Marianne Strait

    Timothy Usher, Santa Fe Institute

    Situation

    The Marianne Strait family consists of two closely related languages, Mombum, also known as Komolom (Komelom,) and Konorau (Koneraw,) spoken respectively on Komolom Island at the south end of Marianne Strait and on the south coast of the larger Kolopom island immediately the west. Loans from Marianne Strait in Sawuy, Yaqay and Warkay suggest that the family originated in the Casuarina Coast region, and was pushed south by the expansion of Asmat. Upon entering the Marianne Strait region, the family acquired a number of loans from the Kolopom languages and from Marind to the east.

    Sources

    [under construction]

    Geurtjens (1933: 393-433) 455 comparative terms for Konerawsch (Konorau) and Komelomsch (Mombum)
    Drabbe (1950) 422 comparative terms for Mombùm of Mombùm village
    Boelaars (1950) …
    Drabbe (1954) …
    Voorhoeve (1975: 99) 40 comparative terms for Mombum following Drabbe (1950) and 37 for Koneraw following Geurtjens (1933)
    Voorhoeve (1975: 396-398) pronouns for Koneraw following Geurtjens (1933) and for Mombum following Drabbe (1950)
    Voorhoeve (1980: 61-121) Proto-Asmat includes comparisons to Drabbe's (1950) Mombùm
    Susanto (2001) 238 comparative terms for Konorau (Waɣan) and Komolom
    Olsson (2017) … comparative terms for Mombùm

    History of classification

    Geurtjens' (1933: 393-433) comparative vocabularies of Konerawsch and Komelomsch make it perfectly obvious that the two form a tightly-knit group, but nowhere does he propose a classification of the languages he surveyed.

    Drabbe (1950: 548,) without reference to Geurtjens' (1933) materials, places Mombùm alongside Paniai Lakes, Asmat-Kamoro, Awyu, Wambon and Muyu (Lowland Ok) in a group he designates the suffixing languages ("suffix-talen.") While the other three of Drabbe's groups have at least some grain of taxonomic truth to them, his operative criterion is synchronic and typological rather than geneological in nature, and in this respect suffixiation is the norm throughout New Guinea and Australia alike. Even so, it it true that Mombum belongs immediately with Asmat-Kamoro rather than with Kolopom proper ("koppelwoord-talen"), Marind-Yaqay and Boazi ("præfix-talen") or Moraori and the West Morehead River ("gemengde talen") languages, so Drabbe's classification is arguably not completely groundless, and it's possible that the imperfect but non-random congruence of these morphological categories with taxonomic reality is what moved him to adopt it.

    Voorhoeve (1968: 3-5) posits Drabbe's (1950) Mombum as a fourth branch of his Asmat-Awyu-Ok family, though qualifies this, saying: "Mombum is a border case; its closest relationship is with Asmat. Since it does not show comparably close links with any other language it has been provisionally included ln the Asmat-Awyu-Ok Family." In support of this assertion, he calculates 31% cognacy between 156 comparable terms for Asmat and Mombum respectively. It is interesting to note that the borders of Voorhoeve's Asmat-Awyu-Ok, while formally based upon lexicostatistics rather than typology, closely track those of Drabbe's suffixing group.
    Voorhoeve (1975: 369, 396-398) adds Geurtjens' (1933) Koneraw to form a Mombum Family, which is said to belong to his Central and South New Guinea Stock alongside not only Asmat-Kamoro, Awyu and Ok but also Awin-Pa (Elevala River,) East Strickland (Strickland River,) Bosavi (Papuan Plateau) and Duna-Bogaya. There is no mention here of an exclusive relationship between the Mombum Family and Asmat-Kamoro. But in Voorhoeve (1980: 1) he goes further than his earlier (1968) claim, stating, "The Mombum Family is the closest relative of the Asmat-Kamoro Family; together they form a sub group within the CSNG Stock." This assertion is then is supported by a modest number of convincing outcomparisons to Mombum scattered throughout his reconstructions of proto-Asmat, with a note (p. 59) explaining: The Mombum and Koneraw languages…have been strongly influenced by the neighbouring languages of the Kolopom and Marind families, and this has obscured their relationship with the languages of the Asmat-Kamoro family to a considerable degree. Still, Mombum data often throw unexpected light on the reconstruction of proto-forms, especially those of the ancestor language of the Asmat-Kamoro family, and for this reason I have admitted [Mombum] data as well."
    Wurm (1982: 130-138) fails to consider Voorhoeve's (1958, 1980) assertions of a special relationship between Asmat-Kamoro and Mombum-Koneraw, instead following Voorhoeve's (1975) positioning of the Mombum Family as a primary branch of the very broad Central and South New Guinea Stock. Because Wurm's breakdown was repeated in tertiary compilations such as Ruhlen (1987,) Voorhoeve's insight slipped through the cracks of the macro-regional taxonomic literature. Yet Voorhoeve (2005) himself made no mention of Mombum or Koneraw when comparing his proto-Asmat forms with Healey's (1964) proto-Mountain Ok and (1970) proto-Awyu-Dumut; it's not clear if he'd backed away from his proposal or simply had no reconstruction of proto-Mombum-Koneraw and felt that single language comparisons were out of place in this treatment.

    Greenberg (1971: 829-834) places Komelom (Mombum) and Koneraw in a Jei subgroup of a Southern or Kiwaiic nranch of his proposed Indo-Pacific macrofamily. This Jei subgroup is said to include Yei and the westernmost languages of the Morehead River family, the Kolopom languages including Moraori and the Bulaka River languages as well as those of Marianne Strait. This regional grouping is nearly the set of languages which have borrowed from Marind, or even all the languages which appeared in Geurtjens (1933: 393-433) or Nevermann (1939) except for Marind itself. This must be seen as among the very worst errors in Greenberg's breakdown, with no attempt to identify loans and unduly influenced by the juxtapositions of vocabularies in the print literature..

    Ross (1995: 144) lists the Mombum family among those whose 'pronoun forms which could well reflect ProtoTrans New Guinea. but they do not reflect the paradigm convincingly enough for inclusion here," further stating (p. 153) that there is some small amount of evidence that it belongs with the Trans-New Guinea phylum without saying what that evidence is. Pawley, Ross and Osmond (2005: 70-75) consider Voorhoeve's (1968) placement of Mombum with an Asmat-Awyu-Ok family and assert that Mombum shares with Asmat and Awyu-Dumut the common innovation of having replaced the vowel /*a/ in pronouns with /*u/.

    Here we advocate the point of view expressed and exemplified in Voorhoeve (1980,) which is that the Marianne Strait (Mombum) family is most closely related to the Asmat-Kamrau Bay family along the coast to the north and the far northwest.


    Historical phonology

    [under construction]

    Proto-Marianne Strait had 12 or 13 consonants and perhaps 7 vowels as follows:

*m *n
*p *t *s *k
*mb *nd *ŋg
[*w] *r *j

*i *u
*e̝ *o̝
*a

    Apical non-stop /*r/ does not occur initially.

