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Kolopom

    Timothy Usher, Santa Fe Institute

     Situation

     The Kolopom language family is comprised of four languages spoken in the Merauke regency of Indonesia's Papua Province, three on Kolopom (Frederik-Hendrik Island) and one, Moraori, located east of Marind territory near the Papuan border. The Fly River language Marind is plainly intrusive to the region, and is presumably the reason for Moraori's geographical separation from the insular Kolopom languages.

    Subclassification

    The internal classification of Kolopom is as follows:

    Kolopom
        Moraori
        Ndom
        Central Kolopom
            Riantana
            Kimaghama

    Voorhoeve (1968: 8) gives the following lexicostatistics for the Kolopom family, excluding Moraori which was not then known to belong:

  Ndom Riantana Kimagh.
 Ndom --- 33 40
 Riantana 33 --- 44
 Kimagh. 40 44 ---

    The figure 13% is given for Kimaghama and Moraori (1968: 9.) As Moraori is riddled with loans from Kanum, Yei and especially Marind, any unadjusted figure will understate the genetic relationship. Since Voorhoeve did not specify here the asserrtions of cognacy underlying his figures, they're impossible to directly evaluate; however Voorhoeve (1968: 10) relied exclusively upon Drabbe (1949, 1954,) so the same data is available here for any of us to propose our own figures.

    Sources

    Geurtjens (1933: 398-433) 455 comparative terms for Kaladdar(sch) (west) and Teri Kalwa(sch) (northeast) varieties of Kimaghama.
    Nevermann (1939: 60-69) comparative vocabulary of Moraori.
    Drabbe (1949) brief grammars and (pp. 14-24) comparative vocabularies of Kimaghama, Riantana and Ndom.
    Drabbe (1954: 15-26, 53-68) detailed grammar and comparative vocabulary of Moraori.
    Boelaars (1950: 33-36 44-48) English-language recension of Drabbe's Kimaghama and Moraori
    Donohue (1996) notes on and comparative vocabulary of Moraori (Wasur.)

    In addition to these, Paul Whitehouse provided rekeyed versions of four unattributed survey vocabularies from the Summer Institute of Linguistics for Ndom, Riantana and two Kimaghama villages.

    History of classification

    [under construction]


    The taxonomic unity of the insular Kolopom languages has been evident since 1949, when Drabbe presented comparative vocabularies and brief notes on the grammars of Kimaghama, Riantana and Ndom. According to Boelaars (1950: 33,) Drabbe himself did not consider the languages genetically related, stating that "a comparison of the vocabularies of these three languages does not show resemblances and certainly no fixed soundshifting."     Voorhoeve (1968: 8-9) places Kolopom, along with the unrelated Bulaka River and Morehead River families, with his proposed Central and South New Guinea Stock at the phylum level.
    Moraori has been the object of taxonomic confusion, and has not been included in previous comparisons excepting only Ross' (CITE) comparison of pronouns.
    Greenberg (1971: CITE) …
    Donohue (1996: CITE) …

    Historical phonology

    The Kolopom languages are too diverse to support a robust reconstruction without substantially more data. Accordingly, we're unable to present as complete and as accurate a system as we would have liked, for example those of Awyu-Dumut (Healey 1970,) Bulaka River or Marind, which are likewise based primarily on Drabbe, using more or less the same termlist. However, an outline of the most common correspondences can be presented, which can provide a basis for further investigation. Interpretations of least common correspondences are necessarily tentative.

    [under construction]

    Proto-Kolopom had between 10 and 14 [resolve *r *ɣ] consonants and [unaddressed] vowels:

*m *n
*p *t *s *k
*mb *nd *ndz *ŋg
[*w] [*r] [*j] [*ɣ]

*i *u
*e *o
*a

    There is as of yet no segmental evidence that /*j *w/ are distinct from sequential vowels /*i *u/, as they are in neighboring families.

