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Kolopom

    Timothy Usher, Santa Fe Institute

     Situation

     The Kolopom language family consists of four languages spoken in the Merauke regency of Indonesia's Papua Province, three on Kolopom (Yos Sudarso, Frederik-Hendrik) island and one, Moraori (Morari,) located east of Marind territory near the Papuan border. The Fly River language Marind is plainly intrusive to the region, and is presumably the reason for Moraori's geographical separation from the insular Kolopom languages.

    Subclassification

    The internal classification of Kolopom is as follows:

    Kolopom
        Moraori
        Ndom
        Central Kolopom
            Riantana
            Kimaghama

    Voorhoeve (1968: 8) gives the following lexicostatistics for the Kolopom family, excluding Moraori which was not then known to belong:

  Ndom Riantana Kimagh.
 Ndom --- 33 40
 Riantana 33 --- 44
 Kimagh. 40 44 ---

    The figure 13% is given for Kimaghama and Moraori (1968: 9.) As Moraori is riddled with loans from Kanum, Yei and especially Marind, any unadjusted figure will understate the genetic relationship. Since Voorhoeve did not specify here the asserrtions of cognacy underlying his figures, they're impossible to directly evaluate; however Voorhoeve (1968: 10) relied exclusively upon Drabbe (1949, 1954,) so the same data is available here for any of us to propose our own figures.

    Sources

    [under construction]

    Geurtjens (1933: 398-433) 455 comparative terms for Kaladdar(sch) (west) and Teri Kalwa(sch) (northeast) varieties of Kimaghama.
    Nevermann (1939: 60-69) comparative vocabulary of Moraori.
    Drabbe (1949) brief grammars of and (pp. 14-24) … comparative terms for Kimaghama, Riantana and Ndom.
    Drabbe (1954: 15-26, 53-68) detailed grammar and comparative vocabulary of Moraori.
    Boelaars (1950: 33-36 44-48) English-language recension of Drabbe's Kimaghama and Moraori
    Voorhoeve (1975: 364-366) grammar notes for Kimaghama, Riantana and Ndom following Drabbe (!949)
    Voorhoeve (1975) …     Donohue (1996) notes on and comparative vocabulary of Moraori (Wasur.)
    Gebze and Donohue (1998) dictionary of Moraori (unobtained)
    Menanti and Susanto (2001) surtvey of Kimaam (unobtained)
    Susanto (2001) 233 comparative terms for Kalilam (Ndom) of Wetau village
    Choi (2015) grammar of Riantana and (pp. 55-57) 203 terms
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …
    Arka … Marori …

    In addition to these, Paul Whitehouse provided rekeyed versions of four unattributed survey vocabularies from the Summer Institute of Linguistics for Ndom, Riantana and two Kimaghama villages.

    History of classification

    [under construction]


    The taxonomic unity of the insular Kolopom languages has been evident since 1949, when Drabbe presented comparative vocabularies and brief notes on the grammars of Kimaghama, Riantana and Ndom. According to Boelaars (1950: 33,) Drabbe himself did not consider the languages genetically related, stating that "a comparison of the vocabularies of these three languages does not show resemblances and certainly no fixed soundshifting."
    Voorhoeve (1968: 8-9) places Kolopom, along with the unrelated Bulaka River and Morehead River families, with his proposed Central and South New Guinea Stock at the phylum level.
    Moraori has been the object of taxonomic confusion.

    Drabbe (1950: …) …
    Voorhoeve (1968: …) …
    Greenberg (1971: …) …
    Wurm (1975: …) …
    Wurm (1982: …) …
    Ross (…) …

    Historical phonology

    The Kolopom languages are too diverse to support a robust reconstruction without substantially more data. Accordingly, we're unable to present as complete and as accurate a system as we would have liked, for example those of Awyu-Dumut (Healey 1970,) Bulaka River or Marind, which are likewise based primarily on Drabbe, using more or less the same termlist. However, an outline of the most common correspondences can be presented, which can provide a basis for further investigation. Interpretations of least common correspondences are necessarily tentative.

    [under construction]

    Proto-Kolopom had between 10 and 14 [resolve *r *ɣ] consonants and [unaddressed] vowels:

*m *n
*p *t *s *k
*mb *nd *ndz *ŋg
[*w] [*r] [*j] [*ɣ]

*i *u
*e *o
*a

    There is as of yet no segmental evidence that /*j *w/ are distinct from sequential vowels /*i *u/, as they are in neighboring families.

    All attestations in this section are from Drabbe (1949, 1954) unless otherwise specified. Where Moraori or Kimaghama attestations are separated by a semicolon, the first form is Drabbe's and the second is Donohue's or Geurtjens (1933) respectively.
    We recognize that not all Central Kolopom roots date to Proto-Kolopom, but find it useful to present roots shared by only only Riantana and Kimaghama along with the others.

