Neuroanatomia das Áreas de Brodmann

areas brodmann

ARTIGO ORIGINAL DO BRODMANN EM INGLÊS-IMPERDÍVEL


Áreas 3, 1 & 2 - Córtex somatosensitivo primário
Área 4 -Córtex motor primário
Área 5 -Córtex somatosensorial associativo
Área 6 -Córtex pré-motor e Córtex motor suplementar.
Área 7 -Córtex somatosensorial de associação.
Área 8 -Campo frontal dos olhos
Área 9 -Córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral
Área 10 - Córtex pré-frontal anterior (porção mais rostral do giro frontal superior e médio)
Área 11 -Área  Orbitofrontal  (Giro orbital e reto mais a porção mais rostral do giro frontal superior)
Área 12 -Área Orbitofrontal
Área 13 and Area 14* - Córtex Insular
Área 15* -Lobo temporal anterior
Área 17 - Córtex visual primário(V1)
Área 18 - Córtex visual secundário(V2)
Área 19 - Córtex associativo da visão (V3,V4,V5)
Área 20 - Giro temporal inferior
Área 21 - Giro temporal médio
Área 22 - Giro temporal superior-parte dele é considerado área de Wernicke
Área 23 - Córtex ventral-posterior do cíngulo
Área 24 - Córtex ventral-anterior do cíngulo
Área 25 - Córtex Subgenual (parte do córtex pré-frontal Ventromedial )
Área 26 - Porção Ectosplenial da região retrosplenial do córtex cerebral
Área 27 - Córtex Piriforme
Área 28 - Córtex entorhinal posterior
Área 29 - Córtex retrosplenial do cingulate
Área 30 - Parte do córtex do cíngulo
Área 31 - Córtex dorso-aposterior do cíngulo
Área 32 - Córtex dorso-anterior do cíngulo
Área 33 - Parte anterior do córtex do cíngulo
Área 34 - Córtex entorhinal anterior (Localizado no giro Parahipocampal)
Área 35 - Córtex perihinal cortex (Localizado no giro Parahipocampal)
Área 36 - Córtex Parahippocampal (Localizado no giro Parahipocampal)
Área 37 - Giro Fusiforme
Área 38 - Área Temporopolar ( parte rostral do giro temporal superior e médio)
Área 39 - Giro angular-considerado parte da área de Wernicke
Área 40 - Giro Supramarginal-Parte da área de  Wernicke
Áreas 41 e 42 -Córtex primário e de associação auditivo
Área 43 - Córtex gustativo primário
Área 44 - Pars opercular-parte da área de Broca
Área 45 - Pars triangular -Área de Broca
Área 46 - Córtex dorsolateral pré-frontal
Área 47 -Giro pré-frontal inferior
Área 48 - Área retrosubicular  (pequena parte na superfície medial do lobo temporal)
Área 49 - Área parasubiculum em roedores
Área 52 -Área parainsular. (Ao nível da junção do lobo temporal com a ínsula)


Correlações clínicas:

1-Lesões da área 4  de Brodman:
pacientes com lesões tumorais ou isquêmicas nesta região usualmente apresentam pararesia com predomínio de membro superior ou inferior. Somente ocorre hemiplegia completa quando a lesão é extensa o suficiente para acometer todo o córtex motor. Lembrar sempre que o déficit é contralateral, por ex: uma lesão no córtex motor à direita levará a uma paresia do hemicorpo esquerdo.

2-Lesões da área 44 e 45 de Brodmann: pacientes com lesões nestas duas áreas no hemisfério esquerdo cursam com Afasia de Broca. São pacientes que perdem a capacidade de falar mas compreendem a linguagem escrita e falada. Nos destros mais de 90% das vezes a Área de Broca está no hemisfério esquerdo. Lesões desta área está muitas vezes associadas à Acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico. Essa região do Giro frontal inferior é irrigado pela Artéria cerebral média.



3-Lesões das áreas 1,2 e 3 de Broadmann: pacientes que apresentam lesões nesta área (giro pós-central) evoluem com alterações de sensibilidade. Usualmente com redução da sensibilidade tátil e térmico-dolorosa. É relativamente frequente encontrar tais alterações em pacientes com quadro de AVE isquêmico extenso que cursam então com redução da sensibilidade no lado do corpo afetado. Muitas vezes devido a proximidade da área sensitiva com a área motora, os pacientes apresentam  redução da motricidade associadas a alterações de sensibilidade.