    All attestations in this section are from Drabbe (1949, 1954) unless otherwise specified. Where Moraori or Kimaghama attestations are separated by a semicolon, the first form is Drabbe's and the second is Donohue's or Geurtjens (1933) respectively.
    We recognize that not all Central Kolopom roots date to Proto-Kolopom, but find it useful to present roots shared by only only Riantana and Kimaghama along with the others.

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *m  m  m  m  m
 tie  *mi[a]t    mər  mi'a  mi'ɛ
 meat/flesh  *me[i]  mɛ'i; mei    mɛ:ratə  mɛ-mbu
 tongue  *mepreŋg  mrɛŋɣ; mpreŋ  mɛfrɛr  meβədo-mbo  
 stone  *mete  mɛrɛ  mɛ:t  'mɛtə  'mɛtɛ
 sweat  *me[s/ndz]    mɛ:s    'mija-ɣa
 five  *mVtVk    mɛ'rɛɣ  mata  'mado
 ear  ?*mVrVk  mɛrɛɣ; merew  ?munumb  moro-'ko-
 nadə ≈
 morə-tə-
 'muru-kadu
 head  *mVrV[w]  mɛ'rao; morow    mo'do  
 breast/milk  *mam  mam  mam  ma  ma
 fence  *mat    mar  ma'da  ma
 white  *mak[o]a    maɣoatɛ-'jar    maɣa-'βaderɛ
 rain  *m[o/u][e/a]n    mwar  ?mi ≈ mo  'moa ≈ mue
 deep  *m[o/u][a]t    mur  'moa  
 vomit  *m[o/u]ru    mur-mur  morə-morə  
 brain  *mu  mu      mu
 hair/feathers  *muena    mwɛn ≈ mɛ:n
 ≈ -mɛr
   muna
 rain  *mu[e/a]n    mwar  mo  'moa ≈ mue
 earthquake  *imind    imənt    'imi
 chin  *amata      kama'da [sic]  'amata
 come  *[u]m[a]n[V]  umon  a'man    
 cheek  *sama  sa'ma    tʲama  tʲama
 crocodile  *karam[a/u]    'ɣara:ma    'kuramu
 river  *[j][e]ram[a/u]    jɛ'rama    'iramu
   *n-  *n-  n-  n-  n-
 tears  *nierep    ne'rɛf  ni:rə  
 cry/weep  *niek    nɛɣ  niə-βədə  ni'ɛ ≈ nœ'ɛ
 dog  *n[ia]      ni'a  nœɛ
 louse  *nemeŋg  nɛ'mɛŋk  nɛ:mən  nə'mɛ  nœ'mɛ
 rope  *n[e/a]k  naɣ  nɛɣ  na:  ni'ɛ
 name  *n[e/a][k/ŋg]  nɛɣ; naw  nar  na: [SIL]  nɛ
 spirit of living  *nam    nam    
 drum  *n[a/u]mbu    na'mbu    'numbu
 wind  *n[o/u][a/o]      no'a--mbo  'nuo
 fly (v.)  *n[o/u]mb[a/o]      nomba  'numbo
 know  *nuɣa    nu'ɣwa    'nua-no
   *-n-  -r-  -n-  -r-    -n-
 eye  *VnV    unu-'nor ≈ una  'anə-mbə  
 hair/feathers  *muen[a]    mwɛn ≈ mɛ:n
 ≈ -mɛr
   muna
 blunt/blind  *puna    -'fur    'puna ≈ -'βuna
 spear/axe  *kapuna    ɣafu'nɛ-ŋges  ka:βu'na  'kaβuna
 moon  *kumbanV  'mbarɛ  ɣuba'na    'kumbanu

    Bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ … [β] …. :

