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The Cat

The cats--domestic and wild--have intrigued humans for thousands of years, and throughout that time the relationship of these animals with humans has varied widely. People have valued cats as hunters, worshiped them as gods, and sacrificed them as demons.

However, the animals have survived and are still fascinating. They have often been used as symbols of beauty, grace, mystery, and power, and they have been favorite subjects for many artists and writers.

Today, the domestic cat (house cat) is second only to the dog in popularity as a house pet. No one knows exactly how many domestic cats there are in the United States, but researchers estimate that more than 30 million are owned as pets.

There is no way to estimate the numbers of homeless cats that roam about freely as feral animals (those that had been tame but have returned to living in a wild state). There probably are many millions of such cats wandering about in the streets and alleys of cities and towns across the country.

Some Famous Cats in Fact and Fiction

Cheshire cat. A cat that could slowly disappear, leaving only its grin behind, as described in Lewis Carroll's novel 'Alice in Wonderland'.

Felix. One of the first great stars of the animated cartoon and the hero of Pat Sullivan's cartoon strip series "Felix the Cat."

Garfield. Striped and bulgy-eyed comic strip cat known for his obnoxious comments, hefty appetite, and lazy lifestyle. Often played nasty tricks on his owner Jon and fellow family pet Odie, the dog.

Hodge. Favorite cat of Dr. Samuel Johnson, who is reputed to have bought fresh oysters personally each day and fed them to his pet.

Lucifer. A black angora, one of many cats that belonged to Cardinal Richelieu of France.

Mehitabel. The inscrutable cat that tells of her former life as Cleopatra in Don Marquis' novel 'the lives and times of archy and mehitabel'.

Morris. Orange-colored finicky and egotistical cat that appeared in a series of television cat food commercials. Although the character was played by a series of similar-looking cats over the years, Morris developed a loyal fan following.

Muessa. The cat so loved by Mohammed that, according to tradition, he cut off his robe rather than disturb the cat, which was sleeping on it.

Pink Panther. Silent, rose-pink-colored, animated feline who made his debut in the 1964 movie 'The Pink Panther'. The panther often matched wits with humans and always managed to escape unharmed but not before leaving turmoil in his wake.

Selima. A real cat that belonged to Horace Walpole. Selima was immortalized by Thomas Gray in the poem "Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat Drowned in a Tub of Goldfish."

Slippers. A gray cat with six toes on each paw, favored by President Theodore Roosevelt, who is said to have allowed the cat to appear at diplomatic dinners.

Sylvester. Black and white cartoon cat who often sputtered "Sufferin' succotash!" when he was thwarted by his main adversary, Tweety Pie, the canary. Although he tried millions of tricks, he never got the canary and always wound up being the fall guy.

Tobermory. The cat whose ability to speak devastated the guests at a house party in the story "Tobermory," from 'The Chronicles of Clovis', by Saki (H.H. Munro).


As the graceful cat moves, the powerful muscles of its long, lithe body ripple under the soft fur, which is often beautifully marked. At rest, every line of its body curves into a graceful arc. The overall impression of the animal sometimes is one of complete indolence. This impression is shattered when the cat springs and attacks with ears flattened and fangs and claws bared.

The cats as a group range widely in size. The great (or "big") cats, including the lion and tiger, are the largest. The domestic cat is one of the smallest. An adult domestic cat is about 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 centimeters) high. The length from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail averages 18 to 20 inches (46 to 51 centimeters), and the tail is about 10 to 15 inches (25 to 38 centimeters) long. Females usually weigh from 6 to 10 pounds (2.7 to 4.5 kilograms) and males from 10 to 15 pounds (4.5 to 6.8 kilograms), depending on skeletal size.

The Head and Body

The head is large compared with the rest of the body. The nose and jaws are short, so the face seems flat when compared with the faces of many other kinds of animals. The ears are large and flaring at the base. They taper to rounded or pointed tips and stand erect in almost all breeds. A cat has keen hearing and can detect many sounds that humans cannot hear. A cat usually turns its head, not only its eyes, in the direction of a sound. This aids both hearing and vision. In the cat, as in humans, the inner ear--a bony structure of fluid-filled semicircular canals--contains a complicated mechanism for maintaining body balance. It is this mechanism, not the cat's tail, that enables the animal to land on its feet when it falls.

The cat's large and prominent eyes are placed well forward on the head and, like the eyes of humans, they face forward. The cat comes closer than does any other animal except the owl and the ape to having binocular vision similar to that of humans.

The size and position of the eyes permit as much light as possible to enter them and ensure an extensive field of vision--important factors in hunting and nocturnal prowling. A cat cannot see in total darkness, but it can see better in dim light than can most other kinds of animals.

In bright light a cat's pupils contract to narrow vertical slits. But in the dark these slits enlarge to round openings that admit a maximum amount of light. The eyes seem to shine in the dark. This shininess results when even the smallest amount of light strikes a reflective area of iridescent green or yellow crystalline needles in the inner lining of the eye. The eyes of the Siamese cat appear red in the dark; the retinas lack pigment, and the color is provided by blood vessels. A cat is very alert to any movement, but it probably cannot distinguish color. For these reasons, it will pounce when a victim moves but may not attack prey that remains still.

