Reading Recommendations

References

The following is a list of literature references. They are grouped by subject. They are meant to be read in conjunction with references texts. Although thorough, these references are not all inclusive. New literature is released daily. This supplemental reading is intended to provide a foundation for continued reading and education.

Physics

CT

● Lewis M, Reid K, Toms AP. Reducing the effects of metal artefact using high keV monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy CT (DECT) in hip replacements. Skeletal Radiology. 2013;42(2):275-82. DOI: 10.1007/s00256-012-1458-6

● Coupal TM, Mallinson PI, McLaughlin P, Nicolaou S, Munk PL, Ouellette H. Peering through the glare: using dual-energy CT to overcome the problem of metal artefacts in bone radiology. Skeletal Radiol. 2014;43(5):567-75. doi: 10.1007/s00256-013-1802-5

● Tamm EP, Rong XJ, Cody DD, Ernst RD, Fitzgerald NE, Kundra V. Quality initiatives: CT radiation dose reduction: how to implement change without sacrificing diagnostic quality. Radiographics 2011; 31(7): 1823-1832. doi: 10.1148/rg.317115027

MRI

● Boyle GE, Ahern M, Cooke J, Sheehy NP, Meaney JF. An Interactive Taxonomy of MR Imaging Sequences. RadioGraphics. 2006;26(6):e24-e. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.e24

● Kim Y-J. Novel cartilage imaging techniques for hip disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America. 2013;21(1):35-44.

● Lee M-J, Kim S, Lee S-A, et al. Overcoming Artifacts from Metallic Orthopedic Implants at High-Field-Strength MR Imaging and Multi-detector CT 1. Radiographics. 2007;27(3):791-803. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.273065087

US

● Jacobson JA. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound: Focused Impact on MRI. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009;193(3):619-27. DOI:10.2214/AJR.09.2841

● Gimber LH, Melville DM, Klauser AS, Witte RS, Arif-Tiwari H, Taljanovic MS. Artifacts at Musculoskeletal US: Resident and Fellow Education Feature. RadioGraphics. 2016;36(2):479-80. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2016150200

● Khoury V, Cardinal É, Bureau NJ. Musculoskeletal Sonography: A Dynamic Tool for Usual and Unusual Disorders. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188(1):W63-W73. DOI:10.2214/AJR.06.0579

General

● Don S, Whiting BR, Rutz LJ, Apgar BK. New exposure indicators for digital radiography simplified for radiologists and technologists. AJR 2012; 199: 1337-1341. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.8678

Congenital

GENERAL TOPICS

● Laor T, Jaramillo D. MR imaging insights into skeletal maturation: what is normal? Radiology. 2009 Jan;250 (1):28-38.

● Him H, Kim HS, Moon ES, et al. Scoliosis imaging: what radiologists should know. Radiographics 2010; 30(7): 1823-1842.

● Sookur PA, Naraghi AM, Bleakney RR, et al. Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics 2008; 28(2): 481-499.

● Newman JS, Newberg AH. Congenital tarsal coalition: multimodality evaluation with emphasis on CT and MR imaging. Radiographics 2000; 20(2): 321–32.

● Thapa MM, Pruthi S, Chew FS. Radiographic assessment of pediatric foot alignment: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010; 194(6): S51–58.

● Zbojniewicz AM, Laor T. Focal Periphyseal Edema (FOPE) zone on MRI of the adolescent knee: a potentially painful manifestation of physiologic physeal fusion? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Oct;197(4):998-1004.

● Morrell DS, Pearson JM, Sauser DD. Progressive bone and joint abnormalities of the spine and lower extremities in cerebral palsy. Radiographics. 2002 Mar-Apr;22(2):257-68.

● Bedoya MA, Chauvin NA, Jaramillo D et al. Common Patterns of Congenital Lower Extremity Shortening: Diagnosis, Classification, and Follow-up. Radiographics. 2015 Jul-Aug;35(4):1191-207

● Dighe M, Fligner C, Cheng E, Warren B, Dubinsky T. Fetal skeletal dysplasia: an approach to diagnosis with illustrative cases. Radiographics 2008; 28(4): 1061-1077.

● Cheema JI, Grissom LE, Harcke HT. Radiographic characteristics of lower-extremity bowing in children. Radiographics 2003; 23(4): 871-880.

● Starr V, Ha BY. Imaging update on developmental dysplasia of the hip with the role of MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Dec;203(6):1324-35.

● Ihde LL, Forrester DM, Gottsegen CJ, et al. Sclerosing bone dysplasias: review and differentiation from other causes of osteosclerosis. Radiographics. 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1865-82.