Área 1,2 e 3-Giros pós-central:

ÁREAS BRODMANN 1,2 e 3

 Este giro localiza-se no lobo parietal. É ai que se localiza o córtex sematosensorial primário, é a principal área de a sensibilidade tátil.

 Lesão nas áreas 39 e 40 de Broadmann

Pacientes com lesão que envolvam estas duas áreas evoluem com alteração da linguagem grave usualmente apresentando dificuldade para compreender o que está escutando. Lesões desta região usualmente vem acompanhada por afasia de Broca e hemiparesia ou hemiplegia do dimídio direito. Lembrar que para ocorrer  a alteração da linguagem o hemisfério acometido deve ser o dominante.


Brodmann Area 1 - Post Central Gyrus (Somatosensory
Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)


• Homunculus (1)
• Localize pain (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Localize touch and vibration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
• Localize temperature ( 1, 2, 3, 4)
• Sense of fingers (1, 2, 3)
• Sense of body (1)
• Move hands (1, 2)
• Move mouth and tongue (1, 2)
• Swallowing (1, 2, 3)
• Anticipate pain (1)
• Anticipate tickling (1)
• Mirror neurons (1, 2, 3)

Brodmann Area 2 - Post Central Gyrus (Somatosensory
Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Homunculus (1)
• Agraphesthesia

Brodmann Area 3 - Post Central Gyrus (Somatosensory
Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Homunculus (1)

Brodmann Area 4 - Pre Central Gyrus (Somatosensory
Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Muscle sequences (1, 2, 3)
• Move hands(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Limbs (1, 2, 3)
• Sense of our fingers (1, 2, 3)
• Softness and vibration (1, 2, 3)
• Move tongue and mouth (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Actions, Touches (1, 2)
• Swallow (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Voluntary breathing (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Muscle imagery (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Blinking (1, 2)
• Eye movements (1, 2, 3)
• Bicycling (1)
• Tactile (1)

Brodmann Area 5 - Parietal Lobe Economo-Koskinas
area PE (Somatosensory Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)


• Ordered & chaotic pattern perception (1)
• Spatial imaging in deductive reasoning (1)
• Imagery of movement (1, 2, 3)
• Tool-use and gestures (1, 2)
• Imitation learning (1)
• Mirror neurons for movement (1)
• Bimanual coordination (1)
• Saccades (1, 2, 3)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3, 4)
• What & where of touch (1)
• Localizing pain (1)
• Motor attention (1, 2)
• Imitating finger movements (1)
• Spatial mnemonic processing (1)

Brodmann Area 6 - Frontal Lobe Economo-Koskinas
area FB (Motor Association Cortex Mesulam, 1999)

• Sequential movements (1, 2, 3)
• Object recognition (1)
• Sensorimotor willed actions (1)
• Word repetition (1)
• Attention to visual motion (1)
• Action Knowledge (1)
• Feigned memory impairment (1)
• Action learning (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Start moves (1, 2)
• Muscle imagery (1, 2, 3)
• Imagined moves (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Voluntary breathing (1, 2, 3)
• Saccades (1, 2, 3)
• Laughter, smiling (1)
• Words (a, b, c)
• Language (a, b)
• Language switching (a)
• Understand speech (a, b)
• Lipreading (a)
• Human voices (a)
• Acoustic rhythms (a, b)
• Generate melodies (a)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Mnemonics (1, 2)
• Episodes (1)
• Topographic memory (1)
• Locations (1, 2, 3)
• Self-reflection (1)
• Update locations (1)
• Eye guidance (1)
• Observe Actions (Mirror neurons) (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Solve novelty (1, 2)
• Orchestrate (1)
• Calculation (1, 2)
• Speech muscles (1, 2) - Left Hemisphere
• Novel words (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Phonemes (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Object names (1, 2) - Left Hemisphere
• Deduction (1, 2) - Left Hemisphere
• Inhibit response (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Sequential moves (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Monitor errors (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Strong odors (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Same or different (1) - Right Hemisphere