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *p    f  p  p
 mouse  *p[u]ondz[a]    fwos  po'ar  poj
 blunt/blind  *puna    -'fur    'puna ≈ -'βuna
 ripe  *pur[a]    fu    'puranu
   *-p-  [ø p]  f  β  β
 sugarcane  *ipiŋg  jiɣ  i'fin    
 stone axe  *api    a'fi    'ɛβœ
 see  *ap[u]o[C]      a:βo  'aβu ≈ 'aβuo
 tongue  *mepreŋg  mrɛŋɣ; mpreŋ  mɛfrɛr  meβədo-mbo  
 coconut shell  *t[a/o]po      ta:bo  tu'bo; towa
 sick/ill  *ndi[?p]V      'diβə  'duo
 spear/axe  *kapuna    ɣafu'nɛ-ŋges  ka:βu'na  'kaβuna

    Intitial /*t/ is retained as such an all four languages:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *t-  t  t  t  t
 ashes  *tin    wo-'tin  tin-a'na  ti:
 forehead  *t[i/u]t  tur  tir   ti  tœ
 straight/stand  *tember[e/a]    təbərɛ ≈ əbrɛ-  təmbəra  tɛmbœrœ
 shin  *terin    trin  tɛrə  tœrœe
 tooth  *t[e]r[a]k  tɛroɣ ≈ trao;
 taraw
 trɛ:ɣ  ?'tudə-mbo  tra-'βae
 carry  *tambe[t]    tabɛrɛ    tɛ'mbɛje
 arm/hand  *tan    ta:n  ta-'βat ≈ ta:-  
 grandparent  *tat  tat  tɛt    tad-u
 coconut shell  *t[a/o]po      ta:bo  tu'bo; towa
 vagina  *t[o]t  tor    tə  
 six  *turV[C]      tərwa  tu'ro

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-t-  r  t [t r]  t [t d]  t [t d]
 chin  *amata      kama'da  [sic]  'amata
 stone  *mete  mɛrɛ  mɛ:t  'mɛtə  'mɛtɛ
 five  *mVtVk    mɛ'rɛɣ  mata  'mado
 think  *kat[o/u]      ro'a-kado  'tʲo-kadu

    Velar voiceless stop /*k/ is lenited to /ɣ/ in Ndom and to [w ø] in Moraori. Medial /*k/ is sometimes realized as [ɣ] in Kimaghama. It has not been found before front vowels /*i *e/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *k-  w [w ø]  ɣ  k  k
 spear/axe  *kapuna    ɣafu'nɛ-ŋges  ka:βu'na  'kaβuna
 call  *kamb[o/u]      'kambo  'kambu
 think  *kat[o/u]      ro'a-kado  'tʲo-kadu
 testicle  *kar    ɣar  ka  
 bow  *karep  u'rɛɣ; urew  ɣa'rɛf  ka'ra-βo  'kara
 rat/mouse  *karop  woro; waro  ɣa'rof    
 crocodile  *karam[o/u]    'ɣara:ma    'kuramu
 plant (v.)  *ka[w]ot    ɣa'wor    'kao
 pig  *k[o/u][a]    ɣo'a  ku  ku
 root  *k[u]a[ndz]a    ɣata; aθa [SIL]  kwara-nə'mba  
 fruit/seed  *kua[?t]      ndu'a-kwa  ku'o
 moon  *kumbanV  'mbarɛ  ɣuba'na    'kumbanu
   *-k-  w [w ø]  ɣ  k  k [k ɣ]
 child  *aka      a'ka  'aɣa-βœ
 white  *mak[o]a[t]    maɣoatɛ-'jar    maɣa-'βaderɛ
 bad  *jakut  jawur "wound"  ja'ɣur    jaka

    Prenasalized stops /*mb *nd/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *mb-    mb [mb b]  mb [mb b]  mb [mb b]
 chop/break  *mberV    bər  mbɛ'rarə (tr.)
 mbɛ'dɛrə (intr.)
 bœrœ
 star  *mberem    be'rem    bœ'rɛe
 bamboo  *mb[u]et    bwer  bɛ:  
   *-mb-  mb  mb [mb b]  mb  mb
 drum  *n[a/u]mbu    na'mbu    'numbu
 fly (v.)  *n[o/u]mb[a/o]      nomba  'numbo
 straight/stand  *tember[e/a]    təbərɛ- ≈ təbrɛ-  təmbəra  tɛmbœrœ
 carry  *tambe[t]    tabɛrɛ    tɛ'mbɛje
 call  *kamb[o/u]      'kambo  'kambu
 moon  *kumbanV  'mbarɛ  ɣuba'na    'kumbanu

