occurs when a nation's economic system decreases its reliance upon producing goods by hand and increases its reliance upon producing goods by machine.
Factors contributing to the rise of Industrialization
The First Industrial Revolution –
Between 1820-1869 when New England textile mills employed thousands to turn the raw materials from the South into finished products. Outside of the growing textile industry, most Americans considered a large business to be one that employed 100 workers. Cities gradually grew in the North, while the South and the growing western regions remained primarily agricultural. By the end of this Revolution, most people worked on farms.
The Second Industrial Revolution
Between 1870-1910 when new industries employed hundreds of thousands to produce items needed for America's growing industries and goods desired by American consumers. Most industrial businesses employed thousands of workers. Industrial cities grew rapidly, especially in the northeast along the Great Lake region. By the end of this Revolution, the U.S. had become a mature industrial society in which two-thirds of Americans worked for wages in city jobs.
Consequences of Industrialization
1. The nation grew faster than it ever had, bringing about great shifts:
2. American social beliefs became intimately tied to capitalism and Social Darwinism.
3. Corporations became increasingly dominant in the American economy.
4. Violent conflict arose between the industrialists/Robber Barons and American laborers.
5. The nation became increasingly urban.
occurs when a community takes on the characteristics of a city. A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement of people who generally have some type of system for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation and more.
By 1870, the nation had only 25 cities with more than 50,000 people.
with a total population of 5 million. By 1890, there were 58 cities that size with nearly 12 million people. Most were in the Northeast and near the Great Lakes.
Consequences of Rapid Urbanization
On the positive side, urbanization brought new jobs, new opportunities, new housing, and new transportation; but on the negative side, urbanization gave rise to widespread urban poverty, sub-standard housing, environmental degradation, increasing crime and violence, violent clashes between labor and management, and political corruption.
Immigration is the process of moving from one nation to another nation to permanently resettle.
Emigration is the process of moving from one nation to another, with the possibility of returning to one's original homeland.
Migration is the process of moving from one location within a nation to another location within that same nation.
Major Factors for Immigration
Push - The forces that push - either through encouragement or force - people to immigrate. Encouraging push factors include diminishing land resources, unemployment, poverty, drought, economic depression. Forceful push factors include enslavement and imprisonment.
Pull - The attractive forces that pull persons to search out a new life in a distant place. These can political, ideological, and economic - but again, most pull factors are economic.
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration
During the Gilded Age, two transforming experiences changed many aspects of American life – industrialization and urbanization.
Four primary factors contributed to the rapid industrialization of America: improved transportation and communication; new inventions and technology; new marketing and merchandizing techniques; and plentiful labor. Technology fuels most political, social, and economic change.