Brodmann Area 7 - Supramarginal Gyrus
Somatosensory Association Cortex

• Economic decisions (1)
• Conscious awareness of visual-spatial events (1 ) - Bilateral
• Goals (1) - Bilateral
• Activation at rest - Default Brain (1) - Bilateral
• Pain (1)
• Recall episodes (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Tool use (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Handwriting and spelling (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Shift attention (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Language (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Literalness (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Imageability (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Personal space (1, 2) - Right Hemisphere
• Estimate (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Meta-emotions (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Visuospatial attention (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Mental rotation (1, 2) - Right Hemisphere
• Stereopsis (1, 2) - Right Hemisphere
• Line bisection judgments (1) - Right Hemisphere

Brodmann Area 8 - Pre-Frontal Cortex (Association Cortex -
Mesulam, 1999)

• Muscle learning (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Muscle imagery (1, 2)
• Muscle control (1, 2)
• Saccades (1, 2)
• Laughter, smiling (1)
• Executive control (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Planning (1, 2)
• Speech programs (1)
• Language processing (1)
• Language translation (1)
• Generating sentences (1)
• Lipreading (1)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3 )
• Perceptual priming (1)
• Topographic memory (1)
• Visuospatial and visuomotor attention (1)
• Retrieval of words (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Sequence learning (1, 2)
• Proprioceptive stimulation (1, 2, 3)
• Pain anticipation (1)
• Processing uncertainty (1)
• Inductive reasoning (1)
• Calculation (1, 2)
• Auditory imagery (1)
• Memory retrieval (1, 2)
• Nonconscious saccades (1)

Brodmann Area 9 - Pre-Frontal Cortex Economo-
Koskinas area FD (Frontal Association Cortex)

• Male and female sexual arousal (1)
• Word identification (1)
• Economic decisions (1)
• Lie detection (1)
• Viewing of unpleasant pictures (1)
• Short-term memory (1)
• Recency (1)
• Orchestrate behavior (1)
• Verbal fluency (1)
• Word-stem completion (1)
• Error detection (1)
• Human voices (1) Infer (1, 2,)
• Intentions (1)
• Action authorship (1)
• Energize (1)
• Generate sentences (1)
• Inference (1, 2)
• Idioms (1, 2, 3)
• Categorization (1)
• Suppress sadness (1)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3)
• Spatial memory (1, 2)
• Recognition (1, 2, 3)
• Recall (1, 2, 3)
• Recognize emotions (1)
• Planning (1)
• Calculation (1, 2)
• Familiar odors (1)

Brodmann Area 10 - Pre-Frontal Cortex Economo-
Koskinas area FD (Frontal Association Cortex)

• Working memory (1, 2, 3) - Bilateral
• Spatial memory (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Recognition (1, 2, 3) - Bilateral
• Recall (1, 2, 3) - Bilateral
• Intentional forgetting (1) - Bilateral
• Nonspeech sounds (1) - Bilateral
• Recognize emotions (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Calculation (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Pain (1) - Bilateral
• Joint attention (1) - Bilateral
• Syntax(1) - Left Hemisphere
• Metaphor (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Lexical (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Verbs (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Self-reflection (1) - Right
• Self-appraise (1) - Right
• Economic decisions (1) - Right
• Inferences during reading (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Recall episode (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Nonspeech sounds (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Familiar odors (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Reward vs conflict (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Risk vs benefit (1) - Right Hemisphere

Brodmann Area 11 - Higher Order Assocation and
Orbital Frontal Association Cortex (Paralimbic Posterior -
Mesulam, 1999)

• Olfaction (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Nonspeech sounds (1) - Bilateral
• Reward vs conflict (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Unexpected outcomes (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Idioms (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Face-name (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Self-calm (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Odors (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Encoding of words (1) - Right Hemisphere

Brodmann Area 12 - Frontal Lobe (12/47 Economo-
Koskinas area FD (Paralimbic & Association Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Hypothesis generation (1)
• Same different discrimination (1)
• Decision making (1)
• Affective value of reinforcers (1)
• Sensitivity to reward and punishment (1)
• Expectation (1)