    …

    Initial consonants correspond as follows:

Marianne Mombùm Komolom Komelomsch Konorau Konerawsch
Drabbe Susanto Geurtjens Susanto Geurtjens
 *m- m m m m m
 *n- n n n n n
 *p- p p p p p
 *t- t t t t t
 *s-
 *k- k k k k k
 *mb- mb mb mb mb mb
 *nd- nd nd nd nd nd
 *ŋg-
 *j- x z θ dz
 *ɣ-

    Medial consonants correspond as follows:

Marianne Mombùm Komolom Komelomsch Konorau Konerawsch
Drabbe Susanto Geurtjens Susanto Geurtjens
*-m- m m m m m
*-n- n n n n n
*-p- p p p p p
*-t- t t t t t
*-s- s s s s s
*-k- k k k k k
*-mb- mb mb mb mb mb
*-nd- nd nd nd nd nd
   *-nd-/_i ndʒ ? ndʒ ndʒ ndʒ
*-ŋg- ŋg ŋg ŋg ŋg ŋg
*-r- r r r r r
*-j- j j j ð dz
*-ɣ- ɣ ɣ ɣ ɣ ɣ

    Final consonants correspond as follows:

Marianne Mombùm Komolom Komelomsch Konorau Konerawsch
Drabbe Susanto Geurtjens Susanto Geurtjens
*-m  m m m m m
*-n  n n n n n
*-p  p p p p p
*-t  t t t t t
*-mb  mb mb mb m m
*-nd  nd nd nd n n
  *-nd/i_ ndʒ ndʒ ndʒ n n
*-ŋg  ŋg ŋg ŋg n n
*-r 
*-ɣ 

    Vowels and vowel sequences correspond as follows:

Marianne Mombùm Komolom Komelomsch Konorau Konerawsch
Drabbe Susanto Geurtjens Susanto Geurtjens
*i
*u
*e̝
*o̝
*a

    These correspondences are exemplified as follows, with Mombum forms drawn from Drabbe (1950: 561-574,) Susanto (2001) and Geurtjens (1933: 398-433) and Koneraw from Susanto and Geurtjens.


    Initial …

    Initial bilabial nasal /*m/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *m-  m  m  m  m  m
 saliva/spittle  *mitaw  miˈtao    mitaw    
 sugarcane  *me̝  me    mɛ    meː
 thought  *me̝niw  mɛnif    meniw    meneː-~-mənə
 nose/tip  *mæne̝ɣ  mɛnəɣ  mənɛ  me(:)nɛɣ  ˈmənaɣar  mʌnːɛ ~mʌnːʌr
 stone  *mæte̝  mɛˈtɛ  ˈmɛtɛ  mateː  mæt̪ʰɛ  matɛ
 fat/grease  *mær  mɛr        mar
 weeping  *mamb  mamb  mamb-  mamb  mam-  maːm-
 rope  *mar  mar  mar  maːl  mar  maːr
 water  *mo̝i  mwɛ  mʷɛj ~ mʷɤⁱ  mui  mʷi ~ mʷɪ-  moi
 foot  *mɔp  mop    mobə    mob
 thorn  *m[ɔ]pe̝ŋg  moˈpɛŋk      mɛbɛn  
 leech  *mo̝ndir      mondʒir  ˈmundʒir  mondʒir
 lime  *mo̝ɣo̝    mu  mo  ˈmoɣo  moɣo
 rain  *mun  mun  mun  mun  mun  mun
 eye  *musiɣ  musiɣ  ˈmusi-  muri ~ mutʃi  ˈmudʒi  mudzu

    Initial apical nasal /*n/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *n-  n  n  n  n  n
 younger sibling  *n[ai]ɣ  nɛɣ  -nɛ    -ˈnalθ  nair
 big  *næŋgVr  nɛŋgər  nəŋgər  naŋgar~naŋgor  naŋgar  naŋgar
 man/person  *nam  nam  nam  nam  nam  nam
 wallaby  *nar  nar  nar-  nar  nar  naː
 1 sg.  *no̝  nu  nu  mo [sic]  no  no
 eat/drink  *no̝ku  nuku  nuku  noku ~ -nok  nogo  nugu

    Initial bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *p-  p  p  p [p b]  p  p [p b]
 tail  *p[ie̝]  pi  pi    pi  peː ~ pjeː
 see  *pe̝[j/ɣ]e̝r  pɛɣɛɾ-  pɛr    pəˈðər  
 garden/clearing  *par  par  par  par  par  paːr
 areca nut  *par[e̝]    ˈparɜ  para  pəˈrɛ  
 flatulate  *pu  pu        
 belly  *put  put  put  put  puθ ~ puˡt̪  put
 white  *pur-pur  ˈpuru-bur  pu-bur  puru-bur  pur-bur  pur-bur
 butterfy  *puri  buri        

    Initial apical voiceless stop /*t/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *t-  t  t  t  t [t θ]  t
 good  *tiuɔr  tiwor  ˈtiwʊr    tiwor  
 wing  *tæɣV  tɛˈɣɛ  tɛj  tareː  θoɣot̪~θəɣɔθ (?)  tʌwːo
 wing  *tæɣV  tɛˈɣɛ  tɛj  tareː  θoɣot̪~θəɣɔθ (?)  tʌwːo
 dig  *ta  ta-    -ta    tə ~ -tɜ
 afraid  *tɔ...    -tɔ-  to  -tɔ-  tov-tov
 body  *tɔnɔm  tonom    tonam  tonom ~ tɔnɔm  tonom
 tree  *to̝  tu  tu  to  to- ~ tɔ-  toː
 earth/ground  *tum[a/o]r  tuˈmor ~ ˈtumor  tuˈmʊr  tamal  tumar-  tamar
 behind  *tumui    tumʷɪ  temːe-  tumʷi-  


    Initial laminal /*s/ is typically realized as an affricate [tʃ ts] in Konorau, a change found also in the insular Kolopom languages which surround the Konorau enclave:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *s-  s [s ʃ]  s [s]  s [s ʃ ʒ]  s [tʃ s]  s [tʃ ts tz s]
 salty  *siar  ˈsiaɾ      -tʃiˈjar  
 hair  *sin  sin  sin  ʃin ~ ʒin  tʃin ~ sin  tʃin
 fly (n.)  *sinɔɣɔ  ˈsinoɣo    sinoho    tʃina
 sand  *sir  sir  sɪr  sir(ə)  tʃɪr ~ sir  tʃir
 fruit/;seed  *se̝t  ʃɛt  sɛt̪    tʃɛt̪̚ ~ tʃɛθ  
 plain(s)  *s[e̝]re̝m      serem    tzrem
 throw away  *særæw  ʃɛruw    sarewo    tsarab
 charcoal/black  *sɔr  sor  soːr-  so ~ ʃor  tʃor-  tʃor ~ soːr
 fence  *su  ʃu  su  su  tʃu ~ suʔ  tʃu

    Initial velar voiceless stop /*k/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *k-  k  k  k  k  k
 snake  *kVnimb[o̝i]  kɛˈnimbo  kəɲimbu  kaɲumba  kinimbʷi  kinembeː
 chest  *keɣen  kɛˈɣɛn    kælan    kʌrːen
 leg  *kaŋg  kaŋk  kaŋ  kaŋg  kan  kaːn
 paradise sp.  *kar[i/e̝]r[e̝]      kareː    karirə
 crocodile  *karam[o̝i]  ˈkaramo  kəramu  karam  ˈkarumʷi  karomui
 joint  *k[o̝/u]mb[o̝/u]ɣ  kumbəɣ    -kumbə
 ~ -kombo
 -kuᵐburθ  -kumbo
 ~-kombo
 tie  *kumbu[i]  kumbu  -kumbu  kumbu  kumbʷɪ  kumbui

    Initial bilabial voiced prenasalized stop /*mb/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *mb-  mb [mb b]  mb [mb]  mb [mb b]  mb [b]  mb [mb b]
 mud/loam  *mbam    ᵐbam  mbam  bam  mbaːm
 know  *mbaɣVjV      pʌrtə  əmbəθəd̪o
 ~ əmbəθəbd̪ɔ
 mbʌrːedzo
 arm  *mbo̝ko̝r  ˈbukur    bukul    bogor
 illness/pain  *mbu  mbu    mbu    mbu
 sago stem(s)  *mbuɣ[ɔ]it[ɔ]ɣ  buɣojtəɣ    boitr    bugito

    Initial apical voiced prenasalized stop /*nd/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *nd-  nd [d]  nd [d]  nd [d]  nd [d d̪]  nd [d nd]
 betel pepper  *ndætim    ˈdɛdim    d̪ɛˈd̪im  dadiwn
 goanna  *ndVjV    ðɛ  dhʌdːa  ˈdərə~ dəðə  ndʌrːɛ
 carry  *ndamVnd  ˈdamənd-    demd-    daman
 tongue  *ndupæn  dupɛn  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan

     Initial velar voiced prenasalized stop /*ŋg/ ….

