7. The candidate spoke ambiguously on purpose so that people listen to him could hear

                                                  A                 B                                  C         

      whatever they wanted to hear.

            D

8. The doctor suggested that he lay in bed for several days as a precaution against further

damage to the tendons.               A      B              C                                                       D

     

9. Some bumper stickers are very funny and make us laugh, yet another can make us angry

                                           A                                             B               C

      because of their ridiculousness.

                                          D

10. Had the committee members considered the alternatives more carefully, they would have

                           A                                                                                  B    

      realized that the second was better as the first.

                                        C                           D 

11. While flying at night, bats use a combination of vision, smelling, and hearing to find food, to

                 A                                              B                                           C

      navigate, and to avoid collisions.

                                        D

12. John’s wisdom teeth were troubling him, so he went to a dental surgeon to see about having

                                                A                                                                                  B

      them pull.

         C    D

13. The candidate spoke ambiguously on purpose so that people listen to him could hear

                                                 A                 B                                    C        

      whatever they wanted to hear.

            D

14. Since they begin their journey, migrating animals use a variety of specialized abilities and

         A                                                         B                                                C

      senses to reach their destinations.

                      D

15. Almost one-half of those taking specialized courses last year were taking self-improvement course.

           A                           B                    C                                                                                           D

16. Gas-efficiency, secure, economical, and practical, today’s cars are better than any produced before.

                A               B                                        C                                                  D

 

17. Originally devoting to industrial science, MIT has developed into five schools offering

                            A                                                                           B                            C 

      undergraduate as well as graduate work.

                                     D

18. As their standard of living has improved, most American families have become accustomed

              A                                         B

      to enjoy creature comforts previous generations only dreamed of.

             C                                                                                   D

19. Although indigestible dietary fibers provide no energy or building materials, but they play a

                              A                                                   B                      C                            D

      vital role in our health.

 

20. It is asked that English can be a very difficult language for a person to learn in his later years.

                A                            B                                              C                                   D  

21. Comfortable shoes are a must when taking a walk tour of Wales.

                                        A      B                  C             D

22. The Egyptian first discovered that dried fruit preserved it, made it sweeter, and improved its

                               A                               B                                                   C                   D

      flavor.

23. Compact discs have revolutionized the music industry with their surprising realistic sound.

                                            A                                                 B     C          D

24. The Mayor called the members of the United Nations to unite in a global effort to eradicate

     terrorism.       A                          B                                      C                                        D

25. A conductor uses signals and gestures to let the musicians to know when to play various parts

                             A                 B                                                     C                    D

     of a composition.

26. It’s not necessary that one meets with a judge before signing the final papers of divorce.

                                    A     B     C       D

27. Why certain plants contain alkaloids remain a mystery, although botanists have formulated a

        A                                                           B                             C            

      number of theories to explain it.

                             D

28. People have to take precautions to both acts of sabotage and direct violence in times of war.

                      A                                B             C                                                          D

29. When T.S. Elliot’s The Wasteland appeared in 1922, critics were divided as to how good it

      was written.                                                                     A                             B              C     

                 D                                                                                              

30. The use of standard spelling, correct grammar, and approving pronunciation indicates that a

                 A                                                                             B                                    C

      person is educated.

                        D

31. Uranus is the alone planet in the solar system which is tipped on its side.

                               A                  B                             C                        D

32. Since ancient times, water from rivers and smaller streams are used for irrigation.

                               A                                              B                   C        D

33. Voyager 2 is the spacecraft which has greatly expanded us knowledge of the solar system.

                                                      A               B                      C                    D

34. Dolphins, whales, and many other sea creatures use high sophisticated navigation systems.

                                              A       B                                 C                                                D

35. The destructive force of running water depends entirely almost on the velocity of its flow.

                     A                           B                                         C                                          D

 

36. Most critics agree that William Shakespeare was the greater writer in the English language.

         A                          B                                                       C               D

37. Alexander Graham Bell was once a teacher who run a school for the deaf in Massachusetts.

                                                       A                            B                 C                 D

38. The problem of handling waste materials are compounded by the introduction of containers

        A                                                          B                                         

       that do not decay easily.