Brodmann Area 13 - Insular Cortex Economo-Koskinas
area FF (Paralimbic Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Dissociated PTSD (1)
• Maternal and romantic love (1)
• Seeing or making a smile (1)
• Interoceptive Body Status pain localization (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Attend to happy voices (1)
• Hearing pleasant music (1)
• Reward fluctuation (1)
• Pain processing (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Feeling joyful (1)
• Female self reported orgasm ratings (1)
• Mothers viewing photos of their own child (1)
• Mirror movement neurons (1, 2)
• Female sexual arousal to erotica (1)
• Retrieval of words (1)
• Heat (1, 2)
• Touch (1, 2)
• Vibration (1)
• Vestibulation (1)
• Olfaction and taste (1, 2, 3)
• Verbal memory (1, 2, 3)
• Action planning (1)
• Swallowing (1)
• Categorization (1, 2)
• Error awareness (1)
• Motivated reasoning (1)
• Risk-taking (1)
• Emotional inhibition (1)
• Express fear or disgust (1, 2, 3)
• Vocal pitch (1)
• Humor appreciation (1)
• Phonemes (1)

Brodmann Area 14 - only present in monkeys
Brodmann Area 15 - only present in monkeys
Brodmann Area 16 - only present in monkeys


Brodmann Area 17 - Occipital Cortex Economo-
Kosinas area OB (Primary Visual Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Light intensity (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Orderly visual patterns (1, 2)
• Contours (1, 2, 3)
• Colors (1, 2, 3)
• Spatial orientation (1, 2, 3)
• Motion (1)
• Visual attention (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Visual priming (1, 2, 3)
• Help saccade eyes (1)

Brodmann Area 18 - Occipital Cortex Economo-
Kosinas area OB (Primary Visual Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Light intensity (1, 2)
• Motion (1)
• Orderly visual patterns (1, 2)
• Understand finger gestures (1)
• Monitor color and shape (1, 2)
• Visual priming (1, 2)
• Face-name (1)
• Help saccade eyes (1)

Brodmann Area 19 - Occipital Cortex Economo-
Kosinas area OA (Primary Visual Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Conscious awareness of visual-spatial events (1 ) - Bilateral
• Dissociated PTSD (1)
• Light intensity (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Reflective self-awareness (1, 2)
• Visual patterns (1, 2) - Bilateral
• Motion (1, 2, 3, 4) - Bilateral
• Understand finger gestures (1) - Bilateral
• Activation at rest - Default Brain (1)
• Sign language (1)
• Monitor color and shape (1)
• Feature-based attention (1)
• Orientation-selective attention (1)
• Visual priming (1) - Bilateral
• Visual memory recognition (1)
• Spatial working memory (1)
• Phonological demands (1)
• Saccades (1)
• Visual imagery (1, 2)
• Inferential reasoning (1)
• Animacy (1)
• Visuospatial challenge (1)
• Motion (1)
• Visuo-spatial (1, 2)
• Visual priming (1)
• Visual recognition (1)
• Spatial working memory (1)
• Face-name (1)
• Saccades (1)
• Visual imagery (1)

Brodmann Area 20 - Temporal Lobe (Auditory Association
Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Visual fixation (1) - Bilateral
• Identify intention (1) - Bilateral
• Suspicion (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Truth telling (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Process latter parts of sentences (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Visual categorization (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Lexical categories (1, 2) - Left Hemisphere
• Metaphor comprehension (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Language comprehension and production (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Monitor speech (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Category ambiguity (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Perceptual closure (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Working memory (1) - Right Hemisphere

Brodmann Area 21 - Temporal Lobe Auditory
Economo-Kosinas area TE (Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Categorization (1, 2, 3) - Bilateral
• Observe motion (1) - Bilateral
• Complex sounds (1) - Bilateral
• Attribute intention (1) - Bilateral
• Verbal associated novelty (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Monitor text and speech (1, 2) - Left Hemisphere
• Sentence generation (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Word generation (1) - Left Hemisphere
• Deductive reasoning (1, 2) - Left Hemisphere
• Prosody (1, 2) - Right Hemisphere

Brodmann Area 22 - Temporal Lobe Auditory
Economo-Kosinas area TA (Auditory Association Cortex - Mesulam,
1999)

• Sentence generation (1)
• Attend to happy and angry voices (1)
• Word generation (1)
• Monitor speech (1)
• Repeating words (1)
• Complex sounds (1)
• Deductive reasoning (1)
• Auditory language (1, 2)
• Categorization (1, 2)
• Learning tone-based 2nd language (1)
• Affective prosody (1)
• Nonverbal sounds (2)
• Previous eye movements (1)