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *ŋg-    ŋg [ŋg]    ŋg [g]  
 food  *ŋgimb    ᵑgib-    gim-  gim-

    Apical non-stop /*r/ has not been observed to occur initially.

    Initial palatal non-stop /*j/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *j-  z̪  x  z  θ  dz [dz tʃ]
 hear/sense  *jiu  z̪yw ~ z̪əw  -ˈxɛᵘ    θəβə~ θəwɔ  
 bite  *jikau[ɣ]    ixikaᵘx (?)    θikub  tzikab
 tooth  *jiɣ  z̪iɣ  xi  zid ~ zil  θiθ  tʃirə ~ tzi
 sun  *jaua  z̪aˈwa  xowa  zowa  θəwo  dzʌwːo
 heavy  *jak[ɔ/o̝]e  ˈz̪akwɛ    zagoi    dzagʌ
 lake  *jɔmb    xom  zomb  θom  zomb
 breadfruit  *j[ɔ/o̝]ɣ[ɔ/o̝][r]          dzohol
 bamboo  *jo̝pɔr  z̪upor  xupər    θəbor  sobor
 wind  *juru  z̪uru  xəru  zuru  θruru ~ θurːu  dzuru
 flesh/meat  *juruɣ  z̪yryɣ  xərʷi  zuru  θurut̪ ~ θuruθ  
 nipa palm  *juruɣand  z̪uroɣod    tʃruda    tsruan

    It's conspicuous that Geurtjens and Drabbe agree that the sound is a voiced laminal [z̪ z dz] in both lanuages while Susanto's much more recent vocabularies give unvoiced [x θ]. Most likely, this is an ongoing change under the influence of Marind's western dialects in which the regular reflex of Marind /*j/ is aspirated to [hʲ] (q.v. Drabbe 1955. 148-151.) Maklew of the Bulaka River family likewise reflects /*j/ as /s/, Susanto's Konorau [θ] being in keeping with the fronting which characterizes apicals in both languages.

    Initial velar non-stop /*ɣ/ … Apparent variations in the realization of velar non-stop /ɣ/ are attributed not to phonemic change, but to Geurtjens' inconsistent hearing of the sound in Mombum and Konorau alike. Drabbe stipulates that /ɣ/ approaches /x/ in stridency, leading Geurtjens to hear [h] in some examples:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *ɣ-  ɣ  x [x h]  ɣ [ɣ k]  x  ɣ [ɣ k h w]
 kunai grass  *ɣ[i]u  ɣu  xu  ku  xuɸ  ɣiv
 drum  *ɣ[a]im  ɣajm    ɣeim    ɣaim
 bark (of dog)  *ɣamban      ɣamban    -amban
 paddle  *ɣane̝ŋg  ɣaˈnɛŋk  xaˈniŋ  kaleŋg ~ ɣanen  ˈxanɛn  kanen
 bow  *ɣaræw  ɣaˈrɛw    ɣarab ~ ɣara    ɣarab ~ ɣara
 light (weight)  *ɣɔr  ɣoro-ˈɣur    ɣoro    wo-wor
 mat  *ɣ[ɔ/o̝]me̝ɣ  ɣuməɣ    ɣomɛ    ɣamɛ
 banana  *ɣo̝ro̝p  ɣuˈrub  xurub  ɣurub  xoˈroɸ  horob
 five  *ɣVipam    xʷajpam-
 ~ hʷajpam-
 ɣobe-  xʷɛⁱpam  oipoin
 dry season  *ɣua[e̝]r  ɣwaˈrao    kwaːr    kwer ~ gojer
 hold/grab  *ɣuati  ɣwati  xʷati    xoˈtijɜ ~ xoti  hoti ~ hotːi
 hand  *ɣuaɣ  ɣwaɣ  xʷaj  kwal  xolt̪ ~xoθ ~xoð  ɣoiɣ-
 deaf/forget  *ɣun  ɣun  xun    xun  

    In one example, the initial consonant is ambiguous between /*ɣ/ and palatal non-top /*j/ (above):

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *[j/ɣ]-  ɣ  x    θ  
 cuscus  *[j/ɣ]VmVr  ɣəmər  ˈxəmər    θəmər  


    Medial …

    Medial bilabial nasal /*m/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-m-  m  m  m [m mː]  m  m
 causative  *-mɔ  -mow  -mʷo    -mowɔ ~ -mɔɸ  -mo
 knee  *i[ɔ]ɣɔmɔɣ  joɣoməɣ  ˈjomʷɛ  johomo  jɛmoˡθ ~ jəmol-  jemu-
 shadow  *imær      imɛr    imar
 below  *imui  iˈmu  imʷi    jumʷi-  
 ashes  *[i/e]mund  iˈmud  iˈmud    -imun  eːmun
 chin  *amo̝te  amuˈtɛ    amti    amodeː
 earth/ground  *t[u]m[a/o]r  tuˈmor ~ ˈtumor  tuˈmʊr  tamal  tumar-  tamar
 behind  *tumui    tumʷɪ  temːe-  tumʷi-  
 carry  *ndamVnd  ˈdamənd-    demd-    damənə
 crocodile  *karam[o̝i]  ˈkaramo  kəramu  karam  ˈkarumʷi  karomui
 cuscus  *[j/ɣ]VmVr  ɣəmər  ˈxəmər    θəmər  
 mat  *ɣ[ɔ/o̝]me̝ɣ  ɣuməɣ    ɣomɛ    ɣamɛ

    Medial apical nasal /*n/ is generally retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-n-  n  n  n  n  n
 voice  *uanan  wanan    wanan  ˈwanan  
 nose/tip  *mæne̝ɣ  mɛnəɣ  mənɛ  me(:)nɛɣ  ˈmənaɣar  mʌnːɛ ~mʌnːʌr
 body  *tɔnɔm  tonom    tonam  tonom ~ tɔnɔm  tonom
 fly (n.)  *sinɔɣɔ  ˈsinoɣo    sinoho    tʃina
 paddle  *ɣane̝ŋg  ɣaˈnɛŋg  xaˈniŋ  kaleŋg ~ ɣanen  ˈxanɛn  kanen

    When followed by high front vowel /*i/, the reflexes of medial /*n/ are sometimes realized as palatalized nasal [ɲ] in free variation with apical [n]:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-n-/_i  n [n ɲ]  n [ɲ n]  n [n ɲ]  n [n]  n [n]
 ant sp.  *iniui      iniwi    iniwi
 child  *æni  ɛɲi  -æɲi    ˈæni ~ ˈɨni  ænːi ~ ani-
 taro  *uni  uˈni  ˈuni  uni  uni  uni
 thought  *me̝niw  mɛnif    meniw    meneː-~-mənə
 snake  *kVnimb[o̝i]  kɛˈnimbo  kəɲimbu  kaɲumba  kinimbʷi  kinembeː

    Medial bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-p-  p [p b]  p [p b]  p [p pː b]  p [p b]  p [p pː b]
 cold  *iVp[u]i  jɛˈpwi  ˈjoᶷpi      
 ear  *ie̝pær  ˈipɛr  ˈipɛr  ipar  ˈjɛpar ~ jɛˈpɛr  jʌpːar ~ jepʌrːa
 stand  *ipærænd  iˈpɛrɛd  iprəd  iprad-  ibran  ibran(ə)
 dog  *ipui  iˈpwi  ipʷi  ipwi  ˈubʷi  ubui
 leaf  *epur  ˈɛpur  -pur  -pur  ɜˈbor ~ -bor  -bur
 older sister  *ap[ɔ /u][p/w]  apob  n-ʊpup    n-æˈbʊ  
 breast  *apuɣ  apwyɣ  ʊpʷuⁱ  apur  əbʊt̚ ~ əbuθ  abur
 thorn  *m[ɔ]pe̝ŋg  moˈpɛŋk      mɛbɛn  
 white  *pur-pur  ˈpuru-bur  pu-bur  puru-bur  pur-bur  pur-bur
 goose  *tVpue̝      tubwɛ    tapweː
 tongue  *ndup[e/a]n  dupɛn  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan
 bamboo  *jo̝pɔr  z̪upor  xupər    θəbor  sobor
 five  *ɣVipam    xʷajpam-  ɣobe-  xʷɛⁱpam  oipoin