              C                       D

39. When babies are around fifteen months old, they can pick up objects and put themselves into

          A                                                                   B                           C                          D

       small containers.

 

40. American painter Georgia O’Keeffe is well-known as her large paintings of flowers in which

                                                                                         A                                                       B

      single blossoms are presented as if in close-up.

                        C                   D

41. As the plane flows over the Alps, the view was breath-taking.

      A                      B            C                                           D

42. Almost people in the room clapped when the president entered.

           A                                          B        C                               D                           

43. It was so tightly wedged that I hardly knew how to loose it.

                        A                     B         C                              D

44. What the Minister said appear to have been deliberately misinterpreted.

         A                                     B             C                  D 

45. Her ambition is take part in the next Olympic Games and win a gold medal for her country.

                                      A                                      B                   C                         D

46. Most forest fires result in human carelessness or arson, but some are started by lightning.

         A                             B                                                             C          D

47. Graduating high school in 1901, he worked as a clerk and a bookkeeper until 1906 when he

                      A                                                           B                                                        C  

      began working on the family’s farm in Grandview, Missouri.

                                         D

 

48. Adults learn different from children, but no age-related differences in learning ability           

                                    A                                                     B

       have been demonstrated for adults of different ages.

                 C                                                 D

49. The photograph revealed a group of mountain climbers who had strung a twenty-feet rope

                                                                                                                  A               B        

      between two particularly dangerous peaks.

            C                     D

50. When shopping, keep in mind that food processing was invented to improve safety as well as

                 A                                                     B                                            C        

       prolonging shelf-life.

               D

51. Eagles and hawks are believed to have the keener sight of all birds.

                        A                      B                           C                     D

52. Uranus is the alone planet in the solar system which is tipped on its side.

                               A                  B                             C                        D

53. In large amounts, caffeine can induce nervousness and caused loss of sleep.

           A                            B                                                       C                   D

54. We insist on your leaving the meeting before any farther outbursts take place.

       A                        B                                   C                     D

55. Before the invention of the printing press, books have been all printed by hand.

          A                                       B                                      C                         D

56. Water, the most common substance on earth, it covers nearly 70% of the planet.

                      A                                B                         C                     D

57. Dolphins, whales, and many other sea creatures use high sophisticated navigation systems.

                                              A       B                                 C                                                D

58. Most critics agree that William Shakespeare was the greater writer in the English language.

         A                          B                                                       C               D

59. Despite the metric system is used throughout the world, it is still not commonly used in the US.

           A                                        B                                                C                 D

60. Governments have attempted to prevent disease by limiting air pollution and water pollution                                          

                                                             A                           B        

and prohibit the use of food additives that cause cancer in animals.

           C                                 D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PARAGRAPH BUIDING

I. GETTING READY TO WRITE: Decide what you are going to write and then plan them.

1.1. To choose and narrow a topic: choose a topic that is not too narrow or broad

Ex: holidays, friends, country, dancing, car, etc.

1.2. Brainstorm: gather idea about the topic; there are 3 main types:

+Making a list

Ex: teenager fashions, driving, things to do at the beach, etc.

+Free writing: write whatever comes into your head about the topic, without stopping.

+Mapping: write topic in the middle with a circle around it; put the next idea in a circle above and below, connect them by lines, etc.

II. THE STRUCTURE OF A PARAGRAPH

2.1. Definition: A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic.

Ex: Read and identify what are the topic, main idea and supporting ideas

Our writing, from context view, mentions to the literary type of Prodigal sons in two great religions and focus on plot, character and structure. So, while the story in Lotus Sutra starts earlier and emphasizes in the Father’s helping progress by “means”, the Bible one puts the core at the Father’s love to accept the Lost Son’s coming back. Besides, if the relationship here is between the human being and the God or Buddha, the version in Lotus Sutra expresses the self-effort of Acarin with his Tathagata Store. In addition, we recognize, from point of view and received object, the characteristic of each version in the reference to Sutra system and Bible in order to explain their differences in meaning. In short, the prodigal type is an interesting phenomenon which reveals the humanity in Buddhism and Christianism through the way of literature.