NORMAL VARIANTS BY BODY PART

● Fitzpatrick D, Walz DM. Shoulder MR imaging normal variants and imaging artifacts. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 615-632.

● Sampaio ML, Schweitzer ME. Elbow magnetic resonance imaging variants and pitfalls. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 633-642.

● Malone WJ, Snowden R, Alvi F, Klena JC. Pitfalls of wrist MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 643-662.

● DuBois DF, Omar IM. MR imaging of the hip: normal anatomic variants and imaging pitfalls. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 663-674.

● Slattery T, Major N. Magnetic resonance imaging pitfalls and normal variations: the knee. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 675-689.

● Gyftopoulos S, Bencardino JT. Normal variants and pitfalls in MR imaging of the ankle and foot. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 691-705.

● Shortt CP. Magnetic resonance imaging of the midfoot and forefoot: normal variants and pitfalls. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 707-715.

● Durand DJ, Hulsman T, Carrino JA. MR imaging features of common variant spinal anatomy. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2010; 18(4): 717-726.

Child Abuse

● Lonergan GJ, Baker AM et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Child abuse: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2003 Jul-Aug;23(4):811-45.

Infection

General

● Rosen A, Lecomte M, Ossiani, Piran A. Chapter 19: Imaging of infection. In: Imaging of arthritis and metabolic bone disease. Weissman BN. 1st ed. Elsevier. Pg 314-339. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780323041775000197

● Pattamapaspong N, Sivasomboon C, Settakorn J, Pruksakorn D, Muttarak M. Pitfalls in imaging of musculoskeletal infections. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014 Feb;18(1):86-100. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1365838

● Soldatos T, Durand DJ, Subhawong TK, Carrino JA, Chhabra A. Magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infections: systematic diagnostic assessment and key points. Acad Radiol. 2012 Nov;19(11):1434-43. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2012.05.022

● Vaidyanathan S, Patel CN, Scarsbrook AF, Chowdhury FU. FDG PET/CT in infection and inflammation--current and emerging clinical applications. Clin Radiol. 2015 Jul;70(7):787-800. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2015.03.010

Osseous

● Lee YJ, Sadigh S, Mankad K, Kapse N, Rajeswaran G. The imaging of osteomyelitis. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2016 Apr;6(2):184-98. doi: 10.21037/qims.2016.04.01

● ACR appropriateness criteria on suspected osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Revised 2012. https://acsearch.acr.org/docs/69340/Narrative/

Soft tissue

● Turecki MB, Taljanovic MS, Stubbs AY, et al. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections. Skeletal Radiol 2010; 39(10); 957-971. doi:10.1007/s00256-009-0780-0

● Chaudhry AA, Baker KS, Gould ES, Gupta R. Necrotizing fasciitis and its mimics: what radiologists need to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2015; 204(1): 128-139. doi: 10.2214/AJR.14.12676

Joints

● Lin HM, Learch TJ, White EA, Gottsegen CJ. Emergency joint aspiration: a guide for radiologists on call. Radiographics 2009; 29(4): 1139-58. doi:10.1148/rg.294085032

● Karchevsky M, Schweitzer ME, Morrison WB, Parellada JA. MRI findings of septic arthritis and associated osteomyelitis in adults. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004; 182(1): 119-122. doi:10.2214/ajr.182.1.1820119

Spine

● Hong SH, Choi JY, Lee JW, Kim NR, Choi JA, Kang HS. MR imaging assessment of the spine: infection or an imitation? Radiographics 2009; 29(2): 599-612. doi:10.1148/rg.292085137

● Mazzie JP, Brooks MK, Gnerre J. Imaging and management of postoperative spine infection. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2014 May;24(2):365-74. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2014.01.003

Internal Derangement and Sports

SHOULDER

● Shoulder US: anatomy, technique, and scanning pitfalls.

● Jacobson JA. Radiology. 2011 Jul;260(1):6-16.

● Shoulder MR imaging normal variants and imaging artifacts.

● Fitzpatrick D, Walz DM. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2010 Nov;18(4):615-32.

● MR imaging of rotator cuff injury: what the clinician needs to know.

● Morag Y, Jacobson JA, Miller B, De Maeseneer M, Girish G, Jamadar D.

● Radiographics. 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4):1045-65.

● Superior labral anteroposterior lesions of the shoulder: part 1, anatomy and anatomic variants.

● Modarresi S, Motamedi D, Jude CM. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Sep;197(3):596-603.

● Superior labral anteroposterior lesions of the shoulder: part 2, mechanisms and classification.