Brodmann Area 23 - Posterior Cingulate Gyrus
Economo-Koskinas area LC (Paralimbic Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Activation at rest - Default Brain (1)
• Emotional words (1)
• Action memory (1, 2, 3)
• Episodic retrieval (1)
• Recall (1)
• Resolve proactive interference (1)
• Learn complex procedure (1)
• Finger movements (1)
• Temperature processing (1)
• Visual discrimination (1)
• Evaluative judgment (1)
• Self/other distinction (1)
• Classical conditioning (1)
• Lexical categories (1, 2)
• Fear conditioning (1)
• Threatening words (1)
• Mood swings (1)
• Cortical hub in infancy (1)
• Disconnects with trauma (1)
• Word and face encoding (1)

Brodmann Area 24 - Anterior Cingulate Gyrus (Paralimbic
Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Inhibition (1, 2, 3)
• Hearing happy music (1)
• Emotional cues (1, 2, 3)
• Muscle strategy (1, 2, 3)
• Muscle imagery (1)
• Vestibulation (1, 2, 3)
• Pain endurance (1, 2, 3)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3)
• Episodes (1)
• Prospective memory (1)
• Time-based memory (1)
• Visuospatial attention (1, 2, 3)
• Divided attention (1, 2)
• Auditory attention (1, 2)
• Mental timekeeping (1, 2, 3)
• Self-other overlap (1, 2)
• Familiar odors (1, 2, 3)
• Deductive reasoning (1, 2)
• Taste (1, 2)
• Sexual arousal to erotica (1, 2)
• Object-naming (1, 2)
• Verbal fluency (1)
• Induction (1)
• Remembering after delay (1)
• Multitasking (1)
• Worry (1)
• Mood swings (1)
• Sustain response set (1)
• Verbal initiation and suppression (1, 2)
• Memory retrieval (1, 2)
• Conflict monitor (1)
• Monitors consequences of actions (1)
• Suppress aggression (1)
• Mood swings (1)

Brodmann Area 25 - Anterior Cingulate Gyrus &

Medial Prefrontal Cortex (Paralimbic Cortex; Mesulam, 1999)
• Moral reasoning (1)
• Evaluate emotional words (1, 2)

Brodmann Area 26 - Paralimbic Cortex (Mesulam,
1999)

• Verbal associated novelty (1)

Brodmann Area 27 - Parahippocampal Gyrus and
Presubiculum - (Paralimbic Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Pattern separation (overlapping representations are made less similar) (1, 2)
• Face memory (1, 2, 3)
• Picture memory (1, 2)
• Auditory memory (1)
• Emotions (1)
• Categories (1, 2, 3)
• Visual memory (1)
• Autobiographical memory (1, 2, 3)
• Olfactory and gustatory memory (1, 2, 3)
• Recognition, recall and retrieval (1, 2, 3)
• Procedural memory consolidation (1, 2, 3)
• Memory for novelty (1)
• Memory for negative stimuli (1, 2, 3)
• Face-based emotional perception (1, 2, 3)
• Erotica (1, 2)
• Experience stress (1)
• Congruent facial movements (mirror neurons) (1)
• Craving (1)
• Hunger (1)
• Embarassment (1)
• Spatial (1, 2, 3)
• Landmarks (1, 2, 3 )
• Novelty (1)
• Past and future events (1, 2)
• Anticipating regret (1)
• Insight (1)
• Decision-making (1)
• Categorization (1, 2, 3,)

Brodmann Area 28 - Parahippocampal Gyrus, Uncus
and Medial Temporal Lobe (Paralimbic Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Deductive and probabilistic reasoning (1)
• Viewing of unpleasant pictures (1)
• Finer grain discriminantion (1)

Brodmann Area 29 - Posterior Cingulate & Superior
Transverse Temporal Gyrus (Cortex Paralimbic Cortex -Mesulam,
1999)

• Novelty activation (1)
• Precautions awareness (1)
• Nonconscious formation of semantic associations (1)

Brodmann Area 30 - Posterior Cingulate & Cuneus
(Paralimbic Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Attending to speech (1)
• Listening to sentences (1)
• Activation to emotional words (1)
• Observation of actions by others (1)
• Activation at rest - Default Brain (1)
• Encoding of words (1)