    Initial bibabial nasal /*m/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *m-  m  m  m  m
 tie  *mi[a]t    mər  miˈa  miˈɛ
 flat/smooth    ˈmiti-
 ˈmitɛrɛˈjaɾ
   ˈmidœrœ
 some.enough  *mit[a]      miˈta  ˈmidɛ
 meat/flesh  *me[i]  mɛˈi; mei    mɛːratə  mɛ-mbu
 tongue  *mepreŋg  mrɛŋɣ  mɛfrɛr  meβə-dombo  
 stone  *mete  mɛrɛ  mɛːt  ˈmɛtə  ˈmɛtɛ
 sweat  *me[s/ndz]    mɛːs    ˈmija-ɣa
 five  *mVtVk    mɛˈrɛɣ  mata  ˈmado
 ear  ?*mVrVk  mɛrɛɣ; merew  ?munumb  moro-ˈko-
 nadə ~
 morə-tə-
 ˈmuru-kadu
 head  *mVrV[w]  mɛˈrao; morow    moˈdo  
 son  *m…      məˈnadəβa  munaduwa
 rib(s)  *mVrVn      mərən-əmbo  mœrœ
 breast/milk  *mam  mam  mam  ma  ma
 fence  *mat    mar  maˈda  ma
 white  *maka    maɣ-oatɛ-ˈjar    maɣa-ˈβaderɛ
 snake  *m…    muˈrubin
 ~ muˈrubʷin
   ˈmarawi
 rain  *m[o/u][e/a]n    mwar    ˈmoa ~ mue
 deep  *m[o/u][a]t    mur  ˈmoa  
 vomit  *m[o/u]ru    mur-mur  morə-morə  
 brain  *mu  mu      mu
 hair/feathers  *muena    mwɛn ~ mɛːn
 ~ -mɛr
   muna
 rain  *mu[e/a]n    mwar    ˈmoa ~ mue

    Medial bilabial nasal /*m/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-m-  m  m  m  m
 earthquake  *imind    imənt    ˈimi
 chin  *amata      kamaˈda [sic]  ˈamata
 door  *taramwin    taramˈwin    ˈtramu
 come  *[u]m[a]n[V]  umon  aˈman    
 get up/stand up  *samV    θaːm    ˈtʲɛmœ
 cheek  *sama  saˈma    tʲama  tʲama
 crocodile  *karam[a/u]    ˈɣaraːma    ˈkuramu
 river  *[j][e]ram[a/u]    jɛˈrama    ˈiramu

    Initial apical nasal /*n/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *n-  n  n  n  n
 full count  *nip    nif niː nĩ
 tears  *nierep    neˈrɛf  niːrə  
 cry/weep  *niek    nɛɣ  niə-βədə  niˈɛ ~ nœˈɛ
 dog  *n[ia]      niˈa  nœɛ
 louse  *nemeŋg  nɛˈmɛŋk  nɛːmən  nəˈmɛ  nœˈmɛ
 rope  *n[e/a]k  naɣ  nɛɣ  naː  niˈɛ
 spirit/ghost  *n…    nʏmba(ː)    numbai [hg]
 name  *n[e/a][k/ŋg]  nɛɣ; naw  nar  naː [SIL]  nɛ
 spirit of living  *nam    nam    
 drum  *n[a/u]mbu    naˈmbu    ˈnumbu
 wind  *n[o/u][a/o]      noˈa--mbo  ˈnuo
 fly (v.)  *n[o/u]mb[a/o]      nomba  ˈnumbo
 know  *nuɣa    nuˈɣwa    ˈnua-no

    Medial apical nasal /*n/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-n-  r  n r    n
 eye  *VnV    unu-ˈnor ~ una  ˈanə-mbə  
 son  *m…      məˈnadəβa  munaduwa
 hair/feathers  *muen[a]    mwɛn ~ mɛːn
 ~ -mɛr
   muna
 blunt/blind  *puna    -ˈfur    ˈpuna ~ -ˈβuna
 spear/axe  *kapuna    ɣafuˈnɛ-  kaːβuˈna  ˈkaβuna
 moon  *kumbanV  ˈmbarɛ  ɣubaˈna    ˈkumbanu
 two  *[j]enapa  jɛna-du    ɛˈnaβa  

    Initial bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ …. :

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *p-  p  f  p  p
 mouse  *p[u]ondz[a]    fwos  poˈar  poj
 blunt/blind  *puna    -ˈfur    ˈpuna ~ -ˈβuna
 ripe  *pur[a]  pra [WA]  fu    ˈpuranu