2.2. Parts of a paragraph: A paragraph has three basic parts

_The topic sentence: is the main idea, the most general and often the first sentence of the paragraph.

_The supporting sentences: explain the topic sentence, they are more detail and follow the topic sentence.

_The concluding sentence: finish a paragraph by repeating the main idea or giving the final comment.

Ex: Identify three main parts of these paragraphs:

Today, we are committed to a worldwide struggle to promote and protect the rights of all who wish to be free. And when Americans are sent to Vietnam or West Berlin, we do not ask for whites only. It ought to be possible, therefore, for American students of any color to attend any public institution they select without having to be backed up by troops. It ought to be possible for American consumers of any color to receive equal service in places of public accommodation, such as hotels and restaurants and theaters and retail stores, without being forced to resort to demonstrations in the street, and it ought to be possible for American citizens of any color to register and to vote in a free election without interference or fear of reprisal. It ought to be possible, in short, for every American to enjoy the privileges of being American without regard to his race or his color. (JF.Kenedy, Civil Rights Address)

2.3. Paragraph structure

Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structure—introduction, body, and conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader.

_Introduction: the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition.

_Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information.

_Conclusion: the final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraph and the paragraph’s controlling idea.

Ex: Identify the structure of this paragraph:

Scientists have learned to supplement the sense of sight in numerous ways. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle 200 inches in diameter, and with it see 2000 times farther into the depths of space. Or they look through a small pair of lenses arranged as a microscope into a drop of water or blood, and magnify by as much as 2000 diameters the living creatures there, many of which are among man’s most dangerous enemies. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. Thus almost every type of electromagnetic radiation yet discovered has been used to extend our sense of sight in some way. (George Harrison, “Faith and the Scientist”)

2.4. Topic sentence

2.4.1. Definition:  A topic sentence has several important functions: it substantiates or supports an essay’s thesis statement; it unifies the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences; and it advises the reader of the subject to be discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it. Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph.

Example: Medicine is one of the oldest sciences known to man. Ancient medicine was a combination of magical powers, charms, and formulas. Powdered goat food and dried frog eyes seem strange and absurd remedies to modern man, but the ancients took them seriously. They also believed that many illnesses were the result of having displeased the gods. Therefore, the best cure was a prayer or sacrifice that would restore them to the favor of the gods. For this reason, the profession of physicians or doctors was usually reserved to the priest caste. This custom persists, even today, in some of the primitive tribes of Africa and among the American Indians.

2.4.2. Exercises

a. Write topic sentence for these topics

_A favorite place to relax

_A grandparent

_A pet

b. Circle the topic and underline controlling idea

1. Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop
2. There are several advantages to growing up in a small town
3. There are several enjoyable ways to travel between the US and Queretaro
4. Air pollution in Mexico City is the worst in the world for a number of reasons
5. Industrial waste poured into Lake Michigan has led to dramatic changes in its ability to support marine life
6. Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL score for a number of reasons
7. Animals in danger of becoming extinct come from a wide range of countries
8. People can avoid burglaries by taking certain precautions
9. In order to fully explore the wreck of the Titanic, scientists must address several problems
10. Fixing a flat tire on a bicycle is easy if you follow these steps
c. Choose the best topic sentence for each group of supporting sentences. Write it on the line provided.

1.) ……………………………. For example, a person can have breakfast in New York, board an airplane, and have dinner in Paris. A businesswoman in London can instantly place an order with a factory in Hong Kong by sending a fax. Furthermore, a schoolboy in Tokyo can turn on a TV and watch a baseball game being played in Los Angeles.

a) Airplanes have changed our lives.

b) Advances in technology have made the world seem smaller.

c) The fax machine was an important invention.

2.) ………………………………………….. I enjoy summer sports like water skiing and baseball. The weather is usually sunny and hot, so I can go to the beach almost every day. Gardening is my hobby and I spend many summer days working in my garden. Unfortunately, the days pass too quickly in summer.

a) I like to garden in summer.

b) Summer is my favorite season.

c) Summer is too short.

