Families‎ > ‎Trans New Guinea‎ > ‎Berau Gulf‎ > ‎

West Bomberai

    Timothy Usher, Santa Fe Institute

    Situation

    The West Bomberai family consists of perhaps twenty four languages spoken along the west coast and islands off of the Bomberai peninsula in Indonesia's Papua province and across the Banda sea to the west on the islamds Timor, Alor and Pantar of the Lesser Sunda chain in East Nusa Tenggara province and in the independent state of East Timor. While the majority of member languages are spoken in the Lesser Sundas, the internal classification of West Bomberai as well as its relationship to other subfamilies of Trans New Guinea suggests the Bomberai peninsula to be its point of origin.

    Subclassification

    The internal classification of West Bomberai is as follows:

    West Bomberai
        Kalamang
        Mbahaam-Iha
        Timor-Alor-Pantar
            Bunaq
            East Timor
            Alor-Pantar

    Despite a tradition of placeing Kalamang (Karas) and Mbahaam-Iha together in a West Bomberai family which excludes Timor-Alor-Pantar (Cowan 1953: 33-36, Anceaux 1958: 118-119, Voorhoeve 1975: 432-437,) the most salient difference between these two on the one hand and the insular families on the other is cosmetic, namely that the former preserve initial velar stop /*k/ which is lost in Timor-Alor-Pantar. Additionally, the subfamilies of Timor-Alor-Pantar have been very significantly influenced by local Austronesian languages, which can only depress lexicostatistical counts. Other arguments for placing Kalamang immediately with Mbahaam-Iha would include the use of demonstratives /*mV/ for third persons and the encliticization of possessors in Kalamang and Iha, but the first must be archaic, as it's shared with both Mor and some South Bird's Head languages, while the second would seem to be an areal trait in imitation of Austronesian postposed possessive consructions.

    Sources

    [under construction]

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    History of classification

    [under construction]

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    Historical phonology

    [under construction]

    Proto-West Bomberai had perhaps 15 to 17 consonants and 6 vowels as follows:

*m *n
*p *t [*ts] *k  *kʷ
*mb *nd [*ndz] *ŋg  *ŋgʷ
*s
*l
*w *r *j

*i *u
*e *o
*a

    In addition to the simple vowels, at least one diphthong /*aⁱ/ is found.

    Prenasalized stops /*mb *nd *ndz *ŋg *ŋgʷ/ do not occur initially, having apparently been merged with voiceless stops.

    Only a limited set of consonants occurs finally:

*n *…
*… *…
*l
*r

    Consonant clusters do not occur.

    Initial consonants correspond as follows:

West Bomberai Kalamang Mbahaam-Iha Timor-Alor
 *m- m *m *m
 *n- n *n *n
 *p- p *p
 *t- t *t *t
 *s- s *s *s
 *k- k *k
  *kʷ- k  *kʷ *w
 *w- w *w *w
 *j- *j *…

    Medial consonants correspond as follows:

West Bomberai Kalamang Mbahaam-Iha Timor-Alor
*-m- m *m *m
*-n- n *n *n
*-p- w *p *p
*-t- r *t *t
*-s- *s *s
*-k- ø *k *k
 *-kʷ- k  *kʷ  *kʷ
*-mb- b *mb *b
*-nd- *nd *d
*-ndz- *dz
*-ŋg- g *ŋg *g
 *-ŋgʷ-  *ŋgʷ  *gʷ
*-w- *w *w
*-l- *r *l
*-r- *r *r
*-j-

    Subfinal consonants correspond as follows:

West Bomberai Kalamang Mbahaam-Iha Timor-Alor
*-m- m
*-n- n
*-p-
*-t- t
*-s-
*-k-
 *-kʷ-
*-mb-
*-nd-
*-ndz-
*-ŋg- ŋ
 *-ŋgʷ-
*-w-
*-l-
*-r-
*-j-

    Final consonants correspond as follows:

West Bomberai Kalamang Mbahaam-Iha Timor-Alor
*…

    Vowels and diphthongs correspond as follows:

West Bomberai Kalamang Mbahaam-Iha Timor-Alor
*i


    These correspondences are exemplified as follows, with Kalamang attestations drawn from Visser (2016, p.c.) and Bunaq attestations from Bele (2009) and Schapper (2009, Schapper, Huber and van Engelhoven 2012, 2014.)