    Medial bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ … [β] …. :

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-p-  ø  f  p [β]  p [β]
 sugarcane  *ipiŋg  jiɣ  iˈfin    
 stone axe  *api    aˈfi    ˈɛβœ
 see  *ap[u]o[C]      aːβo  ˈaβu ~ ˈaβuo
 head  *tipV      tiβɛ ~ -tiβə  ˈtuβa ~ ˈtua-
 coconut shell  *t[a/o]po      taːbo  tuˈbo; towa
 sick/ill  *ndipV      ˈdiβə  ˈduo
 spear/axe  *kapuna    ɣafuˈnɛ-  kaːβuˈna  ˈkaβuna
 two  *[j]enapa  jɛna-du    ɛˈnaβa  

    Moraori's apparent retention of /*p/ as [p b] in Donohue's and Arka's attestations of the following word probably result from excrescence of the cluster /mr/ :

   *-p-  ø  f  p [β]  
 tongue  *mepreŋg  mrɛŋɣ  mɛfrɛr  meβə-dombo  

    Intitial apical voiceless stop /*t/ is retained as such an all four languages:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *t-  t  t  t  t
 head  *tipV      tiβɛ ~ -tiβə  ˈtuβa ~ ˈtua-
 ashes  *tin    wo-ˈtin  tin-aˈna  tiː
 forehead  *t[i/u]t  tur  tir  ti  tœ
 straight/erect  *tember[e/a]    təbərɛ ~ təbrɛ-  təmbəra  tɛmbœrœ
 shin  *terin    trin  tɛrə  tœrœe
 tooth  *t[e]r[a]k  tɛroɣ ~ trao
 ~ taraw
 trɛːɣ    tra-ˈβae
 carry  *tambe[t]    tabɛrɛ    tɛˈmbɛje
 arm/hand  *tan    taːn  ta-ˈβat ~ taː-  
 grandparent  *tat  tat  tɛt    tad-u
 door  *taramwin    taramˈwin    ˈtramu
 coconut shell  *t[a/o]po      taːbo  tuˈbo; towa
 hole  *t…      to  taː [hg]
 vagina  *t[o]t  tor    tə  
 six  *turV[C]      tərwa  tuˈro

    Medial apical voiceless stop /*t/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-t-  r  t [t r]  t [t d]  t [t d]
 chin  *amata      kamaˈda [sic]  ˈamata
 flat/smooth    ˈmiti-
 ˈmitɛrɛˈjaɾ
   ˈmidœrœ
 some.enough  *mit[a]      miˈta  ˈmidɛ
 stone  *mete  mɛrɛ  mɛːt  ˈmɛtə  ˈmɛtɛ
 five  *mVtVk    mɛˈrɛɣ  mata  ˈmado
 ochre  *-w…    -watɛ-ˈjar
 ~ -oatɛ-ˈjar
   -ˈβaderɛ
 ~ -baderɛ

    Initial velar voiceless stop /*k/ is lenited to x [x ɣ] in Ndom and to [w ø] in Moraori. …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *k-  w [w ø]  ɣ  k  k
 spear/axe  *kapuna    ɣafuˈnɛ-  kaːβuˈna  ˈkaβuna
 call  *kamb[o/u]      ˈkambo  ˈkambu
 testicle  *kar    ɣar  ka  
 bow  *karep  uˈrɛɣ; urew  ɣaˈrɛf  kaˈra-βo  ˈkara
 rat/mouse  *karop  woro; waro  ɣaˈrof    
 crocodile  *karam[o/u]    ˈɣaraːma    ˈkuramu
 plant (v.)  *ka[w]ot    ɣaˈwor    ˈkao
 pig  *k[o/u][a]    ɣoˈa  ku  ku
 root  *k[u]a[ndz]a    ɣata; aθa [SIL]  kwara-nəˈmba  
 fruit/seed  *kua[?t]      nduˈa-kwa  kuˈo
 moon  *kumbanV  ˈmbarɛ  ɣubaˈna    ˈkumbanu

    Initial velar voiceless stop /*k/ is lenited to x [x ɣ] in Ndom and to [w ø] in Moraori. …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *k-/_i    s  k  k
 arrow  *k…    ˈsitaɣa  kiˈda  ˈkida

    Medial velar voiceless stop /*k/ is lenited to x [x ɣ] in Ndom and to [w ø] in Moraori. It is sometimes realized as [ɣ] in Kimaghama. …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-k-  w [w ø]  ɣ  k  k [k ɣ]
 child  *aka      aˈka  ˈaɣa-βœ
 white  *maka    maɣ-oatɛ-ˈjar    maɣa-ˈβaderɛ
 think  *…      roˈaka-do  ˈtʲoka-du
 bad  *jakut  jawur "wound"  jaˈɣur    jaka