Brodmann Area 31 - Posterior Cingulate Gyrus (Paralimbic
Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Self-evaluation (1)

Brodmann Area 32 - Anterior Cingulate Gyrus (Paralimbic
Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Visual uncertainty (1)
• Mood regulation (1)
• Sustain response set (1)
• Identify pain (1)
• Self-insight (1)
• Reward (1)
• Reappraise negative emotions (1)

Brodmann Area 33 - Anterior Cingulate Gyrus (Paralimbic
Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Hearing pleasant music (1)
• Female sexual arousal to erotica (1)

Brodmann Area 34 - Superior Temporal Gyrus &
Subcallosal Gyrus-Entorhinal Area (Association
Cortex)

• Processing words at different levels of specificity (1)
• Dissociated PTSD (1)

Brodmann Area 35 - Medial Temporal Lobe &
Parahippocampal Gyrus (Association Cortex)

• Retrieval of words (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Acquisition of new memories
• Spatial mapping
• Novelty detection
• Short-term memory

Brodmann Area 36 - Medial Temporal Lobe &
Parahippocampal Gyrus (Association Cortex)

• Retrieval of words (1) - Right Hemisphere
• Acquisition of new memories
• Spatial mapping
• Novelty detection
• Short-term memory

Brodmann Area 37 - Fusiform Gyrus & Middle
Temporal Gyrus (Auditory-Visual Association Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Episodes (1)
• Faces (1, 2, 3)
• Motion (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Visual fixation (1)
• Monitor color and shape (1, 2)
• Intentions (1)
• Drawing (1)
• Acquisition of new memories
• Spatial mapping
• Novelty detection
• Short-term memory
• Categorization (1, 2, 3)
• Word retrieval (1, 2, 3)
• Sign language (1)
• Metaphor (1)
• Reading (1)
• Face-name (1)
• Deduction (1)
• Numbers (1)
• Familiarity judgments (1)
• Face identity (1)

Brodmann Area 38 - Superior Temporal Gyrus and
Middle Temporal Gyrus (Paralimbic Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Dissociated PTSD (1)
• Intentions (1, 2, 3)
• Moral judgments (1, 2)
• Experience emotions (1, 2, 3)
• Identify emotions (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Attachment (1, 2)
• Categorization (1, 2, 3)
• Speech comprehension (1, 2)
• Verbal disambiguation (1)
• Stories (1, 2)
• Aversive sounds (1)
• Familiarity (1)
• Humor (1, 2)
• Self/other (1, 2, 3)
• Attend to speech (1, 2)
• Inferences (1)
• Identify social emotions (1)
• Aversiveness (1)
• People’s names (1)
• Music appreciation (1)
• Familiar voices (1)
• Irony (1)
• Faux pas (1)
• Social behavior (1)

Brodmann Area 39 - Angular Gyrus & Inferior Parietal
Lobe Association Cortex

• Reflective self-awareness (1, 2)
• Reading (1, 2)
• Spatial focusing (1)
• Theory of mind (1)
• Executive control (1)
• Action sequences (1)
• Sentence generation (1)
• Verbal creativity (1)
• Numerical facts (1, 2)
• Calculation (1, 2, 3, 4)
• See differently from others (1)
• Visuospatial (1)
• Sight reading of music (1)
• Self-relevance (1)
• Resolve surprise (1)
• Action authorship (1)
• Situational context (1)

Brodmann Area 40 - Inferior Parietal Lobe Angular
Gyrus (Somatosensory Association Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Attend to phonemes (1)
• Categorization (1)
• Economic decisions (1)
• Verbal creativity (1)
• Aversiveness (1, 2)
• Emotional working memory (1)
• Conscious recollection (1)
• Visual grasping (1)
• Gesture imitation (1, 2)
• Visuomotor planning (1)
• Repetitive passive movements (1)
• Intention/conflict detection (1)
• Somatosensory (1, 2)
• Motion (1, 2)
• Deduction (1, 2)
• Empathy (1)
• Music performance (1)
• Goals (1)
• Imitate novel actions (1)
• Calculation (integer computation) (1)
• Verbal creativity (1)
• Sentences (1)
• Self-reflection (1)
• Same or different (1)
• Sustain attention (1)