    Medial apical voiceless stop /*t/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-t-  t [t d]  t [t d r]  t [t d]  t [t t̪ʰ d̪ ð]  t [t tː d dː]
 adj. suffix  *-tV[j/ɣ]e̝  -tɛɣɛ ~ -təɣ ~ ˈtoɣ  -tɛ  -ta  -təðə ~ -tə ~ -ti  --tɛ ~ -teː
 go  *iato    jar-  jato    jʌdːo
 night/dark  *iɔɣ[ɔ]tɔm    ˈjɔxrom  johodom  ˈjɔðɔm  jodom ~ jʌdːom
 forehead  *e̝itɔu  ejˈdow    eidow    eidow
 chin  *amo̝te  amuˈtɛ    amti    amodeː
 grandchild  *atV    n-aːd    n-ˈəðə  
 saliva/spittle  *mitaw  miˈtao    mitaw    
 stone  *mæte̝  mɛˈtɛ  ˈmɛtɛ  mateː  mæt̪ʰɛ  matɛ
 sago stem(s)  *mbuɣ[ɔ]it[ɔ]ɣ  buɣojtəɣ    boitr    bugito
 betel pepper  *ndætim    ˈdɛdim    d̪ɛˈd̪im  dadiwn
 hold/grab  *ɣuati  ɣwati  xʷati    xoˈtijɜ ~ xoti  hoti ~ hotːi

    Medial laminal /*s/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-s-  s [s]  s [s]  s [tʃ dʒ r]  s [dʒ]  s [s dz]
 sneeze  *æsi  ˈɛsu    edʒi    asija
 eye  *musiɣ  musiɣ  ˈmusi-  muri ~ mutʃi  ˈmudʒi  mudzu

    Medial velar voiceless stop /*k/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-k-  k [k]  k [k]  k [k g]  k [g]  k [g]
 bad  *ikɔr  ikor    ikor    igor
 arm  *mbo̝ko̝r  ˈbukur    bukul    bogor
 eat/drink  *no̝ku  nuku  nuku  noku ~ -nok  nogo  nugu
 bite  *jikau[ɣ]    ixikaᵘx    θikub  tzikab
 heavy  *jak[ɔ/o̝]e  ˈz̪akwɛ    zagoi    dzagʌ

    Medial bilabial voiced prenasalized stop /*mb/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-mb-  mb [mb]  mb [mb m]  mb [mb]  mb [mb]  mb [mb]
 sweat  *ie̝mbo̝ro̝m  ˈimburum    imburum    jemborom
 tomorrow  *iembu  ˈimbu    jembu ~ embu    imb-
 husband  *o̝mb[o̝]  umb  -ˈwom  -womb  -wʊmbʊ  ombo
 snake  *kVnimb[o̝i]  kɛˈnimbo  kəɲimbu  kaɲumba  kinimbʷi  kinembeː
 joint  *k[o̝/u]mb[o̝/u]ɣ  kumbəɣ    -kumbə
 ~ -kombo
 -kuᵐburθ  -kumbo
 ~-kombo
 tie  *kumbu[i]  kumbu  -kumbu  kumbu  kumbʷɪ  kumbui
 bark (of dog)  *ɣamban      ɣamban    -amban

    Medial apical voiced prenasalized stop /*nd/ is generally retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-nd-  nd [nd]  nd [nd]  nd [nd nt]  nd [nd]  nd [nd]
 head/skull  *uɔndVro̝m  wondˈrum  ˈwondrum  wondrom
 ~ untrom
 ˈwondərəm  wonderam
 ~ underʌm

    Medial /*nd/ when followed by high front vowel /*i/ is palatalized and affricated to [ndʒ] in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-nd-/_i  nd [ndʒ]  ?  nd [ndʒ]  nd [ndʒ]  nd [ndʒ]
 lightning  *[i/u]Vndir  'wandʒir    wondʒir    jendʃir
 navel  *undir  undʒɛr    undʒir    undʒi
 leech  *mo̝ndir      mondʒir  ˈmundʒir  mondʒir
 throat  *…  kɛ'rɛndʒɛram        karindʃan

     Medial voiced prenasalized stop /*ŋg/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-ŋg-  ŋg [ŋg ŋk]  ŋg [ŋg ŋk]  ŋg [ŋg]  ŋg [ŋg ŋː]  ŋg [ŋg]
 coconut  *iŋgiuin  iŋgun  iŋgun  iŋgiwi ~ eŋgon  junː ~ jun-  ŋgiwin ~ jun-
 sago  *æiŋga  eink [sic]  æŋk  eiŋgə  æⁱŋːa ~ æˈŋːɜ
 ~ ɛⁱŋːə
 iŋga
 big  *næŋgVr  nɛŋgər  nəŋgər  naŋgar~naŋgor  naŋgar  naŋgar

    Medial apical non-stop /*r/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-r-  r  r  r  r  r
 bandicoot  *ie̝uri  jɛw'ri      jɨˈwuri  
 sweat  *ie̝mbo̝ro̝m  ˈimburum    imburum    jemborom
 stand  *ipærænd  iˈpɛrɛd  iprəd  iprad-  ibran  ibran(ə)
 moon  *irind  iˈrindʒa  irindʒi  irintʃə  irin  irin
 four  *aræɣ  arəɣ  ˈarar  ara  araθ  ara
 cockroach  *arV[j/ɣ]Vr  arəˈɣɛr    arar    arːadzərə
 head/skull  *uɔndVro̝m  wondˈrum  ˈwondrum  wondrom  ˈwondərəm  wonderam
 back  *uriɣ  uriɣ    uril ~ urir    urur ~ uru
 shoulder  *uramb      urob    uram
 areca nut  *par[e̝]    ˈparɜ  para  pəˈrɛ  
 butterfly  *puri  buri        
 plain(s)  *s[e̝]re̝m      serem    tzrem
 throw away  *særæw  ʃɛruw    sarewo    tsarab
 paradise sp.  *kar[i/e̝]r[e̝]      kareː    karirə
 crocodile  *karam[o̝i]  ˈkaramo  kəramu  karam  ˈkarumʷi  karomui
 wind  *juru  z̪uru  xəru  zuru  θruru ~ θurːu  dzuru
 flesh/meat  *juruɣ  z̪yryɣ  xərʷi  zuru  θurut̪ ~ θuruθ  
 nipa palm  *juruɣand  z̪uroɣod    tʃruda    tsruan
 bow  *ɣaræw  ɣaˈrɛw    ɣarab ~ ɣara    ɣarab ~ ɣara
 banana  *ɣo̝ro̝p  ɣuˈrub  xurub  ɣurub  xoˈroɸ  horob

    … medial palatal non-stop /*j/. Although it's not clear that it contrasts with sequential /*i/, its reflexes in Konorau are like those of intiial /*j/ (above) which is contrastive :

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-j-  j  j [ø]  j [j dː r]  θ [ð d̪ r]  dz [dz rː j]
 breath  *uije̝n      -viden-    wijen
 canoe  *uo̝je̝ŋg  uˈjɛŋk  wɪŋk  ujeŋgə  woðən  wodzæn
 know  *mbaɣVjV      pʌrtə  əmbəθəd̪o
 ~ əmbəθəbd̪ɔ
 mbʌrːedzo
 goanna  *ndVjV    ðɛ  dhʌdːa  ˈdərə~ dəðə  ndʌrːɛ