3.) ……………………………………………………….. One thing you must consider is the quality of the university’s educational program. You also need to think about the school’s size and location. Finally, you must be sure to consider the university’s tuition to make sure you can afford to go to school there.

a) It is expensive to attend a university in the United States.

b) There are several factors to consider when you choose a university to attend.

c) You should consider getting a good education.

4.) ……………………………………………………………... North Americans send cards for many occasions. They send cards to family and friends on birthdays and holidays. They also send thank-you cards, get well cards, graduation cards, and congratulation cards. It is very common to buy cards in stores and send them through the mail, but turning on the computer and sending cards over the Internet is also popular.

a) Sending cards is very popular in North America.

b) Birthday cards are the most popular kind of card.

c) It is important to send thank-you cards.

5.) ……………………... First of all, we need money to repair old roads and build new roads. We also need more to pay teachers’ salaries and to pay for services such as trash collection. Finally, more tax money is needed to give financial help to the poor citizens of the city. It is clear that the city will have serious problems if taxes are not raised soon.

a) We should raise city taxes.

b) City taxes are too high.

c) City taxes pay for new roads.

d. Write a topic sentence for each paragraph. Make sure your topic sentence expresses the main idea of the paragraph.

1.) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. He has collected stamps and coins ever since he was a child. He is very proud of his valuable collections. Paul also enjoys painting and drawing. Recently he has become interested in gardening. Out of all his hobbies, Paul’s favorite one is reading. He usually reads at least one book every week. Paul keeps busy with all of his hobbies.

2.) ……………………………………………………………... I can’t wait to come home from school and eat the delicious meals she has prepared. She is famous for her desserts like peach pie and chocolate soufflé. She is always experimenting with new recipes and trying different ingredients. No one in the world can cook the way my mother does.

3.) …………………………………………………………. It never starts in cold weather. The horn and the left turn signal don’t work properly. Worst of all, the radio only gets one station, and the CD player is completely broken. I wish I could get a new car.

4.)………………………………………………………………First and most importantly, the work is very interesting. I learn new things every day and I get to travel a lot. In addition, my boss is very nice. She is always willing to help me when I have a problem. I have also made many new friends at my job. Last, but not least, the salary is fantastic.

5.) ………………………………………. To start things off, my plane was six hours late. When I finally got to my hotel, I was very disappointed. It was small and dirty. On the third day, my wallet was 4stolen, and I lost all my credit cards. It rained every day except one, and on that day I got a terrible sunburn. All in all, it wasn’t a vacation to remember.

III. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARAGRAPH

3.1. Paragraph support and development

There are 3 basic ways to develop a paragraph

_Detail: some specific points that tell more about a general statement

_Explanation: what something means or how something works

_Example: a specific person, place, thing or event that support an idea or statement.

3.2. Concluding sentence

3.2.1. Definition: The final sentence of a paragraph is usually called the concluding sentence; it sums up the main points or restates the main idea in a different way- it means to give the same information in a slightly way, perhaps by using different words or using different word order.

3.2.2. Exercise- Write a concluding sentence for each paragraph

1.) Credit cards have a lot of advantages. First of all, credit cards are convenient because you don’t have to carry a lot of cash around. You can buy the products and services you need even if you do not have cash in your pocket. In addition, credit cards are very helpful in emergencies. Finally, you can become a better money manager as you learn to use credit cards responsibly. ……………………………………………………………………………………...

2.) There are many reasons why I am against wearing a school uniform. For one thing I don’t like they style of the uniform. The navy blazer and plaid skirt are too conservative for me. Secondly, the uniform isn’t comfortable. I prefer to wear baggy pants and a sweater instead of a skirt and a jacket. Finally, I want the freedom to express my individuality through my style of dressing. ………………………………………………………………………………………

3.) There are many reasons why I like wearing a uniform to school. First of all, it saves time. I don’t have to spend time picking out my clothes every morning. Wearing a uniform also saves money. It’s cheaper to purchase a new uniform than to go out and buy lots of school clothes. In addition, I don’t have the pressure of keeping up with the latest styles. Most importantly, wearing a school uniform gives me a sense that I belong. I really think that it adds to the feeling of school spirit and community. …………………………………………………………

..…………………...………………………………………………………………………...........

3.3. Peer editing

_Showing your work to another student is a very useful way to improve your writing.