The tip of a cat's nose, the leather, may be black, reddish, or pink and is usually cool and moist. All cats have an acute sense of smell, scenting prey or their favorite delicacies at surprising distances.

A cat's whiskers, or vibrissae, serve as delicate sense organs of touch. Four rows of stiff whiskers grow on the upper lip on each side of the nose. Small groups of whiskers also are situated on other parts of the body including above each eye, on both cheeks, and on the backs of the forepaws. Cutting off the whiskers not only detracts from the animal's appearance but also impairs its ability to feel its way about.

A cat's teeth serve primarily as weapons, as well as for tearing food. The animal has 30 permanent teeth. The strongest and sharpest are the four large, curved, pointed fangs (canines). With these teeth the cat grasps and tears its food or an enemy. The small front teeth (upper and lower incisors) function chiefly as grooming aids. The cat has fewer side teeth (premolars and molars) than do most other mammals. In most mammals the side teeth are used for grinding food. The cat uses these teeth only for cutting.

A cat's tongue is rough. The tongue of a domestic cat feels much like coarse sandpaper. The tongue of a big wild cat, such as the lion or the tiger, is much rougher. The tongue surface is covered with rasplike projections or barbs that face backward into the throat. All cats use their tongues as a major grooming tool to clean and comb the fur, but they also use them as efficient tools to strip flesh off the bones of prey.

Although a cat's jaws are short, they are extremely strong. They clamp down upon prey with enough power to crush the bones. The lower jaw is attached to the upper one by means of a simple hinge. This arrangement permits only up-and-down motion. A cat cannot move its lower jaw sideways, nor can it grind its teeth. When a cat clamps its jaws shut, the teeth mesh side by side, somewhat like the meshing of gears. So cats tear and crush their food, but they do not chew it. Much of the food is swallowed whole, and digestive juices break it down for use.

All cats--domestic and wild--can and do purr. The sound may be very loud or so soft as to be inaudible to the human ear. Kittens may begin to purr a few days after birth. In all animals, vocal sounds come from vibrations of the vocal cords, which are in the voice box in the throat. No one knows exactly how the cat uses these to produce purring nor why no other kind of animal purrs. In addition to purring, cats make several different kinds of sounds--including meowing, chirping, hissing, yowling, and even growling.

Perhaps among the most striking things about a cat are its litheness and grace of movement and the amazing flexibility of its body. It can with ease roll up into a ball, double up sideways, stretch the back into almost a straight line, or arch it until front and back legs are only a few inches apart. It can turn its body easily so that its tongue can reach the fur on the center of its back for grooming.

The Legs and Feet

The legs appear short when compared with the length of the body, but they are powerful. Strong muscles produce instant power for leaping upon prey or for great bursts of speed to catch prey on the run. The sharp angles of the knee and "heel" of the hind legs also contribute to the power for sudden sprints, for climbing, and for jumping. The front legs are also powerful and extremely flexible. A cat can stretch its forelegs wide apart to hug the body of an enemy and hold it close. The forepaws can be tucked under the chest when the animal crouches, can be curved around the head when the animal washes behind the ears, and can be turned palm up for washing under and between the toes. Most cats have five toes in the forepaws and four in the hind paws. Some domestic cats, especially in the northeastern United States, have extra toes on the inner sides of the front feet or of all feet. This oddity, polydactylism, is an inherited dominant trait. Cats with this trait are prized by many owners.

Male and Female

Cats reproduce so prolifically that there are millions more cats than good homes. Female cats come into heat repeatedly and may become nervous or ill-tempered and lose weight if not permitted to mate. Males wander restlessly, cry loudly to get out, and spray strong-smelling urine about the premises.

To prevent undesired kittens, females may be spayed after 5 or 6 months of age. Males may be neutered after 8 to 10 months to keep them from spraying or wandering. Both operations must be performed by a veterinarian. Neutered cats may need to have their food intake reduced to keep them from gaining weight.


The number of recognized show breeds that have defined, inherited characteristics has increased dramatically since the late 1950s as cats have become more popular home companions. The 30 to 40 distinctive breeds can be grouped into two general categories: the long-haired Persian and the domestic shorthair.

Almost everyone recognizes the words Siamese, Manx, and Persian as the names for certain breeds of cats. Until about a century ago, however, these terms had little meaning. Domestic cats bred freely as they spread through various parts of the world. As a result, cats of almost infinite varieties of sizes, shapes, and colors came into being. Some cat owners liked the qualities of certain strains and wanted to perpetuate them. They interbred the cats with the desired qualities, and, when these qualities continued to appear in generation after generation of cats (that is, when they bred true or pure), a new breed was established.

Cat breeders today follow essentially the same pattern. They consider a strain that breeds true for four generations a purebred, and proof of this true breeding is necessary before a new breed becomes accepted. Full-color illustrations show the breeds most widely accepted in the United States. Cat fanciers in other parts of the world may recognize different breeds.