    Medial velar non-stop /*ɣ/ …

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-ɣ-  ɣ [ɣ]  ɣ [x ø]  ɣ [h l ø]  ɣ [θ ɣ ø]  ɣ [g ɣ h r ø]
 yesterday  *iɔɣɔi  joˈɣoj    joweː    jo-
 knee  *i[ɔ]ɣɔmɔɣ  joɣoməɣ  ˈjomʷɛ  johomo  jɛmoˡθ ~ jəmol-  jemu-
 night/dark  *iɔɣ[ɔ]tɔm    ˈjɔxrom  johodom  ˈjɔðɔm  jodom ~ jʌdːom
 grandfather  *aɣa...      n-ahal  n-aɣat̪  n-aɣad
 lime  *mo̝ɣo̝    mu  mo  ˈmoɣo  moɣo
 know  *mbaɣVjV      pʌrtə  əmbəθəd̪o
 ~ əmbəθəbd̪ɔ
 mbʌrːedzo
 sago stem(s)  *mbuɣ[ɔ]it[ɔ]ɣ  buɣojtəɣ    boitr    bugito
 wing  *tæɣV  tɛˈɣɛ  tɛj  tareː  θoɣot̪ ~ θəɣɔθ  tʌwːo
 chest  *keɣen  kɛˈɣɛn    kælan    kʌrːen
 fly (n.)  *sinɔɣɔ  ˈsinoɣo    sinoho    tʃina
 breadfruit  *j[ɔ/o̝]ɣ[ɔ/o̝][r]          dzohol
 nipa palm  *juruɣand  z̪uroɣod    tʃruda    tsruan

    In one example, the medial consonant is ambiguous between /*ɣ/ and palatal non-top /*j/ (above):

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-[j/ɣ]-  ɣ        
 cockroach  *arV[j/ɣ]Vr  arəˈɣɛr    arar    arːadzərə
 see  *pe̝[j/ɣ]e̝r  pɛɣɛɾ-  pɛr    pəˈðər  
 adj. suffix  *-tV[j/ɣ]e̝  -tɛɣɛ ~ -təɣ ~ ˈtoɣ  -tɛ  -ta  -təðə ~ -tə ~ -ti  --tɛ ~ -teː


    All consonants except for laminal /*s/, velar voiceless stop /*k/ and palatal non-stop /*j/ have been found to occur word-finally.

    Final bilabial nasal /*m/ is retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-m  m  m  m  m  m
 sweat  *ie̝mbo̝ro̝m  ˈimburum    imburum    jemborom
 night/dark  *iɔɣ[ɔ]tɔm    ˈjɔxrom  johodom  ˈjɔðɔm  jodom ~ jʌdːom
 louse  *am  am  am  aːm  am  aːm
 hot  *uɔm  wom  wom  uom    umoː
 head/skull  *uɔndVro̝m  wondˈrum  ˈwondrum  wondrom  ˈwondərəm  wonderam
 mud/loam  *mbam    ᵐbam  mbam  bam  mbaːm
 man/person  *nam  nam  nam  nam  nam  nam
 body  *tɔnɔm  tonom    tonam  tonom ~ tɔnɔm  tonom
 betel pepper  *ndætim    ˈdɛdim    d̪ɛˈd̪im  dadiwn [sic]
 plain(s)  *s[e̝]re̝m      serem    tzrem
 drum  *ɣaim  ɣajm    ɣeim    ɣaim
 five  *ɣVipam    xʷajpam-  ɣobe-  xʷɛⁱpam  oipoin (?)

    Final apical nasal /*n/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-n  n  n  n  n  n
 old woman  *ie̝uɔn  jɛwon ~ -jawon  -jun  jewan  jəwon  jeːwon
 coconut  *iŋgiuin  iŋgun  iŋgun  iŋgiwi ~ eŋgon  junː ~ jun-  ŋgiwin ~ jun-
 centipede  *an  an    aːn    jaːn
 voice  *uanan  wanan    wanan  ˈwanan  
 rain  *mun  mun  mun  mun  mun  mun
 tongue  *ndupæn  dupɛn  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan
 hair  *sin  sin  sin  ʃin ~ ʒin  tʃin ~ sin  tʃin
 chest  *keɣen  kɛˈɣɛn    kælan    kʌrːen
 bark (of dog)  *ɣamban      ɣamban    -amban
 deaf/forget  *ɣun  ɣun  xun    xun  

    Final bilabial voiceless stop /*p/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-p  p [p b]  p [b]  p [b]  p [ɸ f]  p [b]
 foot  *mɔp  mop    mobə    mob
 banana  *ɣo̝ro̝p  ɣuˈrub  xurub  ɣurub  xoˈroɸ
 ~ xorof
 ɣorob

    Final apical voiceless stop /*t/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-t  t [t]  t [t t̪]  t [t]  t [θ t̪ t̪̚]  t [t ø]
 woman/wife  *ie̝t  jɛt    -ɛt ~ id-  jɛθ  jeː ~ jʌdː-
 ~ jeːr- ~ ir-
 belly  *put  put  put  put  puθ ~ puˡt̪  put
 fruit/;seed  *se̝t  ʃɛt  sɛt̪    tʃɛt̪̚ ~ tʃɛθ  

    Laminal /*s/ does not occur finally, because Asmat-Marianne Strait final /*s/ has merged with /*r/ (below):

    Velar voiceless stop /*k/ has not been found to occur finally, perhaps suggesting that it has changed to non-stop /*ɣ/ (below).

    Final voiced prenasalized stops /*mb *nd *ŋg/ are merged with nasals /m n/ in Konorau.

    Final bilabial voiced prenasalized stop /*mb/ is retained as /mb/ [mb b] in Mombum and meged with nasal /m/ in Konorau:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-mb  mb [mb]  mb [mb]  mb [mb b]  m  m
 shoulder  *uramb      urob    uram
 weeping  *mamb  mamb  mamb-  mamb  mam-  maːm-
 food  *ŋgimb    ᵑgib-    gim-  gim-

    One example is somewhat confused in this respect:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-mb    mb [m]  mb [mb]  m  mb (?)
 lake  *jɔmb    xom  zomb  θom  zomb

    Final apical voiced prenasalized stop /*nd/ is retained as /nd/ [d nd] in Mombum and merged with nasal /n/ in Konorau:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-nd  nd [d nd]  nd [d]  nd [d]  n  n
 ashes  *[i/e]mund  iˈmud  iˈmud    -imun  eːmun
 stand  *ipærænd  iˈpɛrɛd  iprəd  iprad-  ibran  ibran(ə)
 carry  *ndamVnd  ˈdamənd-    demd-    daman ~
 damənə
 nipa palm  *juruɣand  z̪uroɣod    tʃruda    tsruan

    When preceded by high front vowel /*i/, /*nd/ is realized as [ndʒ] in Mombum and as /n/ in Konorau:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-nd/i_  nd [ndʒ]  nd [ndʒ]  nd [ntʃ]  nd [ndʒ]  nd [ndʒ]
 moon  *irind  iˈrindʒ  irindʒi  irintʃə  irin  irin

    Final velar voiced prenasalized stop /*ŋg/ is retained as /ŋg/ [ŋg ŋk ŋ] in Mombum and merged with apical nasal /n/ in Konorau, as is final /*nd/ (above):

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-ŋg  ŋg [ŋk ŋg]  ŋg [ŋk ŋ]  ŋg [ŋg n]  n  n
 fish  *iaŋg  jaŋk  jaŋk  jaŋk ~ jaŋg-  jan  jan-
 mucus  *i[ɔ]ŋg  joŋk-    joŋgə    jen
 canoe  *uo̝je̝ŋg  uˈjɛŋk  wɪŋk  ujeŋgə  woðən  wodzæn
 thorn  *m[ɔ]pe̝ŋg  moˈpɛŋk      mɛbɛn  
 leg  *kaŋg  kaŋk  kaŋ  kaŋg  kan  kaːn
 paddle  *ɣane̝ŋg  ɣaˈnɛŋg  xaˈniŋ  kaleŋg ~ ɣanen  ˈxanɛn  kanen