    Voiced prenasalized stops /*mb *nd/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *mb-    mb [mb b]  mb [mb b]  mb [mb b]
 chop/break  *mberV    bər  mbɛˈrarə (tr.)
 mbɛˈdɛrə (intr.)
 bœrœ
 star  *mberem    beˈrem    bœˈrɛe
 roofing/td>  *mbun    bun    buŋ [hg]
 bamboo  *mb[u]et    bwer  bɛː  
   *-mb-  mb  mb [mb b]  mb  mb
 spirit/ghost  *n…    nʏmba(ː)    numbai [hg]
 drum  *n[a/u]mbu    naˈmbu    ˈnumbu
 fly (v.)  *n[o/u]mb[a/o]      nomba  ˈnumbo
 straight/erect  *tember[e/a]    təbərɛ- ~ təbrɛ-  təmbəra  tɛmbœrœ
 carry  *tambe[t]    tabɛrɛ    tɛˈmbɛje
 call  *kamb[o/u]      ˈkambo  ˈkambu
 moon  *kumbanV  ˈmbarɛ  ɣubaˈna    ˈkumbanu

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *nd-    nd  nd [nd d]  nd [d]
 fish  *nd[ia]      diˈa  dɛ
 sick/ill  *ndipV      ˈdiβə  ˈduo
 canoe  *ndije      drə  diˈjɛ
 make/do  *ndiw[a/o]      ndiˈwa  ˈdiwo
 tree/wood  *nd[ua]t    ndər  nduˈa  do
 think  *du      roˈaka-do  ˈtʲoka-du

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
           
           
 four  ?*VndVn  ndɛna-;andaina-    wɛːnda  ˈjando
           
 nose  ?*ŋgondV  kon      ˈgonda
           
 thunder    ?ruru  θruˈar  tʲədə  tʲœndu-ˈβu
           
 firefly      ˈwatin  ?ˈwanta-βotʲə  ˈwadu

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
       -ndʲ-  ndʲ  ndʲ
           
 lightning      wandʲir  ˈwandʲə  oˈandʲi

    The status of velars other than /*k/ is difficult to determine. The clearest example of /*ŋg/ is the second person plural:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ŋg  k  k  ŋg [ntʲ]  ŋg [ŋg g]
 2 pl.  *ŋgi[e]  kiˈɛ/ki-  ki  ntʲə  gi/ˈiŋgi
 nose  ?*ŋgondV  kon      ˈgonda

    The second person singular poses a problem in that the Ndom form suggests /*k/ or perhaps /*ɣ/ (see below):

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ŋg  k-  ɣ  ŋg  ŋg
 2 sg.  *ŋga  ka  ɣe/ɣa-  ŋgə/ŋga  ˈuŋgu/ga
 branch  *ŋgoraŋg  kwaraɣ ~
 koroɣ
 ɣoˈran    
 coconut  *ŋguVn    ɣur  kuˈa  kuˈo

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   ?*ŋg  k  k  k  
 snake  *kap  kaf; kaɸ    ka  
 frog      karˈɛsaf  krɛˈtabu  

    Initial velar non-stop /*ɣ/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ɣ-    ɣ  ø  ø
 wing  *ɣapam    ɣaˈfam  aˈβa  uβˈa

    Medial velar non-stop /*ɣ/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-ɣ-    ɣ  ø  ø
 know  *nu[?ɣ]a    nuˈɣwa    ˈnua-no
 arrow  *k…    ˈsitaɣa  kiˈda  ˈkida

    Voiceless fricative or affricate /*s/ is realized by allophones [θ s ts] in Ndom and by voiceless laminal stop /tʲ/ in Central Kolopom:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *s-  s  s [θ s ts]  tʲ  tʲ
 shy/shame  *sin    brɛ-ˈsir    tʲin-dʲi
 leech  *sit    sir    tʲi
 boil (n.)  *sVt    θər  tʲə-mbə  
 two  *sVp    θef    
 firewood  *set      tʲət-aˈna  tʲeˈɛ
 cough/phlegm  *sVt-sVt    sɛr-sɛr  tʲa-ˈtʲa  tʲiˈrɛ-iˈrɛ
 heart  *san      ˈtʲan-əmbə  ˈtʲɛn-dʲe
 get up/stand up  *samV    θaːm    ˈtʲɛmœ
 cheek  *sama  saˈma    tʲama  tʲama
 lip  ?*sati      tʲatə  tʲɛtʲiˈrɛ
 chin  *s[o]a[r]  soar  sa-mɛr "beard"    
 thunder    ?ruru  ?θruˈar  tʲədə  tʲœndu-ˈβu
[CHART]"knife", "taro", "bitter", "break (stone)", ?"sweet", "tell lies"