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *nd-    nd  nd [nd d]  nd [d]
 fish  *nd[ia]      di'a  dɛ
 sick/ill  *ndi[?p]V      'diβə  'duo
 canoe  *ndije      drə  di'jɛ
 make/do  *ndiw[a/o]      ndi'wa  'diwo
 tree/wood  *nd[ua]t    ndər  ndu'a  do

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
           
           
 four  ?*VndVn  ndɛna-;andaina-    wɛ:nda  'jando
           
 nose  ?*ŋgondV  kon      'gonda
           
 thunder    ?ruru  θru'ar  tʲədə  tʲœndu-'βu
           
 firefly      'watin  ?'wanta-βotʲə  'wadu

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
       -ndʲ-  ndʲ  ndʲ
           
 lightning      wandʲir  'wandʲə  o'andʲi

    The status of velars other than /*k/ is difficult to determine. The clearest example of /*ŋg/ is the second person plural:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ŋg  k  k  ŋg [ntʲ]  ŋg [ŋg g]
 2 pl.  *ŋgi[e]  ki'ɛ/ki-  ki  ntʲə  gi/'iŋgi
 nose  ?*ŋgondV  kon      'gonda

    The second person singular poses a problem in that the Ndom form suggests /*k/ or perhaps /*ɣ/ (see below):

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ŋg  k-  ɣ  ŋg  ŋg
 2 sg.  *ŋga  ka  ɣe/ɣa-  ŋgə/ŋga  'uŋgu/ga
 branch  *ŋgoraŋg  kwaraɣ ≈
 koroɣ
 ɣo'ran    
 coconut  *ŋguVn    ɣur  ku'a  ku'o

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   ?*ŋg  k  k  k  
 snake    kaf; kaɸ    ka  
 frog      kar'ɛsaf  krɛ'tabu  

    There are two examples which suggest that a voiced velar fricative /*ɣ/ existed, but was lost in Central Kolopom:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ɣ    ɣ  ø  ø
 wing  *ɣapam    ɣa'fam  a'βa  uβ'a
 know  *nu[?ɣ]a    nu'ɣwa    'nua-no

    However, the second may be a lenition of /*k/, leaving the proposed phoneme leaning upon (for now) a single attestation, which might attributable to an error in the Ndom form, or the resemblance to Central Kolopom /*apa/ might beconcidental. Accordingly, this phoneme can only be deemed speculative at this time.

    Moraori drops /*ɣ/ from Marind loans:

   Marind  Moraori
   ø
 widow  *moɣa-ruk  moaruk
 young man  *noɣ-anem  noanem

    /*r/ [?is this distinct from /*nd-/]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *r-  r  r  r [d r]  ?d
 excrement  *r[i/e][k]  rɛ; ra  rɛ:ɣ  ?'di-ka  
 wound/scar  *roak    ro'aɣ  daro'a  
 earth/ground  *ru[e]  ru'wɛ ≈ ru'a-;  ruo    rə--mbə  ?'dɛe

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
           
           
           