● Modarresi S, Motamedi D, Jude CM. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Sep;197(3):604-11.

● Beyond the Cuff: MR Imaging of Labroligamentous Injuries in the Athletic Shoulder.

● Roy EA, Cheyne I, Andrews GT, Forster BB. Radiology. 2016 Feb;278(2):316-32.

● Imaging of shoulder instability. Walz DM, Burge AJ, Steinbach L. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Jul;19(3):254-68.

● Upper extremity neuromuscular injuries in athletes. Demertzis JL1, Rubin DA. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2012 Sep;16(4):316-30.

● Review. The Rotator Interval: A Review of Anatomy, Function, and Normal and Abnormal MRI Appearance. Catherine N. Petchprapa, Luis S. Beltran, Laith M. Jazrawi, Young W. Kwon, James S. Babb, Michael P. Recht. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010;195:567-576.

● Postoperative MRI of the shoulder. Beltran LS1, Bencardino JT, Steinbach LS. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 Dec;40(6):1280-97.

ELBOW

● Normal MR imaging anatomy of the elbow.

● Fowler KA, Chung CB. Radiol Clin North Am. 2006 Jul;44(4):553-67, viii.

● Elbow magnetic resonance imaging variants and pitfalls.

● Sampaio ML, Schweitzer ME. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2010 Nov;18(4):633-42.

● Nerve entrapment syndromes of the elbow, forearm, and wrist.

● Miller TT, Reinus WR. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Sep;195(3):585-94.

● US of the elbow: indications, technique, normal anatomy, and pathologic conditions.

● Konin GP, Nazarian LN, Walz DM. Radiographics. 2013 Jul-Aug;33(4):E125-47.

● MR imaging of the elbow in the injured athlete.

● Wenzke DR. Radiol Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;51(2):195-213.

● Elbow Imaging in Sport: Sports Imaging Series.

● Bucknor MD, Stevens KJ, Steinbach LS. Radiology. 2016 Apr;279(1):12-28.

● MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers. Ouellette H, Bredella M, Labis J, Palmer WE, Torriani M. Skeletal Radiol. 2008 Feb;37(2):115-21.

● Magnetic Resonance Arthrography of the Wrist and Elbow. LiMarzi GM, O'Dell MC, Scherer K, Pettis C, Wasyliw CW, Bancroft LW. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2015 Aug;23(3):441-55.

● Epicondylitis: pathogenesis, imaging, and treatment. Walz DM, Newman JS, Konin GP, Ross G.

● Radiographics. 2010 Jan;30(1):167-84.

HAND AND WRIST

● Sookur PA, Naraghi AM, Bleakney RR, Jalan R, Chan O, White LM. Accessory Muscles: Anatomy, symptoms and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics. 2008;28(2).

● Imaging key wrist ligaments: what the surgeon needs the radiologist to know.

● Bateni CP1, Bartolotta RJ, Richardson ML, Mulcahy H, Allan CH. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 May;200(5):1089-95.

● Pitfalls of wrist MR imaging.

● Malone WJ, Snowden R, Alvi F, Klena JC.

● Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2010 Nov;18(4):643-62.

● Extensor mechanism of the fingers: MR imaging-anatomic correlation.

● Clavero JA, Golanó P, Fariñas O, Alomar X, Monill JM, Esplugas M.

● Radiographics. 2003 May-Jun;23(3):593-611.

● MR imaging of ligament and tendon injuries of the fingers.

● Clavero JA, Alomar X, Monill JM, Esplugas M, Golanó P, Mendoza M, Salvador A.

● Radiographics. 2002 Mar-Apr;22(2):237-56. Review.

● MRI of the thumb: anatomy and spectrum of findings in asymptomatic volunteers. Hirschmann A, Sutter R, Schweizer A, Pfirrmann CW. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Apr;202(4):819-27.

● Gamekeeper’s Thumb-A Treatment-Oriented Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification. Milner CS, Manon-Matos Y, Thirkannad SM. J Hand Surg Am. 2015;40(1):90-95.

● Gamekeeper thumb: diagnosis of ulnar collateral ligament injury using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance arthrography and stress radiography. Harper MT, Chandnani VP, Spaeth J, Santangelo JR, Providence BC, Bagg MA. J Magn Reson Imaging. 6(2):322-328.

● Pitfalls that may mimic injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage and proximal intrinsic wrist ligaments at MR imaging. Burns JE, Tanaka T, Ueno T, Nakamura T, Yoshioka H. Radiographics. 2011 Jan-Feb;31(1):63-78.