    Medial /*s/ has the same values, but in Kimaghama /tʲ/ is optionally lenited to [j]:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-s-  s  s [θ s ts]  tʲ  tʲ [tʲ j]
 sneeze  *asi  ɛsi  eˈθi  atʲi  aˈtʲi
 face  *asup  ?ajiɣ; ajiw  aˈθuf  ˈatʲə  
 sand  *dzisin    θəθər  rətʲi  tʲiˈji
 frog      karɛˈsaf  krɛˈtabu  
 kunai grass  *wasV    was  ˈwatʲə  

    "Sneeze" is found also in (at least) South Marianne Strait, Marind, Lake Murray, Awyu, Bulaka River (where it is a loan from Kolopom or Marind) and as far away as Koiari-Managalas Plateau (q.v. Dutton 2010: 58) and Guhu-Oro, allowing us to assign the value /*s/ to this correspondence with some confidence. Ndom's allophones of /s/ [θ ts] are also found in Cook and Gondu Rivers (Voorhoeve 1971: 84) and in Asmat dialects (Voorhoeve 1980: CITE) as allophones of /s/. Riantana and Kimaghama's fortition of /s/ to a stop is shared with Yelmek immediately to the east and Yaqay to the northeast, where Bulaka River and Yaqay-Warkay's /*s/ are realized as /t/.

    Prenasalized affricate /*ndz/ is merged with /s/ in Ndom and lenited to /r/ in Riantana. Its initial reflexes in Kimaghama appear to be indistinguishable from those of /*s/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *ndz-  ?  s [θ s ts]  r-  ndʲ [tʲ]
 man/person  *ndz[ia]p    ref  ria  tʲĩ ~ tʲin [hg]
 grandchild  *ndi[e]ndza      riˈɛtʲa  tʲitʲa ;tʲindʲi [hg]
 bathe  *ndindz[i/a]  ?sʲɛ  θiθi  riˈra  tʲetʲɛ; tʲii ~ tʲindʲi
 sand  *ndzisin    θəθər  rətʲi  tʲiˈji
 banana  *ndzVmb    θeb    tʲõ; tʲã
 ear/mind  *ndz[o/u]an  roan    ruˈa-kɛ ~ roa-  ˈtʲa-kra ~ ˈtʲo-
 water  *ndzu      rə  tʲu
 charcoal/black  *ndzut    θur-toˈboɣ  ru-datari  tʲu-ˈpaderɛ
[CHART], "hard", "shiver", ?""see/hear"

    Medial /*ndz/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-ndz-    s [θ s ts]  r  ndʲ [ndʲ tʲ j]
 mouse  *p[u]ondz[a]    fwos  poˈar  poj
 grandchild  *ndzi[e]ndza      riˈɛtʲa  tʲitʲa ~ tʲindʲi [hg]
 bathe  *ndzindz[i/a]    θiθi  riˈra  tʲetʲɛ; tʲii ~ tʲindʲi
 urine  *kat ndzu      kaː-ro-aˈna  ka ndʲu
 root  *k[u]andza    ɣata; aθa [SIL]  kwara-nəˈmba  
[CHART]"intestines"

    Strong support for the identification of this correspondence with /*ndz/ is found in Geurtjens' nasalized medial reflex [ndʲ] in "bathe" and "grandchild" as well as Kimaghama's nasalized [ĩ] in "man," as there otherwise would seem to be no other place nasality could have come from. "Urine" is a compount /*kat ndzu/ "testicle water," unambiguously equating Kimaghama's prenasalized medial allophone with the denasalized initial reflex.

    Initial bilabial non-stop /*w/ is neither occluded nor aspirated, as it is in neighboring South Marianne Strait and Marind (and Maklew) respectively:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *w-    w    
 night/dark  *w…      βe-  wi-; weː- [hg]
 ochre  *-w…    -watɛ-ˈjar
 ~ -oatɛ-ˈjar
   -ˈβaderɛ
 ~ -baderɛ
 garden  *w[a]s    wot    
 fly (n.)  *w…    worwer    urowr [hg]

    Medial bilabial non-stop /*w/ is neither occluded nor aspirated, as it is in neighboring South Marianne Strait and Marind (and Maklew) respectively:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-w-    w  w  w
 cassowary  *awi    aˈwi  aˈwi  aˈwi
 wild  *…    aur-    ˈao-
 snake  *m…    muˈrubin
 ~ muˈrubʷin
   ˈmarawi
 make/do  *ndiw[a/o]      ndiˈwa  ˈdiwo
 woman/wife  *jowa      duˈaβo
 ndoˈaːβo "wife"
 jo