Differences in Body Type

Perhaps the most easily identifiable differences among the various breeds of domestic cats are in the length and color of the coat and in the variations of eye color. The majority of cats that are not purebred have short hair. Those with long hair have acquired it as the result of the crossbreeding of their ancestors with purebred long-haired cats. The body form of nonpurebreds varies from slender, rangy types with somewhat elongated heads to stocky, thickset animals with short heads that are somewhat like those of the Persian cats. These differences in body type are most pronounced among the various pure breeds, ranging from slender Siamese to stocky longhairs.

Breed Colors

Among the cats that are not purebreds, the brown striped and blotched cats most closely resemble their wild African and European ancestors. This striped and blotched pattern--properly called tabby, but popularly known as tiger--occurs in various shades. Among these are red (orange), cream, blue (gray), brown, silver, and smoke. Solid white is the rarest, though genetically it is dominant over other colors. Solid black and solid blue are relatively rare. Almost without exception, the solid blacks have a few white hairs under the throat and shoulder. The solid colors occasionally show faint striping on the legs and tail. Many cats have white markings. Some of these are handsomely symmetrical, but others are distributed irregularly and sometimes create a quaint or even comical effect.

Black-and-orange cats are called tortoiseshells. Blue-creams are a "diluted" version of black and orange. When white markings are also present, the cats are said to be tricolors, calicoes, or "money cats." The black-orange (or blue-cream) color-determining genes are linked to the female sex chromosomes. For this reason tortoiseshell males and tricolor males are produced only as the result of abnormal chromosome arrangements that occurred in one or both parents. Such abnormal arrangements often lead to infertility, and the males may not be able to reproduce. In other words, tortoiseshells and tricolors of breed standards are very difficult to produce by controlled breeding.

Breed Organizations

Recognition and acceptance of a breed usually must come from an established group of cat fanciers. Groups of breeders and other persons interested in showing cats have formed organizations to establish rules for shows and standards by which cats can be judged at the shows. They also keep stud books and validate the registration papers needed for purebred cats. In most countries there is only one organization that acts as the governing body. In the United States there are many, each of which sets its own judging standards and rules. The two largest of these are The Cat Fanciers' Association and the American Cat Fanciers Association. The International Cat Association has headquarters in the United States.

In most parts of the United States there are many organizations to which persons interested in cats may belong. Some of these are affiliated with national associations, but many are strictly local clubs that invite the participation of anyone in the neighborhood. Membership in the large clubs usually consists chiefly of breeders and owners of purebred cats. Such organizations serve as clearinghouses for disseminating information about specific breeds, giving members advice about breeding methods, and helping establish standards for breeds. Most of the organizations conduct shows in which competitions for championships are held. Cat fanciers take their animals to vie with others in their breed or class for top honors. Nonpurebred cats may also be shown in the household-pet class. These cat shows are extremely popular, and in a large one there may be more than a thousand cats entered for competition.


Kittens may be born at any time of the year. Among wild cats, the time of birth depends upon the kind of cat and the climate of the area. Domestic cats in the tropics may have kittens at different times from those in northern climates. In the United States, most mothers have two litters a year, and kittens are born in the spring or late summer.

A domestic cat carries the unborn kittens inside her body for about 65 days. As the time for birth approaches, she hunts for a quiet, safe place to have her kittens. Her owner may supply a cardboard box.

The Birth of a Kitten

Most kittens are born headfirst, but some may be reversed. The average litter consists of four kittens, but there may be only one or as many as seven. They are born one at a time, usually about half an hour apart. Each is enclosed in a thin transparent sac, which the mother immediately breaks and removes with her teeth and tongue. The newborn kitten weighs about 3 1/2 to 5 ounces (100 to 142 grams) and is about 3 inches (8 centimeters) long.

Most cats need little assistance during kittening; however, many are comforted by the presence of their owners. Occasionally the sac will be tough, and the mother may be unable to break it. If this happens, the owner should break it, as the kitten may suffocate.

At birth the kitten has no teeth, the eyes are closed, the ears lie flat against the head, the tail is short and triangular, and the fur is soft and downy. The kitten begins to get its first teeth when it is two or three weeks old, and all 26 of them have grown in by the time it is two months old. These baby teeth are replaced by the 30 permanent teeth when the animal is about six months old.

The eyes begin to open when the kitten is about 8 to 12 days old. All kitten's eyes are blue. It may take several months for the eyes to change to their permanent color.

How Cats Develop

Kittens begin to crawl out of their nest when they are about a month old. The rate of growth and the ultimate size and weight depend greatly on inheritance and nutrition. Most six-month-old domestic cats weigh about 5 pounds (2.3 kilograms). They reach full skeletal development by the time they are about a year old. Female cats usually become sexually mature when they are six to eight months old, and males become sexually active a few months later.