Ex: Check this paragraph, leave any necessary comments and correct them.

            Even when a first date is a disaster, a couple can still become good friend. For example my first date with John wasn’t very good. I thought he was coming to pick me up at 6:30, but he did not. When I got into his car, I tore my stocking. Next, I accidentally got some spaghetti on my shirt. Then we went to a movie. He fell asleep during the movie. Now that John and I are good friends, we can look back and laugh because even when a first date is a disaster, a couple can still become good friend.

_Purpose: there are 2 reasons for peer editing:

+To get back information from the reader about some things such as: what more details or explanation should be added, something is not organized clearly, what kind of not relevant information, something hard to understand, etc.

+Get experience from another one; re-correct yourself

_How can you peer edit?

+Read your friend’s paper several times; read from the beginning through the end for the first time for the first time and ask yourself: What is it about? What is his purpose?

+On your second time, read more slowly for specific parts and take notes

            Look for topic sentence and including sentence

            Note places where you have trouble understanding, where there seems to be unnecessary information or where there is not enough information.

            Let the writer know which parts are especially strong or interesting.

            Ask question: this is the good way to let the writer know where to add information.

            Circle or underline words, phrases, and sentences that you wish to comment on.

+Focus on grammar and spelling mistakes

IV. SOME NOTES ON BUILDING A PARAGRAPH

4.1. Based on the draft, each of elements should be written into a paragraph

4.2. Choose the way to develop the paragraph content, argument and structure

Based on these 3 issues- The content presented and the way to argue, the post and relation to previous ones, type of context and the writer’s; there are 5 structures in 2 groups:

_With topic sentence

+Deductive paragraph

Our article concentrates on the Conditional sentences and the process of teaching it in the concern to its correlation between English and Vietnamese in order to sketch out an initial summary of this interesting issue. The correlation is early considered as its important role in language cognition, especially in teaching English. So, conditional sentence is surveyed in English and Vietnamese. In English, this writing expresses the result of research, statistics and proves nearly all kinds of conditional sentences, and then they are divided into groups with specific quantity. Besides, the relationship between these three main types of conditional sentences is also figured out. In Vietnamese, some outlines and the table collecting 14 conditional sentences forms are introduced as a very important point in teaching by comparison with Vietnamese. Based on these data, this article presents some notes and opinions including the way to systematize “If sentences” structures, develop some mix-types, explain the matter of conditional sentences’ quantity and compare the system of conditional conjunctions, etc. on process of teaching student whose major is not English.

+Inductive paragraph

Being in middle school is difficult for those moving on from elementary school. When you are in middle school, the work gets harder, the amount of homework increases, and your parents give you more responsibilities because you are older. Even though you are older, you are still not old enough to drive or be out for long periods of time by yourself. You are in an uncomfortable space between being a teenager and being a little child. The middle school years are not easy.

+Chaining paragraph

In view of these circumstances, there were some who urged that I end the war at once by ordering the immediate withdrawal of all American forces. From a political standpoint, this would have been a popular and easy course to follow. After all, we became involved in the war while my predecessor was in office. I could blame the defeat, which would be the result of my action, on him ­­ and come out as the peacemaker. Some put it to me quite bluntly: This was the only way to avoid allowing Johnson’s war to become Nixon’s war.

(Richard M. Nixon, The Great Silent Majority, Delivered 3 November 1969.)

Once upon a time there lived an unhappy young girl. Her mother was dead and her father had married a widow with two daughters. Her stepmother didn't like her one little bit. All her kind thoughts and loving touches were for her own daughters. Nothing was too good for them - dresses, shoes, delicious food, soft beds, and every home comfort. (Cinderella- fairy story)

+Mixed paragraph:

Use of the internet has grown very quickly. In 1983, there were 562 computers connected to the Internet. By the turn of the century, there were 72.3 million computers in 247 countries on-line. Experts say that the Internet is now growing at a rate of approximately 40 percent a year. As time goes on, the Internet is becoming more and more popular.

_Without topic sentence: is the way to express the content in each of sentence which is equal in meaning and relationship to list a set of events relating to each other, conflicting to each other or being stronger and stronger.