    Final bilabial non-stop /*w/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-w  f w ø    b w ø    b v ø
 pig  *uw  u  u  u  uɸ  u
 spittle  *mitaw  miˈtao    mitaw    
 thought  *me̝niw  mɛnif    meniw    meneː-~-mənə
 causative  *-mɔw  -mow  -mʷo    -mowɔ ~ -mɔɸ  -mo
 afraid  *tɔw    -tɔ-  to  -tɔ-  tov-tov
 throw away  *særæw  ʃɛruw    sarewo    tsarab
 bite  *jikau[ɣ]    ixikaᵘx    θikub  tzikab
 kunai grass  *ɣ[i]uw  ɣu  xu  ku  xuɸ  ɣiv
 bow  *ɣaræw  ɣaˈrɛw  xarəᵘ  ɣarab ~ ɣara  xaraɸ  ɣarab ~ ɣara

    Final apical non-stop /*r/ is sometimes followed with a subphonemic copy vowel:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-r  r(V)    r(V) [r l]    r(V)
 ear  *ie̝pær  ˈipɛr  ˈipɛr  ipar  ˈjɛpar ~ jɛˈpɛr  jʌpːar ~ jepʌrːa
 shadow  *imær      imɛr    imar
 bad  *ikɔr  ikor    ikor    igor
 blood  *ir  iˈri  ˈiri  iri  ˈiri  iri
 lightning  *[i/u]Vndir  'wandʒir    wondʒir    jendʃir
 leaf  *epur  ˈɛpur  -pur  -pur  ɜˈbor ~ -bor  -bur
 urine  *[a]ir  aˈir  ir-  ir  ær-  ijərə
 excrement  *ar  ar  ar  ar  ar  aːr
 cockroach  *arV[j/ɣ]Vr  arəˈɣɛr    arar    arːadzərə
 navel  *undir  undʒɛr    undʒir    undʒi
 name  *ur  ur  ur  uru  ur  ur
 rope  *mar  mar  mar  maːl  mar  maːr
 leech  *mo̝ndir      mondʒir  ˈmundʒir  mondʒir
 see  *pe̝[j/ɣ]e̝r  pɛɣɛɾ-  pɛr    pəˈðər  
 skin/bark  *par  par  par  par  par  paːr
 white  *pur-pur  ˈpuru-bur  pu-bur  puru-bur  pur-bur  pur-bur
 arm  *mbo̝ko̝r  ˈbukur    bukul    bogor
 big  *næŋgVr  nɛŋgər  nəŋgər  naŋgar~naŋgor  naŋgar  naŋgar
 wallaby  *nar  nar  nar-  nar  nar  naː [sic]
 good  *tiuɔr  tiwor  ˈtiwʊr    tiwor  
 earth/ground  *tum[a/o]r  tuˈmor ~ ˈtumor  tuˈmʊr  tamal  tumar-  tamar
 salty  *siar  ˈsiaɾ      -tʃiˈjar  
 sand  *sir  sir  sɪr  sir(ə)  tʃɪr ~ sir  tʃir
 charcoal/black  *sɔr  sor  soːr-  so ~ ʃor  tʃor-  tʃor ~ soːr
 bamboo  *jo̝pɔr  z̪upor  xupər    θəbor  sobor
 cuscus  *[j/ɣ]VmVr  ɣəmər  ˈxəmər    θəmər  
 light (weight)  *ɣɔr  ɣoro-ˈɣur    ɣoro    wo-wor
 dry season  *ɣua[e̝]r  ɣwaˈrao    kwaːr    kwer ~ gojer

    Palatal non-stop /*j/ has not been found to occur finally. Some reflexes of velar non-stop /*ɣ/ (below) suggest that the two may have been merged in final position.

    Final velar non-stop /*ɣ/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *-ɣ  ɣ  … [r j ø]  ɣ [ɣ r l ø]  θ [θ lθ t̚ r ø]  … [r ø]
 knee  *i[ɔ]ɣɔmɔɣ  joɣoməɣ  ˈjomʷɛ  johomo  jɛmoˡθ ~ jəmol-  jemu-
 breast  *apuɣ  apwyɣ  ʊpʷuⁱ  apur  əbʊt̚ ~ əbuθ  abur
 four  *aræɣ  arəɣ  ˈarar  ara  araθ  ara
 back  *uriɣ  uriɣ    uril ~ urir    urur ~ uru
 nose/tip  *mæne̝ɣ  mɛnəɣ  mənɛ  me(:)nɛɣ  ˈmənaɣar  mʌnːʌr ~mʌnːɛ
 eye  *musiɣ  musiɣ  ˈmusi-  muri ~ mutʃi  ˈmudʒi  mudzu
 sago stem(s)  *mbuɣ[ɔ]it[ɔ]ɣ  buɣojtəɣ    boitr    bugito
 younger sibling  *n[ai]ɣ  nɛɣ  -nɛ    -ˈnalθ  nair
 joint  *k[o̝/u]mb[o̝/u]ɣ  kumbəɣ    -kumbə
 ~ -kombo
 -kuᵐburθ  -kumbo
 ~-kombo
 tooth  *jiɣ  z̪iɣ  xi  zid ~ zil  θiθ  tʃirə ~ tzi
 flesh/meat  *juruɣ  z̪yryɣ  xərʷi  zuru  θurut̪ ~ θuruθ  
 mat  *ɣ[ɔ/o̝]me̝ɣ  ɣuməɣ    ɣomɛ    ɣamɛ
 hand  *ɣuaɣ  ɣwaɣ  xʷaj  kwal  xolt̪ ~xoθ ~xoð  ɣoiɣ-


    … vowels …

    High front vowel /*i/ is generally retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *i  i    i    i
 blood  *ir  iˈri  ˈiri  iri  ˈiri  iri
 sand  *sir  sir  sɪr  sir(ə)  tʃɪr ~ sir  tʃir
 hair  *sin  sin  sin  ʃin ~ ʒin  tʃin ~ sin  tʃin
 food  *ŋgimb    ᵑgib-    gim-  gim-
 tooth  *jiɣ  z̪iɣ  xi  zid ~ zil  θiθ  tʃirə ~ tzi
 ant sp.  *iniui      iniwi    iniwi
 good  *tiuɔr  tiwor  ˈtiwʊr    tiwor  
 bad  *ikɔr  ikor    ikor    igor
 fly (n.)  *sinɔɣɔ  ˈsinoɣo    sinoho    tʃina
 shadow  *imær      imr    imar
 saliva/spittle  *mitaw  miˈtao    mitaw    
 bite  *jikau[ɣ]    ixikaᵘx    θikub  tzikab
 butterly  *puri  buri        
 navel  *undir  undʒɛr    undʒir    undʒi
 bandicoot  *ie̝uri  jɛw'ri      jɨˈwuri  
 leech  *mo̝ndir      mondʒir  ˈmundʒir  mondʒir
 child  *æni  ɛɲi  -æɲi    ˈæni ~ ˈɨni  ænːi ~ ani-
 betel pepper  *ndætim    ˈdɛdim    d̪ɛˈd̪im  dadiwn
 urine  *[a]ir  aˈir  ir-  ir  ær-  ijərə

    … /*i/ … The reflexes of these sequences contrast with those of intiial palatal non-stop /*j/ (above):

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *i/#_V  i    i    i
 woman/wife  *ie̝t  jɛt    -ɛt ~ id-  jɛθ  jeː ~ jʌdː-
 ~ jeːr- ~ ir-
 bandicoot  *ie̝uri  jɛw'ri      jɨˈwuri  
 old woman  *ie̝uɔn  jɛwon ~ -jawon  -jun  jewan  jəwon  jeːwon
 ear  *ie̝pær  ˈipɛr  ˈipɛr  ipar  ˈjɛpar ~ jɛˈpɛr  jʌpːar ~ jepʌrːa
 cold  *iVp[u]i  jɛˈpwi  ˈjoᶷpi      
 mucus  *i[ɔ]ŋg  joŋk-    joŋgə    jen
 knee  *i[ɔ]ɣɔmɔɣ  joɣoməɣ  ˈjomʷɛ  johomo  jɛmoˡθ ~ jəmol-  jemu-
 night/dark  *iɔɣ[ɔ]tɔm    ˈjɔxrom  johodom  ˈjɔðɔm  jodom ~ jʌdːom
 fish  *iaŋg  jaŋk  jaŋk  jaŋk ~ jaŋg-  jan  jan-
   *i/V_V  i      ij  
 salty  *siar  ˈsiaɾ      -tʃiˈjar  