Like many other mammals, cats like to play. Kittens stalk one another as make-believe enemies and have sham battles. Even old cats enjoy short periods of play. Some scientists believe that in play the animals practice the skills and techniques important for their survival. Cats are hunters and stalkers. Many games they play show their ability to creep close to prey, then swiftly spring upon it.

Most kinds of cats are skillful climbers, escaping into trees for safety or climbing to lie in wait for prey. The domestic cat climbs not only for safety but also for sport. It will streak up and down a tree or scale the draperies or mantelpiece indoors with equal skill. Inexperienced kittens often dash up trees only to find that they do not know how to get down. A cat rarely falls from a tree. Given time, it will usually discover how to get down.

Reliable information on the average life-span of cats does not exist and would be impossible to obtain. Well-cared-for, neutered house pets, however, may live into their teens. Some may reach the 20s, and a few have been reported to live into the 30s.


Before taking any kind of pet into a home, the prospective owners must be sure they are willing to accept full responsibility for the care and well-being of the animal. Although cats are less demanding than some other kinds of pets, they do need attention and care.

Choice: Purebred or Domestic?

The old term "alley cat" has been replaced with the term "domestic cat." Domestic cats may be either long-haired or short-haired. Short-haired domestics are the most common types. Among the short hairs, the "tiger-striped" cats are prominent.

Persons who wish to breed cats for profit or to whom appearances and status are important should choose a purebred cat. The animal should be obtained directly from breeders, who should supply pedigree and registration papers. Purebred cats usually are kept indoors because of their value and the risk of accident or theft. For this reason, most owners prefer the less valuable--and sometimes hardier--domestic, or mixed-breed, cat.

Domestic cats are best obtained from a known neighborhood source where there has been a single litter, where other cats in the household appear healthy, and where the mother's temperament is known. Many an attractive and healthy cat or kitten has been adopted as a homeless waif from an animal shelter, or pound.

Choice: Kitten or Cat?

Almost all kittens are attractive, but some grow up to be uninteresting or ill-natured cats. In choosing a kitten, look for one that is lively, friendly, and gentle. The body should be plump, the coat clean, and the eyes and nose free from discharges. The older a cat is when you adopt it, the more you will know of its temperament and personality. Depending on the cat, even a mature animal may adjust well.

Adjusting to a New Home

Cats that have never known the pleasures of the out-of-doors make excellent indoor pets. Those that from infancy have gone in and out freely may adjust poorly if required to live strictly indoors.

When a cat is taken into a new home it should be allowed time to adjust to its new surroundings and to humans and other pets with which the cat will be living. Since this experience can be overwhelming for most cats, introductions to individuals, to strange surroundings, and to other pets should be gradual. While cats of all ages are quite curious, older cats that are put into new surroundings can be very frightened. They often react by seeking out a hiding place and may well remain there for many hours--perhaps more than a day. The kitten, having had little chance to become acclimated to one place, will take a great deal of time inspecting a new home. It will take less time, however, in making itself at home.

Feeding Your Pet

Domestic cats that can hunt extensively provide themselves with a good diet, but many domestic cats rarely hunt. Their diet combines in varying degrees commercial pet foods and table leavings. Ideally, the composition of their diet should correspond approximately to the composition of the cat's body; that is, about 60 percent water, 20-25 percent protein, 10-15 percent fat, a small amount of carbohydrates, and about 2 percent mineral (ash). In dry food the proportions would be about 10 percent water, 25-50 percent protein, 15-50 percent fat, and 5 percent ash. It is important for cat owners to remember these figures when reading cat food labels. Commercial meat- and fish-based food generally provide well-balanced diets, especially if a cat has been brought up to accept a variety of the products and is not permitted to become accustomed to only one or two foods. The dry and semidry foods, although well balanced nutritionally, are low in moisture, and cats eating them will require additional fluid. Treats of meat, fish, or fowl should be cooked well. The great majority of cats, if properly fed, do not require vitamin or mineral supplements. These should be given only on a veterinarian's advice.

Milk--fresh, canned, or powdered--is an excellent food; however, it disagrees with some cats. Although few cats consume much liquid when in good health, fresh water should be available at all times. Cats should get enough food daily to keep them in good flesh but not fat.


Most cats never need a bath. A cat is naturally fastidiously clean and spends much time grooming.

All cats, however--short-haired as well as long-haired--need regular brushing. This prevents the fur from matting and removes loose hair that might be licked and form "fur balls" in the animal's digestive tract.


Virtually all kittens are born with a strong instinct for cleanliness and soon learn to use a litter pan. The litter should be changed daily, and the pan should be washed frequently with mild soap and rinsed well with boiling water.

Most kittens make friends easily--even with dogs. There are many instances of unusual attachments between cats and a variety of other creatures including cows, chickens, rabbits, rats, and horses. Despite firm attempts at training, however, few cats can be trusted alone in the vicinity of pet birds or fish.

Some Diseases of Cats

A good veterinarian is of primary importance to any pet owner. Cat owners should choose a veterinarian who is interested in cats and has treated them successfully. Call a veterinarian at once for advice if a cat seems ill; never try to diagnose a disease or treat the animal yourself.