    Initial bilabial nasal /*m/ is retained as such in all descendants:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *m-  m  *m  *m  m  *m  *m
 3 pl.  *m[i/u]  mu  *mi        
 sit  *…    *mesen  *…  mit  *mi[t/r]  *mis
 come  *ma      *ma  man  *magu  *ma
 that/there  *ma-i  me  *me        
 python  *m[a]n[u]      *m[a]n[u]      *manu
 voice/speech  *maŋg[a]  maŋ  *mak  *mag[a]    *maga  *mag
 walk/go  *…  mar-mar    *ˈmara  mal  *mara  *mar[a]
 3 sg.  *m[a/o]  ma  *m[a/o]        
 banana  *muŋgʷol    *muŋgʷo  *mugʷol  mok  *muʔu  *mugol

    Intial apical nasal /*n/ is retained as such in both descendants:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *n-  n  *n  *n  n  *n  *n
 1 pl. bound  *ni-    *ni-  *ni-  n-    *ni-
 eat/drink  *na[wa]  na(n)  *nawa  *nawa    *nawa  *na:
 name  *naⁱ    *nⁱe  *naⁱ    *naⁱ  *naⁱ
 man/male  *nam[ⁱɛ]  nam  *nam[ⁱɛ]  *nami    *nami  
 older brother  *nani    *nen [?*nani]        
 older sister  *nana    *nan  *nana  nana  *nana  *nana
 stand (pl.)  *naCer    *na'nder  *naCer  net  *naser  *nater
 1 sg. bound  *n[a/o]-    *n[a/o]-  *na-  n-    *na-
 younger sibling  *n[a/o]k[a/o]    *naka  *n[o]k[o]    *noko  

    Initial bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *p-  p    *p  p  *p  *p
 spittle  *pVlVm  pa'lom    *pulum  puluk  *pulum  *purum

    Initual apical voiceless stop /*t/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *t-  t  *t  *t  t  *t  *t
 drum  *titir  ti'ri  *ti'tir  *titir  titil  *titir  
 hand/arm  *tana  tan  *tan  *tan[a]  ton  *tana  *tan[a]
 grandparent  *tat[a]  ˈtata  *tat[e/a]  *tata  tata    
 heavy  *tVŋgVr  tagiᵉr  *taŋgⁱer  *tVgVr  tuek  *tigir  *tig[a/o]r
 fence  *ta[l/r]i  tal    *tari    *tari  *…
 mountain  *tVmber    *t[u]mber  *t[e]ber    *teber  
 woman  *tumbur    *tumbur  *tubur    *tubur  
 elbow  *tVŋgʷon    *tVŋgʷon        

    Initial laminal voiceless /*s/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *s-    *s  *s  s  *s  *s
 plait/weave  *sina    *sina  *sina  sien  *sina  *sina

    Initial velar voiceless stop /*k/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *k-  k  *k  *ø  ø  *ø  *ø
 2 pl.  *ki  ki  *ki  *i    *i  *i
 eye  *kina    *kin-jep  *ina  -iral (?)  *ina  *ina
 water  *kira    *ki'ra  *ira  il  *ira  *ira
 die  *k[i/u]m[i/u]    *kimi  *…  -ume  *umu  *imu
 see  *kena[t]    *kena[t]  *ena    *ena  *en
 wing  *kami[n/r]    *kamen  *ami[r]    *amir  
 kunai grass  *kamVn  kaˈman    *am[e]n      *amen
 vagina  *karu  kar  *kar  *aru    *aru  *aru
 rain  *kaja    *kⁱari (?)  *aja    *aja  *aja
 2 sg.  *k[a/o]  ka  *k[a/o]  *a  e-to/ø-  *a  *a
 excrement  *k[a/o]t[u]    *k[o]t    ozoʔ ~ ozo  *atu  
 raw/green  *kV[ŋg/ŋgᵂ]Vr  kaŋguar  *k[o]ŋg[o]r  *uˈg[a]r  ugar  *ugur  