    … /*i/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *i/_Cui  i  i  i  ju u  u
 below  *imui  iˈmu  imʷi    jumʷi-  
 dog  *ipui  iˈpwi  ipʷi  ipwi  ˈubʷi  ubui

    In two examples, /*i/ is backed to [u] in Geurtjens' Konerawsch when following high back vowel /*u/ in a previous syllable:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *i/uC_  i  i  i  i  u
 back  *uriɣ  uria    uril ~ urir    urur ~ uru
 eye  *musiɣ  musiɣ  ˈmusi-  muri ~ mutʃi  ˈmudʒi  mudzu

    High back rounded vowel /*u/ is generally retained as such in both languages:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *u  u  u  u  u  u
 pig  *u  u  u  u  uɸ  u
 illness/pain  *mbu  mbu    mbu    mbu
 fence  *su  ʃu  su  su  tʃu ~ suʔ  tʃu
 name  *ur  ur  ur  uru  ur  ur
 rain  *mun  mun  mun  mun  mun  mun
 belly  *put  put  put  put  puθ ~ puˡt̪  put
 deaf/forget  *ɣun  ɣun  xun    xun  
 wind  *juru  z̪uru  xəru  zuru  θruru ~ θurːu  dzuru
 white  *pur-pur  ˈpuru-bur  pu-bur  puru-bur  pur-bur  pur-bur
 tie  *kumbu[i]  kumbu  -kumbu  kumbu  kumbʷɪ  kumbui
 taro  *uni  uˈni  ˈuni  uni  uni  uni
 butterfly  *puri  buri        
 navel  *undir  undʒɛr    undʒir    undʒi
 back  *uriɣ  uriɣ    uril ~ urir    urur ~ uru
 eye  *musiɣ  musiɣ  ˈmusi-  muri ~ mutʃi  ˈmudʒi  mudzu
 shoulder  *uramb      uromb    uram
 kunai grass  *ɣ[i]u  ɣu  xu  ku  xuɸ  ɣiv
 ashes  *[i/e]mund  iˈmud  iˈmud    -imun  eːmun
 eat/drink  *no̝ku  nuku  nuku  noku ~ -nok  nogo  nugu

    … /*u/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *u/#_V  u [w u]  u [w]  u [w u]  u [w]  u [w u]
 canoe  *uo̝je̝ŋg  uˈjɛŋk  wɪŋk  ujeŋgə  woðən  wodzæn
 hot  *uɔm  wom  wom  uom    umoː
 head/skull  *uɔndVro̝m  wondˈrum  ˈwondrum  wondrom  ˈwondərəm  wonderam
 fire  *ua[nd/r]  wad  wad  wad  war  waːr
 voice  *uanan  wanan    wanan  ˈwanan  
   *u/V_(V)  u [w]  u [w]  u [w]  u [w]  u [w wː]
 bandicoot  *ie̝uri  jɛw'ri      jɨˈwuri  
 ant sp.  *iniui      iniwi    iniwi
 good  *tiuɔr  tiwor  ˈtiwʊr    tiwor  
 old woman  *ie̝uɔn  jɛwon ~ -jawon  -jun  jewan  jəwon  jeːwon
 sun  *jaua  z̪aˈwa  xowa  zowa  θəwo  dzʌwːo

    High mid front vowel /*e̝/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *e̝  e    e [e ɛ]    e [e ɛ æ]
 sugarcane  *me̝  me    mɛ    meː
 fruit/;seed  *se̝t  ʃɛt  sɛt̪    tʃɛt̪̚ ~ tʃɛθ  
 see  *pe̝[j/ɣ]e̝r  pɛɣɛɾ-  pɛr    pəˈðər  
 plain(s)  *s[e̝]re̝m      serem    tzrem
 thought  *me̝niw  mɛnif    meniw    meneː-~-mənə
 forehead  *e̝itɔu  ejˈdow    eidow    eidow
 woman/wife  *ie̝t  jɛt    -ɛt ~ id-  jɛθ  jeː ~ jʌdː-
 ~ jeːr- ~ ir-
 canoe  *uo̝je̝ŋg  uˈjɛŋk  wɪŋk  ujeŋgə  woðən  wodzæn
 mat  *ɣ[ɔ/o̝]me̝ɣ  ɣuməɣ    ɣomɛ    ɣamɛ
 thorn  *m[ɔ]pe̝ŋg  moˈpɛŋk      mɛbɛn  
 stone  *mæte̝  mɛˈtɛ  ˈmɛtɛ  mateː  mæt̪ʰɛ  matɛ
 nose/tip  *mæne̝ɣ  mɛnəɣ  mənɛ  me(:)nɛɣ  ˈmənaɣar  mʌnːɛ ~mʌnːʌr
 goose  *tVpue̝      tubwɛ    tapweː
 paddle  *ɣane̝ŋg  ɣaˈnɛŋk  xaˈniŋ  kaleŋg ~ ɣanen  ˈxanɛn  kanen

    High mid back rounded /*o̝/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *o̝  u    o ~ u    o
 do  *o̝  u    u    o
 1 sg.  *no̝  nu  nu  no  no  no
 tree  *to̝  tu  tu  to  to- ~ tɔ-  toː
 husband  *o̝mb[o̝]  umb  -ˈwom  -womb  -wʊmbʊ  ombo
 lime  *mo̝ɣo̝    mu  mo  ˈmoɣo  moɣo
 arm  *mbo̝ko̝r  ˈbukur    bukul    bogor
 banana  *ɣo̝ro̝p  ɣuˈrub  xurub  ɣurub  xoˈroɸ  horob
 water  *mo̝i  mwɛ  mʷɛj ~ mʷɤⁱ
 ~ mʷɪ- ~ mʷɛ-
 mui  mʷi ~ mʷɪ-  moi
 leech  *mo̝ndir      mondʒir  ˈmundʒir  mondʒir
 eat/drink  *no̝ku  nuku  nuku  noku ~ -nok  nogo  nugu
 bamboo  *jo̝pɔr  z̪upor  xupər    θəbor  sobor
 sweat  *ie̝mbo̝ro̝m  ˈimburum    imburum    jemborom
 canoe  *uo̝je̝ŋg  uˈjɛŋk  wɪŋk  ujeŋgə  woðən  wodzæn
 head/skull  *uɔndVro̝m  wondˈrum  ˈwondrum  wondrom  ˈwondərəm  wonderam
 chin  *amo̝te  amuˈtɛ    amti    amodeː

    Low mid back rounded vowel /*ɔ/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *ɔ  o    o    o
 causative  *-mɔ  -mow  -mʷo    -mowɔ ~ -mɔɸ  -mo
 foot  *mɔp  mop    mobə    mob
 charcoal/black  *sɔr  sor  soːr-  so ~ ʃor  tʃor-  tʃor ~ soːr
 lake  *jɔmb    xom  zomb  θom  zomb
 light (weight)  *ɣɔr  ɣoro-ˈɣur    ɣoro    wo-wor
 body  *tɔnɔm  tonom    tonam  tonom ~ tɔnɔm  tonom
 hot  *uɔm  wom  wom  uom    umoː
 head/skull  *uɔndVro̝m  wondˈrum  ˈwondrum  wondrom  ˈwondərəm  wonderam
 yesterday  *iɔɣɔi  joˈɣoj    joweː    jo-
 bad  *ikɔr  ikor    ikor    igor
 good  *tiuɔr  tiwor  ˈtiwʊr    tiwor  
 fly (n.)  *sinɔɣɔ  ˈsinoɣo    sinoho    tʃina
 knee  *i[ɔ]ɣɔmɔɣ  joɣoməɣ  ˈjomʷɛ  johomo  jɛmoˡθ ~ jəmol-  jemu-
 night/dark  *iɔɣ[ɔ]tɔm    ˈjɔxrom  johodom  ˈjɔðɔm  jodom ~ jʌdːom
 forehead  *e̝itɔu  ejˈdow    eidow    eidow
 bamboo  *jo̝pɔr  z̪upor  xupər    θəbor  sobor

