1946-1960

Overview: 
At the beginning of this time period, the United States Government attempted to repay the Native Americans for their service during Wold War II but by the end of 1960, the U.S. government had taken away Native American land and the Bureau of Indian Affairs had failed to stop the increasing unemployment in Native American communities.  
Indian Claims Commission Act: 1946, It was created to get rid of tribal grievances over treaty enforcement, resource management, and disputes between tribes and the U.S. government. It was a way for the U.S. government to thank Native Americans for their help during World War II. Tribes were given five years to file a claim. During this time they were expected to prove their title to the lands in question and they had to sue to get their money back. The Commission then reviewed the case and assessed the amount that was to be paid in compensation. 

Trujillo v. Garley Supreme Court Decision: 1948, In response to the accusation that many states were prohibiting Native Americans from voting. The Court ruled that states were required to allow Native Americans to vote. 

Termination: 1953, The Native American trust relationship was canceled as a result of the House Concurrent Resolution 108. Over 100 tribes were terminated causing the tribes to be subject to state laws and their land to be sold to non-Indians. 

Public Law 280: 1953, Congressional law that transferred jurisdiction over tribal lands to state governments in California, Oregon, Nebraska, Minnesota, Alaska, and Wisconsin. 

Public Law 280


Relocation: 1953, The Bureau or Indian Americans created a policy to try and combat the increasing amounts of unemployment among American Indians by encouraging Native Americans to move to urban areas. Pull factors included job training, housing, and positive propaganda depicting American Indians living urban middle-class lives. The initial response was positive but the program itself was a failure as 50% of Native Americans moved back to their reservations. 

Public Law 83-568: Congressional law transferred responsibility for American Indians and Alaskan Natives' health care from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Public Health Services. 

Analysis:
Throughout 1946-1960, the U.S. government attempted to help Native American's but instead the government caused Native American's to lose their land. At the beginning of this time period, the U.S. government attempted to repay the Native Americans for their duty in World War II. The U.S. government created the Indian Claims Commission Act to help Native Americans file claims against the U.S. government. This Act finally allowed Native Americans to ask for reparation for the abuses the U.S. government had done to them in the pass. The U.S. government also made sure to enforce Native American voting rights. However, this was enforced twenty-four years late as Native Americans were given the right to vote in 1924. Although the U.S. government established a way for Indian Americans to make claims and helped them to vote, the U.S. government caused over 100 tribes to lose their land and have their tribal recognition terminated. Through the termination of many tribes and Public Law 280, the U.S. government was detrimental to Native American's right to their land. The Bureau of Indian Affairs also attempted to stop the increasing amounts of unemployment but failed which caused the Native American unemployment rate to increase.

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