+Abreast paragraph

They have built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots- they have drowned our uprisings in rivers of blood. They have fettered public opinion; they have practised obscurantism against our people. To weaken our race they have forced us to use opium and alcohol. (Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, delivered by President Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi on 2 September 194; Ho Chi Minh, Selected Works (Hanoi, 1960-1962), Vol. 3, pp. 17-21.)

4.3. Coherence

4.3.1. Definition: In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea. Each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.

4.3.2. A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below.

+Repeat key words or phrases

+Create parallel structures: Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech. This is also repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences

+Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number

+Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs.

Ex: Identify the transitions

I don’t wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the large-bodied "stegosaurus" houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy perspective, but I do wish to assert that we should not expect more of the beast. First of all, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, for example) is remarkably regular. As we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, but not so fast as body size. In other words, bodies grow faster than brains, and large animals have low ratios of brain weight to body weight. In fact, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as bodies. Since we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular. (Stephen Jay Gould, “Were Dinosaurs Dumb?”)

SOME USEFUL TRANSITIONS (modified from Diana Hacker, A Writer’s Reference)

To show addition:

again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too

To give examples:

for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate

To compare:

also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly

To contrast:

although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet

To summarize or conclude:

all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up

To show time:

after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, while

To show place or direction:

above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.)

To indicate logical relationship:

accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus

4.3.3. Be aware of irrelevant sentence

A sentence that does not support the main idea does not belong in the paragraph, thus such a sentence should be omitted. When a sentence does not belong in a paragraph, it is called an irrelevant sentence.

Ex: There is one irrelevant sentence in each paragraph that follows. Find that sentence and cross it out.

1.) The capital city of a country is usually a very important city. The government offices are located in the capital city and political leaders usually live there nearby. There are many different types of governments in the world. The capital may also be the centre of culture. There are often museums, libraries, and universities in the capital. Finally, the capital city can serve as a centre of trade, industry and commerce, so it is often the financial centre of the country.

2.) The packaging of many products is very wasteful. Often the packaging is twice as big as the product. Packaging is used to protect things that are breakable. Many food items, for example, have several layers of extra packaging. Most of these extra layers could be eliminated.

3.) There are several ways people can conserve natural resources. One way is to turn lights off and appliances when they are not in use. Another way is to drive cars less. My favorite kind of car is convertible. People can also insulate their houses better. Finally, by reusing things like bottles and plastic bags, people can reduce the amount of waste. By practicing these simple guidelines, we can save our natural resources.

4.) The Japanese automobile industry uses robots in many stages of its production process. In fact, one large Japanese auto factory uses robots in all of its production stages. Some Japanese universities are developing medical robots to detect certain kinds of cancer. Another automobile factory in Japan uses them to paint cars as they come off the assembly line. Furthermore, most Japanese factories use robots to weld the parts of the finished car together.

5.) Cats make wonderful house pets. They are very loving and friendly. Cats are also clean. They don’t eat much, so they are not expensive. Unfortunately, some people are allergic to their hair. Cats look beautiful and they’re fun to have in your home.

 

V. THE WAYTO ARGUE IN A PARAGRAPH

5.1. Definition

            In argument, it is necessary to use reasoning, evidence to affirm or negate a comment, conclusion. These reasoning and evidence must be persuading. Each of paragraphs conveys one point including the author’s idea. So, arguing is very important thing to focus on.

5.2. Classify

They are the way to arrange sentences in logic process. Some kinds (over 27) are listed:

_Inductive method

Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. The joy, the moral stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days, my friends, will be worth all they cost us if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered unto but to minister to ourselves, to our fellow men. (Franklin Delano Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address, Delivered 4 March 1933)

_Deductive method

Today our nation joins with you in grief. We mourn with you. We share your hope against hope that some may still survive. We thank all those who have worked so heroically to save lives and to solve this crime ­­ those here in Oklahoma and those who are all across this great land, and many who left their own lives to come here to work hand in hand with you. We pledge to do all we can to help you heal the injured, to rebuild this city, and to bring to justice those who did this evil. (William Jefferson Clinton, Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Address, Delivered 23 April 1995 in Oklahoma City)

_Combine inductive and deductive methods

Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy diet. First, fruits and vegetables are packed with the vitamins and minerals you need to keep your body functioning smoothly. In addition, they give you the carbohydrates you need for energy. Fruits and vegetables have lots of fiber to help your digestive system work properly. Finally, many scientists believe that the nutrients in fruits and vegetables can help fight diseases. If you eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, you’ll be on the road to better health.