    Voiceless fricative or affricate /*s/ is realized by allophones [θ s ts] in Ndom and by voiceless laminal stop /tʲ/ in Central Kolopom:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *s  s  s [θ s ts]  tʲ  tʲ
 leech  *sit    sir    tʲi
 boil (n.)  *sVt    θər  tʲə-mbə  
 two  *sVp    θef    
 firewood  *set      tʲət-a'na  tʲe'ɛ
 cough/phlegm  *sVt-sVt    sɛr-sɛr  tʲa-'tʲa  tʲi'rɛ-i'rɛ
 heart  *san[d]e      'tʲanə-mbə  'tʲɛndʲe
 cheek  *sama  sa'ma    tʲama  tʲama
 lip  ?*sati      tʲatə  tʲɛtʲi'rɛ
 chin  *s[o]a[r]  soar  sa-mɛr "beard"    
 thunder    ?ruru  ?θru'ar  tʲədə  tʲœndu-'βu
[CHART]"knife", "taro", "bitter", "break (stone)", ?"sweet", "tell lies"

    Medial /*s/ has the same values, but in Kimaghama /tʲ/ is optionally lenited to [j]:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-s-  s  s [θ s ts]  tʲ  tʲ [tʲ j]
 sneeze  *asi  ɛsi  e'θi  atʲi  a'tʲi
 face  *asup  ?ajiɣ; ajiw  a'θuf  'atʲə  
 sand  *dzisin    θəθər  rətʲi  tʲi'ji
 frog      karɛ'saf  krɛ'tabu  
 kunai grass  *wasV    was  'watʲə  

    "Sneeze" is found also in (at least) South Marianne Strait, Marind, Lake Murray, Awyu, Bulaka River (where it is a loan from Kolopom or Marind) and as far away as Koiari-Managalas Plateau (q.v. Dutton 2010: 58) and Guhu-Oro, allowing us to assign the value /*s/ to this correspondence with some confidence. Ndom's allophones of /s/ [θ ts] are also found in Cook and Gondu Rivers (Voorhoeve 1971: 84) and in Asmat dialects (Voorhoeve 1980: CITE) as allophones of /s/. Riantana and Kimaghama's fortition of /s/ to a stop is shared with Yelmek immediately to the east and Yaqay to the northeast, where Bulaka River and Yaqay-Warkay's /*s/ are realized as /t/.

    Prenasalized affricate /*ndz/ is merged with /s/ in Ndom and lenited to /r/ in Riantana. Its initial reflexes in Kimaghama appear to be indistinguishable from those of /*s/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ndz-  ?  s [θ s ts]  r-  ndʲ [tʲ]
 man/person  *ndz[ia]p    ref  ria  tʲĩ ≈ tʲin [hg]
 grandchild  *ndi[e]ndza      ri'ɛtʲa  tʲitʲa ;tʲindʲi [hg]
 bathe  *ndindz[i/a]  ?sʲɛ  θiθi  ri'ra  tʲetʲɛ; tʲii ≈ tʲindʲi
 sand  *ndzisin    θəθər  rətʲi  tʲi'ji
 banana  *ndzVmb    θeb    tʲõ; tʲã
 ear/mind  *ndz[o/u]an  roan    ru'a-kɛ ≈ roa-  'tʲa-kra ≈ 'tʲo-
 water  *ndzu      rə  tʲu
 charcoal/black  *ndzut    θur-to'boɣ  ru-datari  tʲu-'paderɛ
[CHART], "hard", "shiver", ?""see/hear"

    Medial /*ndz/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-ndz-    s [θ s ts]  r  ndʲ [ndʲ tʲ j]
 mouse  *p[u]ondz[a]    fwos  po'ar  poj
 grandchild  *ndzi[e]ndza      ri'ɛtʲa  tʲitʲa ≈ tʲindʲi [hg]
 bathe  *ndzindz[i/a]    θiθi  ri'ra  tʲetʲɛ; tʲii ≈ tʲindʲi
 urine  *kat ndzu      ka:-ro-a'na  ka ndʲu
 root  *k[u]andza    ɣata; aθa [SIL]  kwara-nə'mba  
[CHART]"intestines"

    Strong support for the identification of this correspondence with /*ndz/ is found in Geurtjens' nasalized medial reflex [ndʲ] in "bathe" and "grandchild" as well as Kimaghama's nasalized [ĩ] in "man," as there otherwise would seem to be no other place nasality could have come from. "Urine" is a compount /*kat ndzu/ "testicle water," unambiguously equating Kimaghama's prenasalized medial allophone with the denasalized initial reflex.