Brodmann Area 41 - Superior Transverse Temporal
Gyrus - Auditory Primary (Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Auditory (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Harmony (1, 2)
• Sound intensity (1, 2 ,3 )
• Pitch (1, 2)
• Vowel segregation (1, 2)
• Auditory priming (1, 2)
• Auditory working memory (1)
• Visual speech perception (1, 2)

Brodmann Area 42 - Inferior Transverse Temporal
Gyrus - Auditory Primary (Unimodal Cortex - Mesulam, 1999)

• Auditory (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Harmony (1, 2)
• Sound intensity (1, 2 ,3)
• Pitch (1, 2)
• Vowel segregation (1, 2)
• Auditory priming (1, 2)
• Auditory working memory (1)
• Visual speech perception (1, 2)

Brodmann Area 43 - Gustatory Primary Cortex -
Postcentral and Paracentral Lobule

• Tactile digit stimulation (1)
• Spoken language (1)

Brodmann Area 44 - Inferior Frontal and Extra
Nuclear Gyrus of the Pre-Frontal Lobes

• Word generation (1)
• Unintelligible speech (1 ,2)
• Attend to speech (1)
• Syntactic working memory (1, 2)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3)
• Episodic memory (1)
• Declarative memory (1)
• Mirror other's movements (1, 2, 3)
• Speech programs (1)
• Tactile imagery (1)
• Goals (1)
• Word and face encoding (1)
• Arithmetics (1)
• Object manipulation (1)
• Familiar odors (1, 2)
• Music appreciation (1)
• Linguistic fluency (1, 2, 3)
• Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (1, 2)
• Grammar (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Sequential sounds (1)
• Lexical inflection (1)
• Sentence comprehension (1)
• Imitate finger movements (1)
• Phonemes (1)
• Express emotions (1)
• Speech intonation (1, 2)
• Sentence comprehension (1)
• Inhibition actions (1)
• Generate melodies (1)
• Monitor actions (1)

Brodmann Area 45 - Inferior Frontal and Extra
Nuclear Gyrus of the Pre-Frontal Lobes

• Semantic & phonological processing (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Generate words (1, 2, 3, 4)
• Verbal fluency (1, 2, 3)
• Lexical search (1, 2)
• Phonemes (1, 2)
• Grammar (1)
• Categories (1, 2, 3)
• Sign language (1)
• Reason (1, 2)
• Metaphors (1, 2)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3)
• Episodic memory (1)
• Declarative memory (1)
• Digits (1)
• Mirror movement neurons (1, 2)
• Response inhibition (1, 2, 3)
• Mental rotation (1)
• Word and face encoding (1)
• Aesthetic and music appreciation (1, 2)
• Modulate emotions (1)
• Attend to speech (1)
• Lexical inflection (1)
• Generate melodic phrases (1)
• Familiar odors (1, 2)
• Retrieving categories (1)
• Phonemes (1)
• Affective prosody (1)
• Monitor actions (1)
• Timed behavior (1)

Brodmann Area 46 - Middle Frontal Gyrus
• Memory recognition (1, 2, 3)
• Working memory (1, 2, 3)
• Categorization (1, 2, 3)
• Monitor (1)
• Chewing (1)
• Drawing (1)
• Mirror neurons (1)
• Saccades (1)
• Intention/conflict detection (1)
• Music appreciation (1)
• Willfulness (1)
• Strategy (1)
• Verbal fluency (1, 2)
• Phonemes (1)
• Self-reflection (1)

Brodmann Area 47 - Inferior Frontal

• Dissociated PTSD (1)
• Categorization (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
• Phoneme (1, 2)
• Lexical inflection (1)
• Attend to speech (1)
• Working memory (1, 2)
• Episodic memory (1)
• Adverse emotional inhibition (1)
• Temporal coherence (1)
• Intention (1)
• Deduction (1, 2)
• Idioms (1)
• Make inferences during reading (1)
• Categorization (1, 2, 3)
• Familiar odors (1, 2, 3)
• Retrieve categories (1)
• Music (1)
• Affective prosody (1)
• Behavioral inhibition (1, 2)
• Manage conflict and reward (1)
• Monitor actions (1)
• Monitor unattended information (1)