    In one example …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *k  ?  *k  *ø  ?  *ø  *ø
 sneeze  *kapasi[n]    *ka'pasi  *[ha]pasin    *pasin  *pasin

    Initial rounded velar stop /*kʷ/ …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *kʷ-  k  *kʷ  *w    *w  *w
 skin/bark  *kʷel[e]  kul    *wel[e]    *wele  
 ear  *kʷali  kel-'kam  *kʷⁱer  *wali    *wali  *wari
 nest  *kʷari    *kʷeri  *wari  -el  *wari  *wari

    Initial bilabial non-stop /*w/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *w-            

    When followed by low central vowel /*a/ or diphthong /*aⁱ/ (below,) initial /*w/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *w-/_a  w  *w  *w  ø  *w  *w
 hornbill  *wamo[l/r]    *wa'mor        
 coconut  *wata  wat    *wata  hoza  *wata  *wata
 day  *waŋg…    *waŋgis  *wag[a]dz₂i    *wagadz₂i  
 fresh/green  *wVlVn  weleŋ-gap    *walan      *walan
 stone  *war    *war  *war  hol  *war  *w[a/o]r
   *w-/_aⁱ  ?  *w  *w  ø  *w  *w
 blood  *waⁱk    *wⁱek  *waⁱ[C]  ho  *waⁱ[s]  *waⁱ

    In one example, initial /*w/ followed by mid back rounded vowel /*o/ is lost in Bunaq and East Timor and the vowel is raised to high back /*u/:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *wo-  o  *wo  *w  u  *u  *o
 tail  *…  or  *wor  *w[o]ˈla  -uloʔ  *ula  *ora

    Apical non-stops /*l *r/ are not found initially.

    Initial palatal non-stop /*j/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *j-    *j  *j  z  *dz₂  *j
 dog  *jambar  bal  *ja'mbar  *jabar  zap  *dz₂ebar  *jabar


    Any consonant can occur medially.

    Medial bilabial nasal /*m/ is retained as such in all descendants:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-m-  m  *m  *m  m  *m  *m
 breast  *ami  am    *ami  -omoʔ (?)  *ami  *ami
 louse  *am[i/u]n  mun  *meⁱn  *amin    *amin  *amin
 man/male  *nami  nam  *nami  *nami    *nami  
 die  *k[i/u]m[i/u]    *kimi  *…  -ume  *umu  *imu
 wing  *kami[n/r]    *kamen  *ami[r]    *amir  
 kunai grass  *kamVn  kaˈman    *am[e]n      *amen
 hornbill  *wamo[l/r]    *wa'mor        

    Medial apical nasal /*n/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-n-  n  *n  *n  n  *n  *n
 one  *ukʷan[i]  kon  *[o]kʷo[no]  *uˈkani  uen  *ukani  
 older brother  *nani    *nen [?*nani]        
 plait/weave  *sina    *sina  *sina  sien  *sina  *sina
 see  *kena[t]    *kena[t]  *ena    *ena  *en
   *-n(-)  n  n  *n  n  n  n
 older sister  *nana    *nan  *nana  nana  *nana  *nana
 hand/arm  *tana  tan  *tan  *tan[a]  ton  *tana  *tan[a]
 elbow  *tVŋgʷon    *tVŋgʷon        
 eye  *kina    *kin-jep  *ina  -iral (?)  *ina  *ina

    Medial bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-p-    *p  *p  w  *p  *p
 worm/grub  *ipi      *ipi  iu  *ipi  *ipi
 sneeze  *kapasi[n]    *ka'pasi  *pasin    *pasin  *pasin