    Initial apical non-stop /*r/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *r-  r  r  r  ?d
 excrement  *r[i/e][k]  rɛ; ra  rɛːɣ    
 wound/scar  *roak    roˈaɣ  daroˈa  
 earth/ground  *ru[e]  ruˈwɛ ~ ruˈa-; ruo    rə--mbə  ?ˈdɛe

    Medial apical non-stop /*r/ …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-r-  r  r  r  r
 flat/smooth    ˈmiti-
 ˈmitɛrɛˈjaɾ
   ˈmidœrœ
 rib(s)  *mVrVn      mərən-əmbo  mœrœ
 snake  *m…    muˈrubin
 ~ muˈrubʷin
   ˈmarawi
 tooth  *t[e]r[a]k  tɛroɣ ~ trao
 ~taraw
 trɛːɣ ~ tara-    tra-ˈβae ~ tˈra-
 door  *taramwin    taramˈwin    ˈtramu
 ochre  *-w…    -watɛ-ˈjar
 ~ -oatɛ-ˈjar
   -ˈβaderɛ
 ~ -baderɛ
 fly (n.)  *w…    worwer    urowr [hg]

    Palatal non-stop /*j/ is occluded to /r/ [r d] in Riantana:
    [are these medials distinct from /*-ndz-/?]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *j-    j  r [d]  j
 woman/wife  *jowa[k]      duˈaβo
 ndoˈaːβo "wife"
 jo
 rattan  *juak    juˈaɣ  duˈa-ko  juˈo

    Medial palatal non-stop /*j/ …:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-j-  j    r  j
 go down  *noj...  nojom    nerˈmɛ  noˈɛrɛ
 canoe  *ndije      drə  diˈjɛ


    All final consonants are lost in Central Kolopom.

    Final /*m/ is preserved as such in Moraori and Ndom:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-m  m  m  ø  ø
 breast/milk  *mam  mam  mam  ma  ma
 star  *mberem    beˈrem    bœˈrɛe
 wing  *ɣapam    ɣaˈfam  aˈβa  uβˈa
 canoe    jom  θam    

    One Marind word, in Riantana's case via Yelmek, indicates that Central Kolopom's final dropping is or was synchronically operative in recent times, postdating for example Yelmek's shift of /*ɣ/ to /ŋ/:

   Marind  Moraori  Yelmek  Riantana
   *-m  -m  -m  -ø
 young man  *noɣ-anem  noanem  noanem  noˈana

    Ndom denasalizes final /*n/ to /r/ where a nasal /*m *n/ appears in a previous segment, a rule which also governs the reflexes of final /*ŋg/ (below):

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-n  n  n [n r]  ø  ø
 snake  *m…    muˈrubin
 ~ muˈrubʷin
   ˈmarawi
 rain  *mu[e/a]n    mwar    ˈmoa ~ mue
 roofing/td>  *mbun    bun    buŋ [hg]
 shin  *terin    trin  tɛrə  tœrœe
 arm/hand  *tan    taːn  ta-ˈβat ~ taː-  
 door  *taramwin    taramˈwin    ˈtramu
 shy/shame  *sin    brɛ-ˈsir    tʲin-dʲi
 ear/mind  *[ndz][o/u]an  roan    ruˈa-kɛ ~ roa-  tʲa-kra ~ ˈtʲo
 coconut  *ŋguVn    ɣur  kuˈa  kuˈo
 firefly      waˈtin  ?ˈwanta-βotʲə  ˈwadu

    As with initials, the final reflexes of peripheral stops /*p *k/ are fricated in Ndom and fricated or lost in Moraori:
    [double-check separation of Riantana [-βo -bu -ko], possibly /*pV *kV/]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-p  ɣ ~ w ~ ɸ  ɸ  ø  ø
 paddle  *iap    jaːf    ja
 3 sg.  *ep  -f-i; eβ-i  ɛf  jə  
 face  *asup  ajiɣ; ajiw  aˈθuf  ˈatʲə  
 full count  *nip    nif niː nĩ
 tears  *nierep    neˈrɛf  niːrə  
 two  *sVp    θef    
 man/person  *ndz[ia]p    ref  ria  tʲĩ
 snake  *kap  kaf; kaɸ    ka  
 bow  *karep  uˈrɛɣ; urew  ɣaˈrɛf  kaˈra-βo  ˈkara
 rat/mouse  *karop  woro; waro  ɣaˈrof    
 frog      karɛˈsaf  krɛˈta-bu  
           