The most widespread and serious infectious disease of cats is panleucopenia--often called cat distemper, viral enteritis, or cat typhoid. Its onset is sudden and severe, with depression, fever, loss of appetite, and vomiting of yellow fluid. Every cat should be immunized to protect it. The first vaccination is usually given when the animal is about ten weeks old, and boosters should be given annually.

Upper respiratory infections are exceedingly common, and the best-known are pneumonitis and rhinotracheitis. Symptoms resemble those of the common cold in humans and distemper in dogs. The cat's "colds," however, cannot be passed on to humans or dogs although they are highly infectious for other cats.

Rabies is an invariably fatal viral disease. It is transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. Rabies has become established among the wild animals in many parts of the world. A cat that roams outdoors in an area where rabies occurs may be bitten by a rabid animal. It is therefore advisable that all cats in such areas be given preventive vaccinations.

A cat that swallows large amounts of fur while grooming may develop fur balls or hair balls. Occasionally these may cause ulcers or completely obstruct the digestive tract. Prevention, in the form of frequent combing and brushing, is best. If fur balls occur in spite of grooming, the animal may be given a teaspoonful of mineral oil in its food or a dab of petroleum jelly on its paws twice a week.

Bite wounds may become infected and cause serious problems. Contrary to popular belief, the cat cannot heal the wound by licking it. It is better to seek veterinary attention as soon as possible.

Many apparently normal cats have tiny mineral crystals in their urine. For reasons not yet fully understood, these crystals often clump together to form sandlike particles or small stones which may cause irritation or obstruction of the urinary passages. A urinary obstruction is a grave emergency and must be treated immediately by a veterinarian.

Ear irritations are most often caused by mites, which are tiny parasites about as large as the point of a pin. The insides of the ears look as though they are filled with a dry brown dirt. The cat shakes its head often and may scratch the outside of the ears and neck persistently. A few drops of any mild oil massaged into the ear canal suffocates the mites and loosens the dirt, which may then be removed with cotton-tipped sticks.

Any cat may have fleas. These small jumping insects live in the cat's fur and suck blood through the animal's skin. Products for treatment are readily available, but use only a preparation labeled safe for cats, and use it strictly as directed.

Worms are a common intestinal parasite of cats. An owner should never try to worm a cat without the advice of a veterinarian. There are several different types of worms, each requiring a different kind of drug for control.

Ringworm, a fungous skin disease, is probably the only infection that is clearly and commonly passed from cat to man. Simple sanitary measures such as keeping pets off the table and washing the hands after handling a cat eliminate most possible risks.

Cats may be poisoned by a variety of substances. They may eat poisonous plants--which include rhododendron, hyacinth, poinsettia, and ivy. Waxes, cleaning fluids, disinfectants, detergents, and mothballs may be toxic or irritating. Antifreeze, weed killers, insecticides, and rodent poisons are outdoor hazards. Cats react adversely to many chemicals and drugs, such as aspirin or iodine, that are safe for humans or other animals. They should never be given medicines not labeled safe for cats or prescribed by a veterinarian.


No one knows exactly when or how the cat first appeared on Earth. Most investigators agree, however, that the cat's most ancient ancestor probably was a weasellike animal called Miacis, which lived about 40 million or 50 million years ago.

Miacis is believed by many to be the common ancestor of all land-dwelling carnivores, including dogs as well as cats. But apparently the cats existed for millions of years before the first dogs. Perhaps best-known of the prehistoric cats is Smilodon, the saber-toothed cat sometimes called a tiger. This formidable animal hunted throughout much of the world but became extinct long ago.

Cats in the Ancient World

The first associations of cats with humans may have begun toward the end of the Stone Age. It took many centuries, however, for the cat to become established as a domestic animal. About 5,000 years ago cats were accepted members of the households of Egypt. Many of the breeds we now know have evolved from these ancient cats. The Egyptians used the cat to hunt fish and birds as well as to destroy the rats and mice that infested the grain stocks along the Nile. The cat was considered so valuable that laws protected it, and eventually a cult of cat worship developed that lasted for more than 2,000 years. The cat goddess Bastet--whose name was also spelled Bast, Pasht, and many other ways--became one of the most sacred of all figures of worship. She was represented with the head of a cat. Soon all cats became sacred to the Egyptians, and all were well cared for.

After a cat's death, its body was mummified and buried in a special cemetery. One cemetery found in the 1800s contained the preserved bodies of more than 300,000 cats.

The Egyptians had strict laws prohibiting the export of cats; however, because cats were valued in other parts of the world for their rat-catching prowess, they were taken by the Greeks and Romans to most parts of Europe. Domestic cats were also found in India, China, and Japan where they were prized as pets as well as rodent catchers.