    Medial apical voiceless stop /*t/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-t-  t r  *t  *t  z  *t  *t
 drum  *titir  ti'ri  *ti'tir  *titir  titil  *titir  
 grandparent  *tat[e/a]  ˈtata  *tat[e/a]  *tata  tata    
 excrement  *k[a/o]t[u]    *k[o]t    ozoʔ ~ ozo  *atu  
 coconut  *wata  wat    *wata  hoza  *wata  *wata

    Medial laminal voiceless /*s/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-s-    *s  *s    *s  *s
 sneeze  *kapasi[n]    *ka'pasi  *pasin    *pasin  *pasin
 fruit/seed  *isu    *is  *isu    *isu  *isV

    Medial velar voiceless stop /*k/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-k-    *k  *k    *k  *k
 mosquito  *kikin      *ikin    *nikin  *ikin
 younger sibling  *n[a/o]k[a/o]    *naka  *n[o]k[o]    *noko  

    Medial rounded velar stop /*kʷ/ …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-kʷ-  k  *kʷ  *k  ø  *k  ?
 one  *ukʷan[i]  kon  *[o]kʷo[no]  *uˈkani  uen  *ukani  

    Bilabial prenasalized stop /*mb/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-mb-  b  *mb  *b  p  *b  *b
 mountain  *tVmber    *t[u]mber  *t[e]ber    *teber  
 woman  *tumbur    *tumbur  *tubur    *tubur  
 dog  *jambar  bal  *ja'mbar  *jabar  zap  *dz₂ebar  *jabar

    Apical prenasalized stop /*nd/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-nd-      *d      
   *…      *…      

    Laminal prenasalized /*ndz/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-ndz-      *dz      
   *…      *…      

    Medial velar voiced prenasalized stop /*ŋg/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-ŋg-  g  *ŋg  *g  g  *g [ʔ]  *g
 day  *waŋg…    *waŋgis  *wag[a]dz₂i    *wagadz₂i  

    … /*ŋg/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-ŋg-    *ŋg        
 body/skin  *aŋgin    *ŋgeⁱn        

    … /*ŋg/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-ŋg-  g  *ŋg  *g  k  *g [ʔ]  *g
 heavy  *tVŋgVr  tagiᵉr  *taŋgⁱer  *tVgVr  tuek  *tigir  *tig[a/o]r
 path  *[ja]ŋgal      *[ja]gal  hik  *iga[r]  *jagal

    … /*ŋg/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-ŋg-  ŋ  *k  *g  ?  *g [ʔ]  *g
 voice/speech  *maŋg[a]  maŋ  *mak  *mag[a]    *maga  *mag

    …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *Vŋg-  ?  ?  *g  g  *g  *g
 3 pl.  *Vŋgi            
 3 pl.  *Vŋga            

    Rounded velar prenasalized stop /*ŋgʷ/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-ŋgʷ-  ?  *ŋgʷ  *gʷ  k  *ʔ  *g
 banana  *muŋgʷol    *muŋgʷo  *mugʷol  mok  *muʔu  *mugol
 elbow  *tVŋgʷon    *tVŋgʷon        

    Medial bilabial non-stop /*w/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-w-      *…      
 eat/drink  *…      *…      

    Rather than a single apical non-stop /*ɾ/ as is most typical in New Guinea, we tentatively posit two liquids /*l *r/ to account for the distinction between these sounds in East Timor. It is conceivable that this distinction is secondary or admits another explanation.

    Medial lateral non-stop /*l/ ….

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-l-  l  *r  *l    *l  *r
 spittle  *pVlVm  pa'lom    *pulum  puluk  *pulum  *purum
 skin/bark  *kʷel[e]  kul    *wel[e]    *wele  
 ear  *kʷali  kel-'kam  *kʷⁱer  *wali    *wali  *wari
 fresh/green  *wVlVn  weleŋ-gap    *walan      *walan

    ….

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-…-  l    *r    *r  
 fence  *ta[l/r]i  tal    *tari    *tari  

    Rhotic /*r/ ….

