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8. adjectives

Interslavic adjectives are formed by adding endings (and sometimes also prefixes) to other words. They are inflected and have three genders in singular (plural is only one for all genders). Words are palatalized during adding these endings (e.g. kč, hš, gž). Adjectives ending at č,š,ž,j have soft pattern (e.g. svěži, svěžego), otherwise have hard pattern (e.g. dobry, dobrogo).

The most used
endings (in the order m. f. n. pl.) are:
  • -sky, -ska, -sko, -ski. This is the most used ending aimed for general use.

    example: Rus, russky = Russian (noun), Russian (adj.)


  • -ji, -ja, -je, -ji. This expresses some origin, in the way of meaning "ot + genitive" = "from somebody/something".

    example: bog, božji = God (noun), god, divine (adj.),
    něčto ot Boga jest božje = something from the God is divine.


  • -ov, -ova, -ovo, -ovi. This expresses some kind of an ownership by a masculine subject, in the way of meaning "genitive" = "of somebody/something".

    example: petrova kniga = Peter's book, book of Peter.


  • -in, -ina, -ino, -ini. This expresses some kind of an ownership by a feminine subject, in the way of meaning "genitive" = "of somebody/something".

    example: anina kniga = Anna's book, book of Anna.



  • -ny, -na, -no, -ni. This expresses some source, in the way of meaning "iz + genitive" = "from somebody/something".

    example: železo, železny = iron (noun), iron (adj.),
    něčto iz železa jest železno = something from iron is from iron.


  • bez- -ny, bez- -na, bez- -ne, bez- -ni. This expresses some exclusion, in the way of meaning "bez + genitive" = "without somebody/something".

    example: meso, bezmesny = meat (noun), without meat (adj.), něčto bez mesa jest bezmesno = something without meat is without meat.


  • nad- -ny, nad- -na, nad- -ne, nad- -ni. This expresses some augmentation or elevation, in the way of meaning "nad + instrumental" = "above/super somebody/something".

    example: zemja, nadzemny = earth (noun), aerial, superterrestrial (adj.),
    něšto nad zemjej jest nadzemno = something above the Earth is aerial.

Of course, these endings can be combined as for example: petrovska orchestra (-ov + -ska) etc.



declension

Contemporary Slavic languages use two patterns for the inflection of adjectives: soft and hard. Both these patterns evolved from the Old Slavonic system of definite inflection adjectives: adjective + pronoun on, ona, ono (in its archaic form i, ja, je):

N: dobrъ + i             → dobrъi             N: svěžь +          → svěžьi
G: dobra + jego       → dobrajego       G: svěža + jego     → svěžajego
D: dobru + jemu      → dobrujemu      D: svěžu + jemu   → svěžujemu

In Interslavic, we need to find a consensus across all Slavic languages. The solution is yet more complicated, that there evolved complicated and mutually different orthography traditions in writing vowels i/y after consonants k and g during centuries of evolution. For example in Russian is k regarded as a hard consonant (e.g. -kogo), but the Russian orthography tradition does not allow to write y after it.

Fortunately, the difference between adjective inflection patterns are only in their different vowels (e.g. Russian hard pattern -ogo and soft -ego, Polish hard pattern -ego and soft -iego, Czech hard pattern -ého and soft -ího and so on ...). This means that the Neoslavonic simplified solution is understandable to everyone.

The problem of i/y in different orthography traditions is ignored in Neoslavonic edition of Interslavic. The writing of i/y is not related to any consonant but has only the morphological role (e.g. dobr-y is nominative singular, dobr-i is nominative plural).


hard declension pattern - dobry = good
(identical to the hard pronoun declension pattern)


 m. anim.
 m. inanim.
 feminine  neuter  pl. m. anim.
 plural others
 nominative
            dobr-y  dobr-a  dobr-o  dobr-i  dobr-e
 genitive             dobr-ogo  dobr-oj  dobr-ogo               dobr-yh
 dative             dobr-omu  dobr-oj  dobr-omu               dobr-ym
 accusative  dobr-ogo
 dobr-y  dobr-u  dobr-o  dobr-yh  dobr-e
 vocative             dobr-oj
 dobr-a
 dobr-o
 dobr-y
 dobr-e
 locative             dobr-om  dobr-oj  dobr-om               dobr-yh
 instrumental             dobr-ym  dobr-oju  dobr-ym               dobr-ymi


soft declension pattern - svěži = fresh
(identical to the soft pronoun declension pattern)


 m. anim.
 m. inanim.
 feminine  neuter  pl. m. anim.
 plural others
 nominative
            svěž-i  svěž-a  svěž-e  svěž-i  svěž-e
 genitive             svěž-ego  svěž-ej  svěž-ego               svěž-ih
 dative             svěž-emu  svěž-ej  svěž-emu               svěž-im
 accusative  svěž-ego
 svěž-i  svěž-u  svěž-e  svěž-ih  svěž-e
 vocative             svěž-ej
 svěž-a
 svěž-e
 svěž-i
 svěž-e
 locative             svěž-em  svěž-ej  svěž-em               svěž-ih
 instrumental             svěž-im  svěž-eju  svěž-im               svěž-imi


gradation

Adjectives have the same system of gradation as in English in three stages: indicative, comparative and superlative. Moreover in addition, there is the augmentative as the possibility to amplify the property in indicative.

  1. indicative
    This is the standard form of an adjective.

    examples:
    zeleny = green;
    gluboky = deep;
    dragy = dear;
    svěži = fresh.


  2. comparative
    This the higher level of property made by endings -ějši, -ějša, -ějše, -ějši or
    -ejši, -ejša, -ejše, -ejši after palatalized consonants č, š, ž. When comparing, the genitive case and the preposition ot = from is used.

    examples:
    zelenějši = greener;
    glubočejši = deeper;
    dražejši = dearer;
    svěžejši ot togo = fresher (more fresh) than this.


  3. superlative
    This the absolute level of p
    roperty made by prefix naj- added to the comparative form. When comparing, the genitive case and the preposition iz = from is used.

    example:
    najdražejši iz vsih ljudij
    = the most dear/valuable from all people.


  4. augmentative
    This is the augmented form of the indicative
    made by prefix naj- added to the indicative form. It is used for example in a respectful salutation.

    example:
    najdragy gospodi!
    = (very) dear Sir!


descriptive gradation

Like in English we can also use descriptive gradation. Unlike English, however, the basic form of gradation is applicable to all kinds of adjectives. This descriptive gradation is made by adding adverbs vyše, najvyše (higher, the highest) or bolje, najbolje (bigger, the biggest). Both have exactly the same meaning as "more, the most" in English. The augmentative can be expressed using the adverb mnogo (much, many, a lot of, plenty of).

example:
  1. dragy
  2. dražejši = vyše dragy = bolje dragy
  3. najdražejši = najvyše dragy = najbolje dragy
  4. najdragy = mnogo dragy


irregular gradation

Although Neoslavonic is an artificial language, it can not exist without irregular adjectives. They are present in all Slavic languages. The Neoslavonic has only five of them:

 indicative 
 
 comparative 
 veliky  big, great 
 bolši
 dobry  good  lučši
 blagy  pleasant, joyfull 
 unši
 maly  small  menši
 zly  bad, evil
 gorši

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