   *-k    ɣ  ø  ø
 egg  *uak    waɣ    uˈo
 five  *mVtVk    mɛˈrɛɣ  mata  mado
 cry/weep  *niek    nɛɣ  niə-βədə  niˈɛ ~ nœˈɛ
 rope  *n[e/a]k  naɣ  nɛɣ  naː  niˈɛ
 tooth  *t[e]r[a]k  tɛroɣ ~ trao
 ~taraw
 trɛːɣ ~ tara-    tra-ˈβae ~ tˈra-
 excrement  *r[i/e][k]  rɛ; ra  rɛːɣ  ?ˈdi-ka  
 wound/scar  *roak    roˈaɣ  daroˈa  
 rattan      juˈaɣ  duˈa-ko  juˈo

    Final /*t/ is realized as /r/ in Moraori and Ndom [was there a distinction /*t *r/ that is lost here?]:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-t  r  r  ø  ø
 tie  *miVt    mər  miˈa  miˈɛ
 fence  *mat    mar  maˈda  ma
 deep  *m[o/u][a]t    mur  ˈmoa  
 bamboo  *mb[u]et    bwer  bɛː  
 forehead  *t[i/u]t  tur  tir  ti  tœ
 vagina  *t[o]t  tor    tə  
 tree/wood  *nd[ua]t    ndər  nduˈa  do
   *sit    sir    tʲi
 boil (n.)  *sVt    θər  tʲˈə-mbə  
 sand  *ndzisit    θəθər  rətʲi  tʲiˈji
 charcoal/black  *ndzut    θur-toˈboɣ  ru-datari  tʲu-ˈpaderɛ
 plant (v.)  *ka[w]ot    ɣaˈwor    ˈkao
 testicle  *kat    ɣar  ka  ka
 bad  *jakut  jawur "wound"  jaˈɣur    jaka
 lightning      wandʲir  ˈwandʲə  oˈandʲi
[outcomparison suggests /*dzisin/ "sand" – some of these may have been final /*n/]

    Ndom has meged the reflexes of final /*ŋg/ with those of /*n/, with regular denasalization to /r/ where a nasal /*m *n/ appears in a previous segment. Moraori takes the opposite turn, denasalizing /*ŋg/ [ŋg ŋk ŋɣ] to /ɣ/ [ɣ w] when not preceded by a nasal:
    [but Ndom "louse" does not follow this rule as stated]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-ŋg  ɣ  n ~ r  ø  ø
 sugarcane  *ipiŋg  jiɣ  iˈfin    
 branch  *ŋgoraŋg  kwaraɣ ~
 koroɣ
 ɣoˈran    
   *-ŋg/N_  ŋg  n [n r]  ø  ø
 tongue  *mepreŋg  mrɛŋɣ  mɛfrɛr  meβə-dombo  
 louse  *nemeŋg  nɛˈmɛŋk  nɛːmən  nəˈmɛ  nœˈmɛ

    …

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-[k/ŋg]  ɣ  r  ø  ø
 name  *n[e/a][k/ŋg]  nɛɣ; naw  nar  naː [SIL]  nɛ

    Final prenasalized stops /*mb *nd/ have only been identified in a few examples:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-mb    b  ø  ø
 banana  *ndzVmb    θeb    tʲõ; tʲã
   *-nd    nt    ø
 earthquake  *imind    imənt    ˈimi

    Final /*s/ [?is this distinct from final /*ndz/]

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-s    s [θ t]    
 dream  *is    iθ    
 garden  *w[a]s    wot    

    One example of Ndom final [t] occurs on a widespread regional term:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-t    t  ø  ø
 breadfruit tree  *jos (?)    jot    joj

    Final consonants are preserved in Riantana when suffixed with the particle /-aˈna/, which appears to signify a mass or collective:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-C    C  C-aˈna  ø
 ashes  *tin    wo-ˈtin  tin-aˈna  tiː
 hand/fingers  *tan    taːn  taːn-aˈna  
 firewood  *set      tʲət-aˈna  tʲeˈɛ
 blood  *iendz    ɛθ  jer-aˈna "blood"
 jər-aˈna "saliva"
 ˈjɛœ "saliva"

    Similarly, this loan from Marind:

   Marind  Riantana
 body hair  *rur  ˈrur-ana

    An analogous phenomenon occurs in Kimaghama before [-aɣa] plural; Drabbe (1949: 4) interprets the surfaced consonant as a component of the suffix:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-C  C  C  ø  C-aɣa
 tree/wood  *nd[ua]t    ndər  nduˈa  do r-aɣa

    Several kin terms do not lose their finals in Kimaghama because they have been suffixed with a morpheme /-u/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
   *-C  C  C  ø  C-u
 mother  *mam  mam  mam  ma-ˈka  maˈm-u
 older sibling  *nVn  nin      nan-u
 grandparent  *tat  tat      tad-u