    Palatal glide /*j/ is occluded to /r/ [r d] in Riantana:
    [are these medials distinct from /*-ndz-/?]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *j-    j  r [d]  j
 woman/wife  *jowa[k]      du'aβo
 ndo'a:βo "wife"
 jo
 rattan  *juak    ju'aɣ  du'a-ko  ju'o
   *-j-  j    r  j
 go down  *noj...  nojom    ner'mɛ  no'ɛrɛ
 canoe  *ndije      drə  di'jɛ
[?+"father"]

    "Woman" is shared with Bulaka River /*iowa/, suggesting, as do the examples of /*w/ below, that glides /j w/ are not distinguished from sequential /*i *u/ in the manner of neighboring Marind, Maklew or (pre-)South Marianne Straight.

    Glide /*w/ is neither occluded nor aspirated, as it is in neighboring South Marianne Strait and Marind (and Maklew) respectively:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *w    w  w  w
 garden  *w[a]s    wot    
 cassowary  *awi    a'wi  a'wi  a'wi
 make/do  *ndiw[a/o]      ndi'wa  'diwo
 woman/wife  *jowa      du'aβo
 ndo'a:βo "wife"
 jo

    The originality of glide /*w/ as opposed to /*u/ in three of these examples is demonstrated by outcomparison to Asmat-Marianne Strait and Bulaka River:

   Kolopom  Asmat-Mar.  Bulaka River
 garden  *w[a]s  *was  
 cassowary  *awi    *owi
 woman  *jowa    *iowa

    We presume "cassowary" to be a loan from Bulaka River rather than vice-versa, as this root is endemic to the Trans-Fly region.

    All final consonants are lost in Central Kolopom.

    Final /*m/ is preserved as such in Moraori and Ndom:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-m  m  m  ø  ø
 breast/milk  *mam  mam  mam  ma  ma
 star  *mberem    be'rem    bœ'rɛe
 wing  *ɣapam    ɣa'fam  a'βa  uβ'a
 canoe    jom  θam    

    One Marind word, in Riantana's case via Yelmek, indicates that Central Kolopom's final dropping is or was synchronically operative in recent times, postdating for example Yelmek's shift of /*ɣ/ to /ŋ/:

   Marind  Moraori  Yelmek  Riantana
   *-m  -m  -m  -ø
 young man  *noɣ-anem  noanem  noanem  no'ana

    Ndom denasalizes final /*n/ to /r/ where a nasal /*m *n/ appears in a previous segment, a rule which also governs the reflexes of final /*ŋg/ (below):

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-n  n  n  ø  ø
 shin  *terin    trin  tɛrə  tœrœe
 arm/hand  *tan    ta:n  ta-'βat ≈ ta:-  
 ear/mind  *[ndz][o/u]an  roan    ru'a-kɛ ≈ roa-  tʲa-kra ≈ 'tʲo
 coconut  *ŋguVn    ɣur  ku'a  ku'o
 firefly      wa'tin  ?'wanta-βotʲə  'wadu
   *-n/N…_    r  ø  ø
 rain  *mu[e/a]n    mwar  mo  'moa ≈ mue
[but Ndom "door" does not follow this rule]

    As with initials, the final reflexes of peripheral stops /*p *k/ are fricated in Ndom and fricated or lost in Moraori:
    [double-check separation of Riantana [-βo -bu -ko], possibly /*pV *kV/]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-p  ɣ ≈ w ≈ ɸ  ɸ  ø  ø
 paddle  *iap    ja:f    ja
 3 sg.  *ep  -f-i; eβ-i  ɛf  jə  
 face  *asup  ajiɣ; ajiw  a'θuf  'atʲə  
 tears  *nierep    ne'rɛf  ni:rə  
 two  *sVp    θef    
 man/person  *ndz[ia]p    ref  ria  tʲĩ
 snake  *kap  kaf; kaɸ    ka  
 bow  *karep  u'rɛɣ; urew  ɣa'rɛf  ka'ra-βo  'kara
 rat/mouse  *karop  woro; waro  ɣa'rof    
 frog      karɛ'saf  krɛ'ta-bu  
           