    Low front vowel /*æ/ …:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *æ  ɛ    a ɛ e    a
 fat/grease  *mær  mɛr        mar
 throw away  *særæw  ʃɛruw    sarewo    tsarab
 sneeze  *æsi  ˈɛsu    edʃi    asija
 betel pepper  *ndætim    ˈdɛdim    d̪ɛˈd̪im  dadiwn
 stone  *mæte̝  mɛˈtɛ  ˈmɛtɛ  mateː  mæt̪ʰɛ  matɛ
 nose/tip  *mæne̝ɣ  mɛnəɣ  mənɛ  me(:)nɛɣ  ˈmənaɣar  mʌnːɛ ~mʌnːʌr
 wing  *tæɣe̝  tɛˈɣɛ  tɛj  tareː  θoɣot̪ ~ θəɣɔθ  tʌwːo
 big  *næŋgVr  nɛŋgər  nəŋgər  naŋgar~naŋgor  naŋgar  naŋgar
 shadow  *imær      imɛr    imar
 stand  *ipærænd  iˈpɛrɛd  iprəd  iprad-  ibran  ibran(ə)
 tongue  *ndupæn  dupɛn  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan  ˈdəpən  dʌpːan
 ear  *ie̝pær  ˈipɛr  ˈipɛr  ipar  ˈjɛpar ~ jɛˈpɛr  jʌpːar ~ jepʌrːa
 bow  *ɣaræw  ɣaˈrɛw  xarəᵘ  ɣarab ~ ɣara  xaraɸ  ɣarab ~ ɣara

    Low central vowel /*a/ is generally retained as such in both languages. In monosyllables, it is often lengthened to [aː], especially in Konorau:

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
   *a  a    a [a aː]    a [a aː]
 louse  *am  am  am  aːm  am  aːm
 centipede  *an  an    aːn    jaːn [sic]
 excrement  *ar  ar  ar  ar  ar  aːr
 weeping  *mamb  mamb  mamb-  mamb  mam-  maːm-
 rope  *mar  mar  mar  maːl  mar  maːr
 garden/clearing  *par  par  par  par  par  paːr
 mud/loam  *mbam    ᵐbam  mbam  bam  mbaːm
 man/person  *nam  nam  nam  nam  nam  nam
 wallaby  *nar  nar  nar-  nar  nar  naː
 leg  *kaŋg  kaŋk  kaŋ  kaŋg  kan  kaːn
 bark (of dog)  *ɣamban      ɣamban    -amban
 grandchild  *atV    n-aːd    n-ˈəðə  
 paradise sp.  *kar[i/e̝]r[e̝]      kareː    karirə
 breast  *apuɣ  əpwyɣ  ʊpʷuⁱ  apur  əbʊt̚ ~ əbuθ  abur
 areca nut  *par[e̝]    ˈparɜ  para  pəˈrɛ  
 paddle  *ɣane̝ŋg  ɣaˈnɛŋk  xaˈniŋ  kaleŋg ~ ɣanen  ˈxanɛn  kanen
 crocodile  *karam[o̝i]  ˈkaramo  kəramu  karam  ˈkarumʷi  karomui
 chin  *amo̝te  amuˈtɛ    amti    amodeː
 heavy  *jak[ɔ/o̝]e  ˈz̪akwɛ    zagoi    dzagʌ
 four  *aræɣ  arəɣ  ˈarar  ara  araθ  ara
 bow  *ɣaræw  ɣaˈrɛw  xarəᵘ  ɣarab ~ ɣara  xaraɸ  ɣarab ~ ɣara
 cockroach  *arV[j/ɣ]Vr  arəˈɣɛr    arar    arːadzərə
 fish  *iaŋg  jaŋk  jaŋk  jaŋk ~ jaŋg-  jan  jan-
 salty  *siar  ˈsiaɾ      -tʃiˈjar  
 saliva/spittle  *mitaw  miˈtao    mitaw    
 fire  *ua[nd/r]  wad  wad  wad  war  waːr
 voice  *uanan  wanan    wanan  ˈwanan  


    Pronouns

    Marianne Strait nominative pronouns are reconstructed as follows, with attestations drawn from Drabbe (1950: 562, 574,) Susanto (2001: 4) and Geurtjens (1933: 430-431):

   Marianne Strait  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
 1 sg.  *no̝  nu  nu  mo [sic]  no  no
 2 sg.  *iu  ju  ju  jo (?)  ju  ju
 3 sg.  *aŋgVmb (?)  aːˈŋgib    aŋgam    uŋgumi
 1 pl.  *ni/*no̝-m (?)  nu-m    no-m  ˈnu-mu  ni
 2 pl.  *iu-m  ju-m  y-m  ja-mu (?)  ˈju-mu  i-mu

    The third person plural, if there was one, is not known. First person plural /*ni/ is tentative, based as it is solely upon Geurtjens' <ni>, conceivably a misprint.


    Loans from neighboring families

    Like other languages of the region, the Marianne Strait languages, especially Mombum, have borrowed many words from Marind:

   Marind  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
 river  *aɾiki  ɛɾiˈki  ɛˈriki  ariki    
 rainbow  *maɾVb  ˈmalab        
 flesh/meat  *mui          mui
 skin/bark  *paɾ  par  par  par  par  paːr
 nape  *mbaku  mbaku    mbaku    boku
 many  *ndom  ndom-rom  ˈⁿdɔmɔ-rɔm  dom-rom    
 travel  *sapoɾ      sapura    sabor
 paradise sp.  *sakiɾ  sakil        
 bamboo knife  *sok    suk-  sok    
 cassowary  *kai  ˈkai  kaj  kai    

    The fact that Mombum has more loans from Marind suggests most to be of recent origin, as Komolom is closer to Marind territory than is the south coast of Kolopom where Konorau is spoken.

    Some words which by their meanings cannot be original to Marind are nevertheless borrowed immediately therefrom:

   Marind  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
 tobacco  *tamuk[o/u]  tɛˈmuku    tamuku    tamuku
 iron (blade)  *wak[a]ɾa  ɣwakəɾ  ˈɸakər ~ -akər  vakr    

    The second of these may contain a novel phoneme in Mombum in clear contrast with initial sequence /*uV/ and reflecting Marind's western dialects' realization of Marind /*w/ as [hʷ ]; see Marianna Strait reflexes of initial /*j/ (above) for comparison

    … Indonesian …:

   Indonesian  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
 machete  paraŋ  paˈdaŋ    paraŋ    

    … Kolopom …:

   Kolopom  Mombùm  Komolom  Komelomsch  Konorau  Konerawsch
     Drabbe  Susanto  Geurtjens  Susanto  Geurtjens
 cassowary  *…      owi-wi  ˈɜwi  awi
 stone  *…  mɛˈtɛ  ˈmɛtɛ  mateː  mæt̪ʰɛ  matɛ
 star  *…  mbɛˈɾɛm  ᵐbarɛm  m͜baram  tʃɔmbram
 ~ sombram
 sʌm͜beram
 lightning  *…  'wandʒir    wondʒir    jendʃir

    The following loans suggest that Marianne Strait languages were once spoken in the Casuarina Coast region well to the north of Kolopom (q.v. Voorhooeve 1971: 89):

   Marianne Strait  Sawuj
 bow  *ɣaræw  xarab
 banana  *ɣo̝ro̝p  xorob
   Marianne Strait  Yaqay-Warkay
 fish  *iaŋg  *iaŋg
 breast  *apuɣ  *abut


Subpages (2): Konorau Mombum