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
           
           


    Pronouns

     The nominative forms of the personal pronouns (q.v. Drabbe 1949: 5-6, 1954: 16) were likely as follows. Note the uncertainly of the initial of the second person singular as discussed above:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 1 sg.  *n[a/o]        
 2 sg.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o] (?)        
 3 sg.  *ep        
 1 pl.  *nie        
 2 pl.  *ŋgie        
 3 pl.  *em[t/nd]e        

    The oblique forms were derived from the nominatives by the suffixation of /*-i/:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 1 sg. obl.  *n[a/o]-i        
 2 sg. obl.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o]-i (?)        
 3 sg. obl.  *ep-i        
 1 pl. obl.  *nie-i        
 2 pl. obl.  *ngie-i        
 3 pl. obl.  *em[t/nd]e-i (?)        

    Moraori has generalized the third person obliques to the nominatives, a grammatical change shared with Maklew, with the oblique coming to be signified by the addition of a prefix /ŋga/.

    What we presume to be the original possessive pattern has been lost outside Moraori. The presumption of originality is based upon outcomparison to Cook and Gondu River's singular possessives (q.v. Voorhoeve 1975: 85-86,) with the shared idiosyncrasy of a zero base in the first person singular:

   Kolopom  Moraori  Cook & Gondu
 1 sg. poss.  *ø-nam  ø-nam  *ø-n[e/a]m
 2 sg. poss.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o]-nam  ka-nam  *a-n[e/a]m
 3 sg. poss.  *ep-nam (?)  ŋga-fi-nam  *e-n[e/a]m
 1 pl. poss.  ?  ni-nam  *n[o]-k[o]m
 2 pl. poss.  ?  ki-nam  *i-kim
 3 pl. poss.  ?  ŋga-mdɛ-nam  ?

    In the other Kolopom languages, the possessive base reflects either the oblique or the nominative:

   Kolopom  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 1 sg. (obl.)  *n[a/o](-i)      
 2 sg. (obl.)  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o](-i)      
 3 sg. (obl.)  *ep(-i)      
 1 pl. (obl.)  *nie(-i)      
 2 pl. (obl.)  *ngie(-i)      
 3 pl. (obl.)  *em[t/nd]e(-i)      

    Prefixed undergoers, too, have been lost outside of Moraori. The second and third person are original to Trans-New Guinea, and hence to Kolopom, but the first person form is unexpected:

   Kolopom  Moraori
 1 sg. und..  ?  i- ~ jɛ-
 2 sg. und.  *[k/ŋ/ɣ][a/o]-  ka-nam
 3 sg. und.  *ø-  ø-


    Loans from neighboring languages

    [under construction]

    …

    Several roots are shared with the unrelated Bulaka River family to the north (q.v. Usher 2014):

   Kolopom  Bulaka River
 cassowary  *awi  *owi
 stone  *mete  *mate
 breast  *mam  *momo
 older sibling  *ɲena  *nan

    Several of these roots are shared with other families. "Stone" is found also in Cook River, Kolopom's nearest relative, as well as in Marianne Strait and thus might be a loan in either direction. "Cassowary" is found also in the Paho River and Oriomo Plateau families to the east. This must be of ancient origin as it is not found in either Marind or in the Morehead River family which now separates these enclaves. "Older sibling" … "Breast" …
    …:

   Bulaka River  Kimaghama  Kaladdarsch  Teri Kalwasch
 woman/wife  *iowa  …  …  …


    One word shared with Morehead River, most likely borrowed in the context of the senary counting system unique to this region of New Guinea (q.v. …, Choi 2015: 36,) has subequently been loaned from Kolopom into Marind and thence into Bulaka River. We can tell that Kolopom is the immiedate source for the Marind word because Marind /*h/ reflects previous /*ɸ/ (Usher and Suter 2015: 130) This loan must be ancient in origin because Morehead River medial /*n̪/ has since become /*θ/ in Bensbach River and /t/ in Yei:

   Morehead River  Kolopom  Marind  Bulaka River
 two  *jən̪əmbV  *[j]enapa  *inah  *ina

    … Marianne Strait …

   Marianne Strait  Kolopom  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
 coconut            
 lime/white            
 many/all            
 charcoal/black            
 bow            
 crocodile  *karam[o̝i]          
 garden            
 lightning            
 house            
 blood            

    In more recent times, … Marind loans found only in Moraori are too numerous to list here …

   Marind  Moraori  Ndom  Riantana  Kimaghama
           


Subpages (3): Central Kolopom Moraori Ndom