   *-k    ɣ  ø  ø
 egg  *uak    waɣ    u'o
 five  *mVtVk    mɛ'rɛɣ  mata  mado
 cry/weep  *niek    nɛɣ  niə-βədə  ni'ɛ ≈ nœ'ɛ
 rope  *n[e/a]k  naɣ  nɛɣ  na:  ni'ɛ
 tooth  *t[e]r[a]k  tɛroɣ ≈ trao;
 taraw
 trɛ:ɣ ≈ tara-  ?'tudə-mbo  tra-'βae ≈ t'ra-
 excrement  *r[i/e][k]  rɛ; ra  rɛ:ɣ  ?'di-ka  
 wound/scar  *roak    ro'aɣ  daro'a  
 rattan      ju'aɣ  du'a-ko  ju'o

    Final /*t/ is realized as /r/ in Moraori and Ndom [was there a distinction /*t *r/ that is lost here?]:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-t  r  r  ø  ø
 tie  *miVt    mər  mi'a  mi'ɛ
 fence  *mat    mar  ma'da  ma
 deep  *m[o/u][a]t    mur  'moa  
 bamboo  *mb[u]et    bwer  bɛ:  
 forehead  *t[i/u]t  tur  tir  ti  tœ
 vagina  *t[o]t  tor    tə  
 tree/wood  *nd[ua]t    ndər  ndu'a  do
 leech  *sit    sir    tʲi
 boil (n.)  *sVt    θər  tʲ'ə-mbə  
 sand  *ndzisit    θəθər  rətʲi  tʲi'ji
 charcoal/black  *ndzut    θur-to'boɣ  ru-datari  tʲu-'paderɛ
 plant (v.)  *ka[w]ot    ɣa'wor    'kao
 testicle  *kat    ɣar  ka  ka
 bad  *jakut  jawur "wound"  ja'ɣur    jaka
 lightning      wandʲir  'wandʲə  o'andʲi
[outcomparison suggests /*dzisin/ "sand" – some of these may have been final /*n/]

    Ndom has meged the reflexes of final /*ŋg/ with those of /*n/, with regular denasalization to /r/ where a nasal /*m *n/ appears in a previous segment. Moraori takes the opposite turn, denasalizing /*ŋg/ [ŋg ŋk ŋɣ] to /ɣ/ [ɣ w] when not preceded by a nasal:
    [but Ndom "louse" does not follow this rule as stated]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-ŋg  ɣ  n ≈ r  ø  ø
 sugarcane  *ipiŋg  jiɣ  i'fin    
 branch  *ŋgoraŋg  kwaraɣ ≈
 koroɣ
 ɣo'ran    
   *-ŋg/N_  ŋg  n ≈ -r  ø  ø
 tongue  *mepreŋg  mrɛŋɣ; mpreŋ  mɛfrɛr  meβədo-mbo  
 louse  *nemeŋg  nɛ'mɛŋk  nɛ:mən  nə'mɛ  nœ'mɛ

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-[k/ŋg]  ɣ  r  ø  ø
 name  *n[e/a][k/ŋg]  nɛɣ; naw  nar  na: [SIL]  nɛ

    Final prenasalized stops /*mb *nd/ have only been identified in a few examples:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-mb    b  ø  ø
 banana  *ndzVmb    θeb    tʲõ; tʲã
   *-nd    nt    ø
 earthquake  *imind    imənt    'imi

    Final /*s/ [?is this distinct from final /*ndz/]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-s    s [θ t]    
 dream  *is    iθ    
 garden  *w[a]s    wot    