Cats in the Medieval World

The fate of the cat underwent a radical change in Europe during the Middle Ages. It became an object of superstitions and was associated with evil. The cat was believed to be endowed with powers of black magic--an associate of witches and perhaps the embodiment of the devil. Persons who kept cats were suspected of wickedness and were often put to death along with their cats. Cats were hunted, tortured, and sacrificed. On religious feast days, large numbers of cats were sometimes burned alive as part of the celebrations. Live cats were sealed inside the walls of houses and other buildings as they were being constructed, in the belief that this would bring good luck. As the cat population dwindled, the disease-carrying rat population increased, a factor that contributed greatly to the spread of plagues and other epidemics throughout Europe.

By the 17th century the cat had begun to regain its former place as a companion to people and a controller of rodents. Cardinal Richelieu, in France, was noted for his love of cats. Many writers, particularly in France and England, began to keep cats as pets and to write of their good qualities. It became fashionable to own and breed cats, especially the long-haired varieties. By the late 1800s cat shows were being held in England and the United States and cat fanciers' organizations were established. Many of the superstitions that arose during the period of cat persecution, however, are still evident today in the form of such sayings as "A black cat crossing your path brings bad luck."

Cats in the Arts

The cat has been a favorite subject of artists and writers for centuries. Perhaps best-known of all artistic representations are those of the Egyptian cat goddess Bastet. Ancient sculptures and drawings of her image with the head of a cat have been found in many places in the Nile Valley. Japanese artists excelled in portraying the cat. Some of the drawings were so realistic that in ancient times they were thought to be magic. People believed that if the drawings themselves were hung in homes and in temples they kept rats and mice away. Among the most charming of Japanese cats is Maneki-Neko, a small cat believed to ensure happiness and good luck. Japanese Buddhists venerate cats after death, and the temple of Go-To-Ku-Ji in Tokyo is dedicated to them.

Vested priests serve the temple and intone chants for feline souls. Crowded into the temple are sculptures, paintings, and relief carvings of cats. In each, the cat has a paw raised as if in greeting, the classical pose of Maneki-Neko.

Cats have been portrayed in the works of many great artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Durer, Paul Gauguin, Theodore Gericault, William Hogarth, Edouard Manet, and Pablo Picasso. Probably the best-known cat in the world is Felix the Cat, star of animated cartoon films. Other famous cartoon cats include Krazy Kat and Tom (of Tom and Jerry), both of which had mice for companions. Musicians such as Gioacchino Rossini and Maurice Ravel have also paid homage to the cat in compositions.

Fables and tales about cats are part of the culture of most people. Versions of the Puss in Boots fable occur in almost every language, and the tale of Dick Whittington and his cat is well known. The personality and beauty of cats has inspired many poets. A quotation from one of T. S. Eliot's poems appears at the beginning of this article. Readers of all ages enjoy books about cats. A list of some of the fine books that have been written about cats appears at the end of this article.


Members of the cat family are quite easy to identify. They differ widely in size, color, and markings, but all look "catlike." They have long, rather slender but powerfully built bodies.

The head seems quite large and the legs short when compared with the body size. All parts of the body fit together smoothly to give overall balance and structural smoothness.

Some animals called cats are not. The polecat is a member of the weasel family, and in the United States the name polecat is also used for the skunk. The bashful cat of Asia is really a loris--one of the primates. The tiger cat of Australia is a marsupial, and its proper name is dasyure.

Although the members of the cat family are reasonably easy to identify by outward appearance, they share much more than this apparent likeness. They may live in vastly different surroundings: open grassy plains, dense jungles, thick swamplands, or dry deserts. Most seem to like warm climates, but some live in the Far North and others in the severe cold of Central Asia. Wherever they are found, however, they have basic characteristics in common that mark them as cats.

All cats move in the same way. They walk on the tips of their toes, not on the soles of their feet as do humans and many other kinds of animals. At a medium speed they trot, much as a horse does. But when they are trying to hunt down prey or escape a human hunter, they really want speed, and so they move in great, bounding leaps that cover ground rapidly. The cheetah is the fastest of all land mammals and has been clocked at speeds of up to 70 miles per hour. But all cats, even the domestic cat, are capable of very rapid acceleration from a standing start.

All cats can swim, and many are excellent fishermen. The ancient Egyptians used cats not only as hunters of mice but as catchers of fish as well. Some cats can and do swim for pleasure, and some--especially the tiger--can swim for long distances. Many cats, however, avoid water and will take to it only as a last resort when there is no other means of escape from a threatening enemy.

All cats except the tiger and cheetah can climb. Lions climb poorly, but they often like to climb out on the low limbs of trees to stretch out with feet dangling. On this perch they can sun themselves, catnap, and survey a small part of their territory. All cats have extremely acute and accurate vision, and their senses of hearing and smell are exceptionally keen.