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-r-  r  *r  *r  l  *r  *r
 water  *kira    *ki'ra  *ira  il  *ira  *ira
 vagina  *karu  kar  *kar  *aru    *aru  *aru
 nest  *kʷari    *kʷeri  *wari  -el  *wari  *wari
   *-r    *r  *r  l  *r  *r
 stone  *war    *war  *war  hol  *war  *w[a/o]r
   *-r  …  *r  *r    *r  *r
 drum  *titir  ti'ri  *ti'tir  *titir  titil  *titir  
 heavy  *tVŋgVr  tagiᵉr  *taŋgⁱer  *tVgVr  tuek  *tigir  *tig[a/o]r
 mountain  *tVmber    *t[u]mber  *t[e]ber    *teber  
 woman  *tumbur    *tumbur  *tubur    *tubur  
 raw/green  *kV[ŋg/ŋgᵂ]Vr  kaŋguar  *k[o]ŋg[o]r  *uˈg[a]r  ugar  *ugur  
 dog  *jambar  bal  *ja'mbar  *jabar  zap  *dz₂ebar  *jabar

    Medial palatal non-stop /*j/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *-j-      *j    j  j
 rain  *kaja    *kⁱari (?)  *aja    *aja  *aja


    …

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      


    …

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    … roots of the form /*aCiC/ …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *aCiC    *CeⁱC        
 body/skin  *aŋgin    *ŋgeⁱn        

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *aC[i/u]C  CuC [CʊC]  *CeⁱC  *aCiC    *aCiC  *aCiC
 louse  *am[i/u]n  mun  *meⁱn  *amin    *amin  *amin

    … roots of the form /*(C)aCi/ …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *(C)aCi  (C)aC  *(C)aCi  *(C)aCi    *(C)aCi  *(C)aCi
 breast  *ami  am    *ami  -omoʔ (?)  *ami  *ami
 man/male  *nami  nam  *nami  *nami    *nami  
 older brother  *nani    *nen [?*nani]        
 fence  *ta[l/r]i  tal    *tari    *tari  *…
 ear  *kʷali  kel-'kam  *kʷⁱer  *wali    *wali  *wari
 nest  *kʷari    *kʷeri  *wari  -el  *wari  *wari

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *…      *…      
   *…      *…      

    Diphthong /*aⁱ/ …:

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
   *aⁱ  ?  *ⁱe  *aⁱ  o  *aⁱ  *aⁱ
 name  *naⁱ    *nⁱe  *naⁱ    *naⁱ  *naⁱ
 blood  *waⁱk    *wⁱek  *waⁱ[C]  ho  *waⁱ[s]  *waⁱ


    Pronouns

    [under construction]

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
 1 sg.  *[a/o]n  an  *[a/o]n  *an  ne-to  *an  *na
 2 sg.  *k[a/o]  ka  *ka  *a  e-to  *a  *a
 3 sg.  *…      *ga      *ga
 1 pl. excl  *…  in  *in  *…    *in  *ni
 1 pl. incl.  *…  pi    *…    *…  *pi
 2 pl.  *ki  ki  *ki  *i    *i  *i
 3 pl.  *…      *…      
 1 dl. excl.  *…      *…    ---  
 1 dl. incl.  *…      *…    ---  
 2 dl.  *…      *…    ---  
 3 dl.  *…      *…    ---  

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
 1 sg.  *…      *…      
 2 sg.  *…      *…      
 3 sg.  *…      *…      
 1 pl. excl.  *…      *…      
 1 pl. incl.  *…      *…      
 2 pl.  *…      *…      
 3 pl.  *…      *…      

    …

   West Bomberai  Kalamang  Mbahaam-Iha  Timor-Alor  Bunaq  East Timor  Alor-Pantar
 1 sg.  *…      *…      
 2 sg.  *…      *…      
 3 sg.  *…      *…      
 1 pl. excl.  *…      *…      
 1 pl. incl.  *…      *…      
 2 pl.  *…      *…      
 3 pl.  *…      *…      

    …


    Verbal morphology

    [under construction]

    …