    One example of Ndom final [t] occurs on a widespread regional term:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-t    t  ø  ø
 breadfruit tree  *jos (?)    jot    joj

    Final consonants are preserved in Riantana when suffixed with the particle /-a'na/, which appears to signify a mass or collective:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-C    C  C-a'na  ø
 ashes  *tin    wo-'tin  tin-a'na  ti:
 hand/fingers  *tan    ta:n  ta:n-a'na  
 firewood  *set      tʲət-a'na  tʲe'ɛ
 blood  *iendz    ɛθ  jer-a'na "blood"
 jər-a'na "saliva"
 'jɛœ  "saliva"

    Similarly, this loan from Marind:

   Marind  Riantana
 body hair  *rur  'rur-ana

    An analogous phenomenon occurs in Kimaghama before [-aɣa] plural; Drabbe (1949: 4) interprets the surfaced consonant as a component of the suffix:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-C  C  C  ø  C-aɣa
 tree/wood  *nd[ua]t    ndər  ndu'a  do r-aɣa

    Several kin terms do not lose their finals in Kimaghama because they have been suffixed with a morpheme /-u/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-C  C  C  ø  C-u
 mother  *mam  mam  mam  ma-'ka  ma'm-u
 older sibling  *nVn  nin      nan-u
 grandparent  *tat  tat      tad-u

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
           
           

    Pronouns

     The nominative forms of the personal pronouns (q.v. Drabbe 1949: 5-6, 1954: 16) were likely as follows. Note the uncertainly of the initial of the second person singular as discussed above:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 1 sg.  *n[a/o]        
 2 sg.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o] (?)        
 3 sg.  *ep        
 1 pl.  *nie        
 2 pl.  *ŋgie        
 3 pl.  *em[t/nd]e        

    The oblique forms were derived from the nominatives by the suffixation of /*-i/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 1 sg. obl.  *n[a/o]-i        
 2 sg. obl.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o]-i (?)        
 3 sg. obl.  *ep-i        
 1 pl. obl.  *nie-i        
 2 pl. obl.  *ngie-i        
 3 pl. obl.  *em[t/nd]e-i (?)        

    Moraori has generalized the third person obliques to the nominatives, a grammatical change shared with Maklew, with the oblique coming to be signified by the addition of a prefix /ŋga/.

    What we presume to be the original possessive pattern has been lost outside Moraori. The presumption of originality is based upon outcomparison to Cook and Gondu RIver's singular possessives (q.v. Voorhoeve 1975: 85-86,) with the shared idiosyncrasy of a zero base in the first person singular:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Cook & Gondu
 1 sg. poss.  *ø-nam  ø-nam  *ø-n[e/a]m
 2 sg. poss.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o]-nam  ka-nam  *a-n[e/a]m
 3 sg. poss.  *ep-nam (?)  ŋga-fi-nam  *e-n[e/a]m
 1 pl. poss.  ?  ni-nam  *n[o]-k[o]m
 2 pl. poss.  ?  ki-nam  *i-kim
 3 pl. poss.  ?  ŋga-mdɛ-nam  ?

    In the other Kolopom languages, the possessive base reflects either the oblique or the nominative:

   Kolopom  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 1 sg. (obl.)  *n[a/o](-i)      
 2 sg. (obl.)  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o](-i)      
 3 sg. (obl.)  *ep(-i)      
 1 pl. (obl.)  *nie(-i)      
 2 pl. (obl.)  *ngie(-i)      
 3 pl. (obl.)  *em[t/nd]e(-i)      

    Prefixed undergoers, too, have been lost outside of Moraori. The second and third person are original to Trans-New Guinea, and hence to Kolopom, but the first person form is unexpected:

   Kolopom  Moraori
 1 sg. und..  ?  i- ≈ jɛ-
 2 sg. und.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o]-  ka-nam
 3 sg. und.  *ø-  ø-

Subpages (3): Central Kolopom Moraori Ndom