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Owen Stanley Range

    Timothy Usher, Santa Fe Institute

    Situation

    The Owen Stanley Range family is comprised of perhaps 23 languages spoken south of and transversing the Owen Stanley Range in the central and southeastern portions of Papua New Guinea's Central Province and in the southeastern portions of Oro Province. Its nearest relative is Meneao Range (Dagan) to the east in Milne Bay province.

    Subclassification

    The internal classification of Owen Stanley Range is as follows:

    Owen Stanley Range
        Koiari-Managalas Plateau
            Koiari
            Managalas Plateau
        Kwalean [needs rename]
            Mulaha
            Humene-Uare
        Mount Brown
            Doromu-Koki
            Maria
        Cloudy Bay-Musa River
            Cloudy Bay
            Bauwaki
            Musa River

    History of classification

    [under construction]

    Ray (CITE)
    Dutton (1971, 1975)  …
    Greenberg (1971: 835-839) included the Owen Stanley and Meneao Range families in his Eastern New Guinea subgroup of Indo-Pacific, alongside Guhu-Oro (Binandere group,) Wharton Range (Kovio, Afoa and Fuyuge groups,) Purari (Namau) and Kerema Bay (Elema group.)

    Lexical basis

    Given the phonological distance between Owen Stanley Range's major subfamilies, there are not currently enough comparisons to support a proper historical phonology, though some regular correspondences are evident. We are instead at the stage at which the foundational comparisons have been assembled which establish a subfamily and delineate it from more distant relatives and from basically unrelated families which have been spuriously placed with it.
    It is our intention to redistribute the comparisons in the following chart in the hierarchal manner of a historical phonology as more materials are processed and becomes available. Comparisons involving only Koiari and Managalas Plateau, Mulaha (Dutton 1970: 926-950 after English 1900-1901) and Humene-Uare or Cloudy Bay and Musa River are not presented here:

   Koiari  Managalas  Mulaha  Humene-Uare  Mount Brown  Musa River  Cloudy Bay
 eat/drink  *i  *i  i-  ---  *iɾi-  *it-  *it-
 fire  ---  ---  ---  *iɾɛ  *ita  ---  ---
 eye  *ni  *ni  ---  ---  *ne  *nai  *ini
 knee  ---  ---  ---  ---  *eɸoka  *iɸo  ---
 wing  ---  ---  ---  *e̝taɣa  *eta  ---  ---
 throat/neck  *eno  ---  ono  *o̝nu  ---  ---  ---
 see  *eɾa  ---  ---  ---  ---  *eɾ-  *eɾ-
 who?  *oino (?)  ---  ano  *e̝nu  ---  *aina  ---
 man  ---  ---  ---  ---  *amie  *eme  *eme
 breast  *amu  *amu  ---  ---  ---  *ama  *ama
 jaw  *a'tu  ---  ---  ---  *adu[ka]  ---  ---
 forehead  *waɾi  *waɾi  ---  ---  ---  *awaɾa  *awaɾa
 egg  *uni  *uni  ---  ---  *unema  *uɾimi  *uɾimV
 nose  *uɾi  *uɾV  ---  ---  *uɾuma  ---  ---
 mouth/tooth  ---  ---  waina  ---  *uwena  ---  ---
 not/no  ---  ---  ---  *mɛnɛ  ---  *me  ---
 fish  *mesia  ---  baita  *maita  ---  ---  ---
 sun  ---  *madza  ---  *ma'da  *meidaʔa  ---  ---
 moon  *ba't[a/u]  ---  ---  *batɔ  ---  ---  ---
 tail  ---  ---  batu  ---  ---  ---  *batuna
 1 sg.  ---  *na  na(-i)  ---  *na  *na  ---
 cold  ---  ---  ---  *nagu  ---  ---  *nagura
 many/all  ---  ---  ---  ---  *tau  *teu  ---
 cassowary  ---  *tubuaɾe  teboari  *t[ɛ]b[ɔ]ɾ[ɛ]  ---  [*subuai]  ---
 elbow/joint  *kom[i/u]  ---  koma  ---  ---  ---  ---
 2 sg.  *a  *a  wa(-i)  *ɣa  ---  *a  *ga
 dog  ---  ---  oana  *ɣo̝ni  *auna  ---  ---
 cloud  *ɣoe  ---  ---  *ɣɔjɛ  ---  ---  ---
 sky  ---  ---  ---  ---  *guɾe  *uɾe  *gouɾe
 hand  ---  ---  ---  ---  *wana  *wana  
 2 pl.  *ja  *ja  ---  *ja  *ja  *ja  *ja
 snake (sp.)  *jaɾam[e/a]  ---  iaraba  *jaɾama  *aɾuma  ---  *jaɾuma
 laughter  ---  ---  ---  ---  *joga  *joʔo  ---

    Pronouns

    Free pronouns of Owen Stanley Range's subfamilies are reconstructed as follows, with those of Meneao Range included for comparison:

   Owen Stanley  Koiari-Manag.  Humene-Uare  Mount Brown  Cloudy-Musa  Meneao Range
 1 sg.  *na  *na  *ɛ  *na  *na  *n[e/a]
 2 sg.  *ga  *a  *ɣa  ---  *ga  *g[e/a]
 3 sg.  *e (?)  *aɸu  *ani  *ina  *e  *me
 1 pl.  ?  *no  *ɛmɛ  *una  *ge  *nu
 1 pl. incl.  ---  ---  ---  ---  *i  ---
 2 pl.  *ja  *ja  *ja  *ja  *ja  *j[e/a]
 3 pl.  *ie (?)  *[i/e]abu  *jɛ  *ina  *ema  *mV
 1 dl.  ---  ---  ---  ---  *gu  ---

      These are distinguished in the second persons from those of the non-Austronesian languages to the north and northwest. Excepting the first person singular, the latter are not obviously derivable from Trans-New Guinea forms, but appear to be generally relatable to one another (q.v. Ray 1912, Holmes 1913, Geary 1977: 16-18, Richert n.d.: 37, Bradshaw 2009: 39-41):

   Purari  Kunimaipa  Fuyug  Tauade  Guhu Samane  Oro
 1 sg.  na(-i)  nɛ  na  na  (a)na  *na
 2 sg.  ni  ni  nu  nu  nii  *ni
 3 sg.  u  pʰi  hu  ome  no  *nu
 1 pl. excl.  ene(-i)  rɛi  di  na-ne  na-na  *na
 1 pl. incl.  ---  rari  ---  ---  na-pa  ---
 2 pl..  noro  ari  ji  nu-ne  ni-ke  *ni
 3 pl.  oro  pʰaru  mu  ote  no-ko  *ne
 1 dl.  ene-re  rɛi-pʰi  da  no-ne  na-ka  [*na-gae]
 2 dl.  nore-re  ---  ja  nu-ve  ni-pe  ---
 3 dl.  ore-re  ---  tu  ole (?)  no-po  ---
    (Oro /*-gae/ is comitative and corresponds to Guhu Samane /-ka/.)