_Antithesis

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. (Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have A Dream, Delivered 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.)

_Compare

+Similar:

"All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness"

This immortal statement was made in the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America m 1776. In a broader sense, this means: All the peoples on the earth are equal from birth, all the peoples have a right to live, to be happy and free. (Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, delivered by President Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi on 2 September 194)

+Difference

The Declaration of the French Revolution made in 1791 on the Rights of Man and the Citizen also states: "All men are born free and with equal rights, and must always remain free and have equal rights." Those are undeniable truths.

Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our Fatherland and oppressed our fellow-citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice. In the field of politics, they have deprived our people of every democratic liberty. (Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, delivered by President Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi on 2 September 194)

_Causality

+Reason comes first

Because of these briefings and because we had watched the rise of al­Qaida over many years, we understood that the network posed a serious threat to the United States. We wanted to ensure that there was no respite in the fight against al­Qaida. On an operational level, therefore, we decided immediately to continue to pursue the Clinton Administration's covert action authorities and other efforts to fight the network. President Bush retained George Tenet as Director of Central Intelligence, and Louis Freeh remained the Director of the FBI. And I took the unusual step of retaining Dick Clarke and the entire Clinton Administration's counterterrorism team on the NSC staff. I knew Dick Clarke to be an expert in his field, as well as an experienced crisis manager. Our goal was to ensure continuity of operations while we developed new policies. (Condoleezza Rice, Opening Statement to the 9/11 Commission, delivered 8 April 2004, Washington, D.C.)

+Result comes first

Now the primitivism of the 9th century ought to be no match for the progress of the 21st century. The allure of freedom, the power of technology, the reach of communications should surely win the day. Ultimately, the past cannot triumph over the future. And our future offers all nations magnificent bounties of hope. Because the pace of progress is growing, and it is growing exponentially. (Binyamin Netanyahu, Address to the United Nations General Assembly, 24 September 2009, New York)

+List of events in causality

            A good essay requires an effective structure. That kind of structure is just satisfied by a clear logic thought. One of most popular logic thought is causality. Because of that fact, we need to get understood some kind of causality performance.

 

VI. OPINION PARAGRAPH

6.1. Fact and opinion

_Fact is a piece of information that is true

_Opinion is an idea or belief about a particular subject.

Ex: Read this letter and answer the questions

a.      What is the main idea?

b.      What is the writer’s purpose?

c.      Identify the sentence or parts showing opinion.

d.      Why does the writer include a fact in this paragraph?

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. --Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. (In Congress, July 4, 1776, The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America)

6.2. Modal expression making recommendation

In speaking, it’s very common for you to introduce opinions with I think, in my opinion, I believe, etc. In general, these introductory phrases are not needed in writing; they can even make you sound less sure of your ideas. Instead, you should use grammatical methods such as modal auxiliary verbs and transitions.

6.3. Transition words expressing causality

_Causal adverbs: Because, since and so are causal adverbs. They join two ideas when one idea causes or explains the other. Because and since introduce the cause or reason, and so and therefore introduce the effect or result.

_Punctuation note

+When because or since begin a sentence, use a comma after the first part of the sentence.

+When the effect or result comes first, do not use a comma before because and since.

+A result or effect beginning with so is usually the second part of sentence; use a comma before so.

+Use therefore after a period.

+Use a comma after therefore.

 

 

EXERCISES

1. What is the difference between chaining paragraph and abreast paragraph?

2. Write a paragraph for each of these kinds of paragraph: Deductive paragraph, inductive paragraph, chaining paragraph, mixed paragraph, and abreast paragraph.

3. For each kinds of argument (inductive method, deductive method, combine inductive and deductive methods, antithesis, compare, and causality) write one paragraph as practice.

 

 
 
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