Members of the cat family, including the domestic cat, are among the most highly specialized of all the meat-eating animals for hunting game. Cats are solitary animals and usually hunt alone. A notable exception is the lion, which lives in a group called a pride and may cooperate with others while hunting. A cat pursues its game with noiseless stealth, moving across the ground on padded feet that make no sound. It is a superb stalker and can wait absolutely motionless for long periods until the moment comes to strike. When that moment comes, it gathers all its forces for the spring to attack. These forces are, of course, its muscles, which have enormous power and bulk in proportion to the animal's size. They are attached to the skeleton, in which each bone is adjusted to others in such a way that they form an extraordinary system of springs and levers that can propel the body in the final spring. At the attack, the claws--which are sharper and more strongly curved than those of any other mammal--are unsheathed, and the great canines and scissorslike carnassials are bared. In the face of the swiftness, fury, and power of such an attack, the surprised prey has little chance for escape or for survival. Every cat works in this same way, whether it is a domestic cat attacking a mouse or a wild cat attacking a deer.

The furs of cats have long been prized for their beauty and warmth. Coats may be striped, spotted, barred, or solid. Many solid-color cats may be born with markings that fade as they mature. Extensive hunting of exotic striped and spotted cats has caused them to become rare. In recent years laws to protect them from extinction have been enacted.

The illustrations in this article give much information about wild cats. The drawings, done especially for Compton's Encyclopedia, show all the known wild cats except Felis minuta, an extremely rare cat of the Philippines, which few persons have seen.


Body type

The size of the body should be medium to large. The legs should be short and the chest deep. The shoulders and rump should be massive and the body short but well rounded.

Head, cheeks, and jaws

The head should be large and round and the neck of medium length. The cheeks should be full and well rounded and the jaws short, broad, and powerful.

Eyes, ears, and nose

The eyes should be large, wide open, brilliant, and set far apart. The ears should appear neat, set far apart, not too broad at the base, and rounded at the tips. The nose should be short and broad and should appear snubbed.


The tail should be short, full, and straight. It should be carried at an angle lower than the back but not curved or trailed.

Legs and paws

The legs should appear thick in relation to the size of the body. They should be strong and perfectly straight. The paws should be firm, large, and round, with the toes carried close.


The coat should be long, flowing, and silky, and the fur should stand away from the body. The ruff should be very full about the neck and continue down in a frill between the legs. The ear tufts should be long and curved and the toe tufts long and full. The tail when brushed out should be especially full.

*Breed standards are based on ideals and vary somewhat between breeds. Some variations within breeds are almost inevitable, and allowances are made for certain of these during judging.


Body type

The body should range in size from medium to large. The legs should be of medium length and the chest broad and strong. The body should be strong, well proportioned, and neat in appearance.

Head, cheeks, and jaws

The head should be broad and the cheeks rounded. The jaws should be well developed, and the chin should form a perpendicular line with the upper lip.

Eyes, ears, and nose

The eyes should be large and round, set far apart. The ears should be medium in size, with rounded tips and not too broad at the base. The nose should be broad and short. The muzzle should appear square rather than snubbed.


The tail should be in good proportion to the body. It should be slightly thick at the base, tapering to an abrupt end at the tip.

Legs and paws

The legs should appear substantial but not especially thick. They should be of equal length and in pleasing proportion to the body. The paws should be neat, round, and firm.


The coat should be short and dense and have an even texture to give a neat appearance. The fur should be fine but not woolly.


One in every 10 cats will have a litter box lapse in his or her lifetime. The 20 most common reasons are:

1. The cat is suffering from a medical problem involving the urinary tract.
2. The cat experiences a bout of geriatric constipation.
3. The caretaker does not keep the box as clean as the cat wants it to be.
4. The owner changes the brand or tries disposable plastic liners.
5. The owner changes the location of the litterbox.
6. The owner switches to deodorized or perfumed litter.
7. The owner buys a new box and throws out the old one or covers the box with a hood.
8. The owner cleans the litterbox with too harsh a cleaning product.
9. The location of the litterbox is too busy or not private enough for the cat.
10. The home is too large for just one litterbox.
11. The cat inadvertenly gets locked out of reach of the litterbox.
12. The cat is kept from using the litterbox by another animal in the house.
13. There are too many cats and not enough litterboxes.
14. There are too many cats and not enough territory.
15. Stray cats can be seen/smelled near the cat's territory.
16. The unneutered male cat has come of age and is marking his territory.
17. The unspayed female is in heat and advertising for suitors.
18. Over time, the cat has developed an aversion to the texture of the litter.
19. The cat was never properly trained to use the litterbox in the first place.
20. The cat is stressed by a change in routine or environment, including new baby, new furniture, work schedule changes, vacations, overnight guests or a move.

