History of L-form research in Bulgaria

L-forms were first isolated and described by Emmy Klieneberger-Nobel in 1935 at Lister Institute in England after which they were named.


L-form research at Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences



Numerous studies on bacterial L-forms have been published in the period since the first publication by Professor Kuiumdzhiev in 1957 till the last one in 2010 by Markova et al.

Ilia Kuiumdzhiev













Asen Toshkov












We are indebted to  Professor Kuiumdzhiev and Professor Toshkov for their pioneering work with bacterial L-forms in Bulgaria.

Selected publications

Kuiumdzhiev I. (1957) Study on pleuropneumonia-like organisms and L-forms of bacteria. Izv Mikrobiol Inst (Sofia) 8:77-91.

Toshkov, A., L.Michailova, N.Cherepova, S.Gulubov (1975) Persistence and isolation of Erysopelothrix rhusiopathie in experimental infection. Zentralbl Bakteriol 233(3):370-5.

Toshkov, A., D.Georgiev, K. Obretenova, A.Kuiumdzhiev, S. Zakharieva (1975) Morphologic changes in the parenchymal organs and the joints in rabbits inoculated with L-forms of beta-hemolytic strptococci. Acta Microbiol Virol (Sofia) 2:34-41.

Toshkov, A., A.Kuiumdzhiev, I.Gumpert, A.Sotirova (1977) Persistence and reversion of stable L-forms of Proteus mirabilis in white mice. Acta Microbiol Virol Immuno (Sofia) 6:35-41.

Toshkov, A., A.Kuiumdzhiev, S.Zakharieva, D.Georgiev, I.Gumpert (1977) Experimental pyelonephritis from Proteus mirabilis L-forms in rats. Acta Microbiol Virol Immuno (Sofia) 6:42-48.

Toshkov, A., K.Noeva, T.Todorov, E.Slavcheva, D.Georgiev (1977) Reactivity of rats inoculated intravenously with L-phase variants of erysepelothrix rhusiopathiae. Acta Microbiol Virol Immuno (Sofia) 5:5-11.

Toshkov, A., A.Kujumgiev, S. Zacharieva, D. Gregoriev, J.Gumpert, T. Harizanova, Z.Tsenova (1978) Experimental pyeolonephritis from Proteus mirabilis L-forms in rats. Exp Pathol (Jena) 15(1) 34-7.

Gumpert, J., T.Todorov, A.Toshkov (1978) Ultrastructural characterization of stable L-form cells from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and of accompanying artifacts. Z. Allg Microbiol 18 (6) :409-14.

Toshkov, A., T.Todorov, E.Slavcheva, Kh.Neichev, L.Shirova (1978) Reactivity of rats repeatedly injected intraperitoneally with L-forms of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Acta Microbiol Bulg 2:49-54.

Toshkov, A., T.Todorov, M.Anastasova-Krusteva, L.Kuncheva, I.Martinova (1978) Localization and persistence of 3H-thymidine labeled L-forms of Erysopelothrix rhusiopathiae in the liver of white mice. Acta Microbiol Bulg 2:55-61.

Toshkov, A., E.Ivanova, I.Gumpert, B.Ivanov (1980) Antigenic characteristics of the stable protoplast type L-form of Escherichia coli   W 1655 F+. Acta Microbiol Bulg 6:3-10.

Baikusheva, S., E.Ivanova, I.Gumpert, A.Toshkov (1980) Lipid composition of bacterial and stable L-forms of Escherichia coli W 1655 F+. Acta Microbiol Bulg 6:11-6.

Gumpert, J., T.Todorov, A.Toshkov (1980) Light microscopic investigations of lysozyme- and penicillin-induced morphological changes in Erysipelothrix rhusiae and on propagation of its protoplast type L-form. Z Allg Mikrobiol. 20(7):431-40.

Toshkov, A., E.Ivanova, L.Mikhailova, I.Gumpert (1982)  Persistence of L-forms of Escherichia coli in mice. Acta Microbiol Bulg 11:78-85.

Toshkov, A., B.Kenarova, E.Ivanova, I.Gumpert (1982) Sensitization of guinea pigs with L and S forms of Proteus mirabilis D52. Acta Microbiol Bulg 11:86-90.

Gumpert, J., W.Schade, B.Krebs, S.Baykusheva, E.Ivanova, A.Toshkov (1984) Specificities in the phospholipid and fatty acid       composition of the stable protoplast type L-form of Escherichia coli B. Acta Microbiol Bulg. 15:17-23.

Ivanova, E., A.Toshkov, N.Sotirov, J.Gumpert (1984) Total protein amino acid composition of bacterial and stable L-forms of Proteus mirabilis D52. Acta Microbiol Bulg 15:24-30.

Michailova, L., E.Ivanova, A.Toshkov, M.Jordanova, J.Schmitt-Slomska (1986) Some morphological and functional aspects of the penicillin-induced stable L-forms of Escherichia coli. Acta Microbiol Bulg 19:3-7.

Schmitt-Slomska, J., L.Michailova, E.Ivanova, A.Toshkov (1984) Adhesion and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus L-forms.J Basic Microbiol 26(7):429-40.

Ivanova, E., A.Toshkov, N.Sotirov, J. Gumpert (1984) Total protein amino acid composition of bacterial and stable L-forms of Proteus mirabilis D52. Acta Microbiol Bulg 15-24:30.

Ivanova, E., L.Mikhailova, M.Iordanova, A.Toshkov (1984) Effect of azlocillin at subinhibition concentrations on bacterial morphology. Acta Microbiol Bulg 15:31-7.

Mikhailova, L., A. Toshkov, E.Ivanova (1985) Ultrastructural characteristics of stable L-forms of some bacterial species. Acta Microbiol Bulg 17:52-7.

Michailova, L., E.Ivanova, A.Toshkov, M.Jordanova, J. Schmitt-Slomska (1986) Some morphological and functional aspects of the penicillin-induced  stable L-forms of Escherichia coli. Acta Microbiol Bulg 19:3-7.

Schmitt-Slomska, J., L.Michailova, E.Ivanova, A.Toshkov (1986) Adhesion and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus L-forms. J Basic Microbiol 26(7):429-40.

Ivanova, E., L.Michailova, N.Sotirov, L.Srebreva, J.Schmitt-Slomska (1989) Protein A in the stable L-forms of Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Microbiol Bulg 24:15-20.

Ivanova, E., B.Kenarova, J.Gumpert (1993) Adjuvant activia of the Escherichia coli WF stable L-form cytoplasmic membranes.            Acta Microbiol Bulg 29:54-60.

Ivanova, E., S.Andreeva, D.Veljanov, A.Raspopova (1993) Radiometric study on the invasion capability of Streptococcus pyogenes A-49 L-forms in tissue cultures. Acta Microbiol Bulg 29:73-8.

Mihailova,L., N. Markova, T.Radoucheva, D. Veljanov, S.Radoevska.(1993) Cell interaction of Listeria monocytogenes L-forms and peritoneal exudative cells in rats. Can. J. Microbiol. 39: 1014-1021.

 

Ivanova, E., L.Michailova, Z.Stefanova, H.Neychev, S.Radoevska, J.Gumpert (1997) Effect of Escherichia coli L-form cytoplasmic membranes on the interaction between macrophages and Lewis lung carcinoma cells: scanning electron microscopy. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 17(1):27-36.


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