 Benefits of a cat or dog is a pet topic for Mayo doctor
Jill Burcum / Star Tribune
      Many pet owners joke that they wouldn't mind switching places with their animals. After all, a life with free room, board and health care -- and in which the only stress of the day is deciding which furniture to sleep on -- is hard to beat.
     But increasingly, science is showing that the relationship between humans and their pets isn't as one-sided as it may seem. As people take care of their companion animals, researchers have found, the animals are taking care of their owners.
    That's right. Fido and Fluffy are good for more than playing ball or batting at a piece of yarn. Those with furry, feathered or finned friends in the home may actually be healthier than those without.
    "Pets provide unconditional love, companionship, connectedness -- and for some, a purpose," said Dr. Edward Creagan, a Mayo Clinic oncologist who frequently speaks on the correlation between pets and well-being. "There's a growing body of credible evidence that suggests that this is good medicine in many ways for what ails us."
   A search on Medline, a medical database, turns up many studies showing the health benefits of pet ownership.
     One of the most intriguing, published in the American Journal of Cardiology in 1995, found that having a pet may be even prolong one's life. In it, researchers followed more than 400 patients who were released from hospitalization after having heart attacks. Pet owners had a significantly higher one-year survival rate than non-pet-owners, even after accounting for such other factors as the severity of heart disease.
     Another large study published in an Australian medical journal in 1992 also found that having pets is heart-healthy. Researchers compared cardiovascular-disease risk factors in more than 5,000 people. Pet owners had lower blood pressure and levels of triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood that's linked with heart disease) than non-pet-owners. The authors concluded that pet owners are at lower risk for heart attack and heart disease than those without companion animals.
    Dozens of other studies document health benefits that extend beyond cardiovascular disease.
     Among the most recent is a study published in the March 1999 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Scientists found that senior citizens who own pets are more active than those without pets, and are are less likely to experience depression -- a common and serious mental illness in older adults.
     Even AIDS patients may benefit from having an animal friend, according to a study published in the April 1999 journal AIDS Care. Those who own pets are also less likely to suffer from depression, even as symptoms from this frightening disease become more severe.

Rx: Get a pet
   So what is it about pets that keeps people healthy? Theories abound. Some researchers speculate that companion animals help people relax, which in turn reduces stress.
    Others believe that pets' needs, such as dogs needing a walk, keep people more physically active, thus helping them stay fit and at a healthy weight. Still others say that pets help keep people connected to their community -- something that other researchers have found plays a key role in longevity and well-being.
    Creagan believes the answer is all of the above. And he'd say so even without all the studies to back him up.
    "It's just common sense," said Creagan, adding that it doesn't really matter what type of pet you have. "When you pet a dog, stroke a cat on your lap or enjoy [any] animal, something good happens. There's a feeling of contentment and joy from the unconditional love an animal brings into your life."
     While no physician is likely to write "Get a pet" on a prescription pad, health-care providers across the country are recognizing animals' unique role in helping people stay healthy.
     Nursing homes, for example, frequently have programs in which volunteers bring in companion animals for patients. Some even keep animals on the premises full-time. This so-called "Eden approach" tries to take the institutional feel out of care facilities.
      Children's hospitals in the Twin Cities and elsewhere also use pets to help kids recover. At Gillette Children's Hospital in St. Paul, volunteers have been bringing in friendly dogs for years, much to young patients' delight.
     Patients at Children's Hospitals in Minneapolis and St. Paul also have frequent visits from furry friends, according to child-life specialist Christi Kegley.
     "[Animals] just change the whole environment. Before a visit, people are intense and on edge," Kegley said. "When they're there, things calm down. Even the staff feels good."
    Kegley believes that visits from pets can make the hospital seem less intimidating and more home-like, because so many kids have pets at home and miss them. It also helps them concentrate on something besides how they feel, she said.
    Then there's the sense of peace and relaxation that only an animal can bring.
     "For a child just out of surgery, the touch and feel of the fur of a dog or kitten is very calming and therapeutic," Kegley said. "Many times a parent will say that the first time their child smiled in the hospital was when an animal visited."
     Creagan, who owns Brinkley, a retriever mix, also recognizes the value of pets in healing his patients. Patients' pet names become part of his medical records and he always makes sure to ask patients how their dog, cat or fish is faring. Even when the outlook is grim, Creagan believes, the bond that pet owners share can help a patient.
    "Everybody has pet stories and everybody laughs when they talk about their dog or cat," Creagan said. "Even in the most depressing clinical environment, talking about a pet can add an important lightness to the situation."
     Creagan and others caution, however, that pets are not for everyone. Pets may not be a good idea for those with allergies, compromised immune systems or other chronic conditions. Of course, there might be a right pet for just about anyone -- for example, a fish, which also does not require intensive care. When uncertain, Creagan said, check with a physician first.
     In addition, the Humane Society of America also recommends that potential pet owners keep these considerations in mind:

  •  Cost. Pets' food, medical care and other needs can quickly add up. On average, dog owners spend about $450 a year to take care of their animal. Cat owners spend about $400. Those on limited or fixed incomes may be unable to afford such a companion animal.
  •   Housing. Are pets allowed where you live? For homeowners, this may not be a problem. But it often is for renters.
  •   Lifestyle. It may be difficult for those who travel often, or spend winters elsewhere, to have a pet. Those with young children also may want to wait to get a pet.
         For most people, however, the benefits of pet ownership outweigh the disadvantages, according to Creagan. "I think it's one of the best things people can do to stay healthy and happy."

    -- Jill Burcum writes about consumer health issues and has a support network that includes Lassie the border collie and two cats, Fernley Beangrab and Purrpat. She can be reached at 612-673-7846 or by email at






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