● MRI features of intersection syndrome of the forearm. Costa CR, Morrison WB, Carrino JA. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003 Nov;181(5):1245-9

● Midcarpal instability: a radiologic perspective. Toms A, Chojnowski, et al. Skeletal Radiol 2011;40:533-541.

● Multimodality Imaging of Peripheral Neuropathies of the Upper Limb and Brachial Plexus. Linda D, Harish S, Stewart B, Finlay K, Parasu N, Rebello R. Radiographics 2010; 30:1373-1400

HIP

● Acetabular labrum. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2013 Feb;21(1):21-33.

● Blankenbaker DG1, Tuite MJ.

● MR Imaging of the Hip: Normal Anatomic Variants and Imaging Pitfalls

● DuBois, David F. et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics , Volume 18 , Issue 4 , 663 - 674

● Pediatric hip: pearls and pitfalls. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2013 Jul;17(3):328-38.

● Gill KG.

● Femoroacetabular impingement: fact, fiction, or fantasy? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Sep;201(3):526-34. Rubin DA.

● The Spectrum of MR Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia

● Zoga, Adam C. et al. Radiologic Clinics , Volume 48 , Issue 6 , 1179 - 1197

KNEE

● MR imaging-based diagnosis and classification of meniscal tears. Radiographics. 2014 Jul-Aug;34(4):981-99. Nguyen JC, De Smet AA, Graf BK, Rosas HG.

● MR Imaging of Cruciate Ligaments

● Naraghi, Ali et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics , Volume 22 , Issue 4 , 557 - 580

● Posterolateral and Posteromedial Corner Injuries of the Knee. Daniel Geiger, Eric Y. Chang, Mini N. Pathria, Christine B. Chung. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Vol. 22, Issue 4, p581–599

● MR Imaging of Extrasynovial Inflammation and Impingement About the Knee

● Grando, Higor et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics , Volume 22 , Issue 4 , 725 - 741

● Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Postoperative Meniscus

● Boutin, Robert Downey et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics , Volume 22 , Issue 4 , 517 - 555

● Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair Procedures

● Michael C. Forney, Amit Gupta, Tom Minas, Carl S. Winalski

● Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Vol. 22, Issue 4, p671–701

● The Collateral Ligaments and Posterolateral Corner: What Radiologists Should Know.Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2016 Feb;20(1):52-64. Vasilevska Nikodinovska V1, Gimber LH2, Hardy JC3, Taljanovic MS2.

FOOT/ANKLE

● Normal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Anatomy of the Ankle & Foot

● Arnold, George et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics , Volume 19 , Issue 3 , 655 - 679 Normal variants and pitfalls in MR imaging of the ankle and foot.Gyftopoulos S, Bencardino JT.

● Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2010 Nov;18(4):691-705.

● US and MR imaging of the extensor compartment of the ankle.

● Ng JM1, Rosenberg ZS, Bencardino JT, Restrepo-Velez Z, Ciavarra GA, Adler RS. Radiographics. 2013 Nov-Dec;33(7):2047-64.

● Spring Ligament Complex and Posterior Tibial Tendon: MR Anatomy and Findings in Acquired Adult Flatfoot Deformity. Mengiardi B, Pinto C, Zanetti M. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2016 Feb;20(1):104-15.

● Dynamic high-resolution US of ankle and midfoot ligaments: normal anatomic structure and imaging technique. Sconfienza LM, Orlandi D, Lacelli F, Serafini G, Silvestri E.

● Radiographics. 2015 Jan-Feb;35(1):164-78.

● Plantar tendons of the foot: MR imaging and US. Donovan A1, Rosenberg ZS, Bencardino JT, Velez ZR, Blonder DB, Ciavarra GA, Adler RS. Radiographics. 2013 Nov-Dec;33(7):2065-85.

● Evaluation of the tarsometatarsal joint using conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging.

● Siddiqui NA, Galizia MS, Almusa E, Omar IM. Radiographics. 2014 Mar-Apr;34(2):514-31.

● Medial Collateral Ligament Complex of the Ankle: MR Imaging Anatomy and Findings in Medial Instability. Mengiardi B, Pinto C, Zanetti M. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2016 Feb;20(1):91-103.

SPINE

Normal Spinal Anatomy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Gaurav Jindal, Bryan Pukenas

● Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Vol. 19, Issue 3, p475–488

● Basic aspects in MR imaging of degenerative lumbar disk disease.

● Heuck A1, Glaser C1. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014 Jul;18(3):228-39.

● Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spinal Emergencies

● Daniel Kawakyu-O’Connor, Ritu Bordia, Refky Nicola

● Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Vol. 24, Issue 2, p325–344

● Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae: classification, imaging findings, and clinical relevance.

● Konin GP1, Walz DM. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov;31(10):1778-86.

INTERVENTIONAL MSK PROCEDURES

● Emergency joint aspiration: a guide for radiologists on call. Lin HM, Learch TJ, White EA, Gottsegen CJ. Radiographics. 2009 Jul-Aug;29(4):1139-58.

● Fundamentals of Joint Injection. Rastogi AK, Davis KW, Ross A, Rosas HG. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun 8:1-11.

● Review. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Tendon Treatments

● Christopher J. Burke, Ronald S. Adler. American Journal of Roentgenology:1-12.

● Review. Musculoskeletal Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma: Fad or Future?

● Kenneth S. Lee, John J. Wilson, David P. Rabago, Geoffrey S. Baer, Jon A. Jacobson, Camilo G. Borer. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2011;196:628-636.

● Musculoskeletal Ultrasound: How to Treat Calcific Tendinitis of the Rotator Cuff by Ultrasound-Guided Single-Needle Lavage Technique. Kenneth S. Lee, Humberto G. Rosas

● American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010;195:W213.

● Anatomically based guidelines for core needle biopsy of bone tumors: implications for limb-sparing surgery. Liu PT, Valadez SD, Chivers FS, Roberts CC, Beauchamp CP. Radiographics. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):189-205

● Image-guided biopsy and treatment of musculoskeletal tumors.

● Hillen TJ1, Baker JC, Jennings JW, Wessell DE. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2013 Apr;17(2):189-202.

● Pictorial Essay. CT-Guided Biopsy of Bone: A Radiologist's Perspective

● Leandro A. Espinosa, David A. Jamadar, Jon A. Jacobson, Michel O. DeMaeseneer, Farhad S. Ebrahim, Brian J. Sabb, Matthew T. Kretschmer, Janet S. Biermann, Sung-Moon Kim

● American Journal of Roentgenology. 2008;190:W283-W289.

● Interventional procedures of the spine. Santiago FR1, Kelekis A2, Alvarez LG, Filippiadis DK. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014 Jul;18(3):309-17.

● Particulate versus non-particulate steroids for lumbar transforaminal or interlaminar epidural steroid injections: an update. Dietrich TJ1, Sutter R, Froehlich JM, Pfirrmann CW. Skeletal Radiol. 2015 Feb;44(2):149-55.

Marrow and Metabolic

Marrow Imaging

● Kung JW, Yablon CM, Eisenberg RL. Bone marrow signal alteration in the extremities. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2011; 196: W492-W510. doi: 10.2214/AJR.10.4961

● Long SS, Yablon CM, Eisenberg RL. Bone marrow signal alteration in the spine and sacrum. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010; 195(3): W178–200. doi:10.2214/AJR.09.4134

● Murphy DT, Moynagh MR, Eustace SJ, Kavanagh EC. Bone marrow. Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America. 2010;18(4):727-35. doi: 10.1016/j.mric.2010.07.003

● Dietrich O, Biffar A, Reiser MF, Baur-Melnyk A. Diffusion-weighted imaging of bone marrow. Seminars in musculoskeletal radiology2009; p. 134-44. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1220884

● Disler DG, McCauley TR, Ratner LM, Kesack CD, Cooper JA. In-phase and out-of-phase MR imaging of bone marrow: prediction of neoplasia based on the detection of coexistent fat and water. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1997;169(5):1439-47.

● Berg BCV, Malghem J, Lecouvet FE, Maldague B. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal bone marrow. Skeletal radiology. 1998;27(9):471-83.

Toxic/metabolic diseases

● Smith SE, Murphey MD, Motamedi K, Mulligan ME, Resnik CS, Gannon FH. From the archives of the AFIP. Radiologic spectrum of Paget disease of bone and its complications with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2002; 22(5): 1191–1216. doi:10.1148/radiographics.22.5.g02se281191

● Murphey MD, Foreman KL, Klassen-Fischer MK, Fox MG, Chung EM, Kransdorf MJ. From the radiologic pathology archives imaging of osteonecrosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographis 2014; 34: 1003-1028. doi: 10.1148/rg.344140019

● Ihde LL, Forrester DM, Gottsegen CJ, et al. Sclerosing Bone Dysplasias: Review and Differentiation from Other Causes of Osteosclerosis. RadioGraphics. 2011;31(7):1865-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.317115093

● Ejindu VC, Hine AL, Mashayekhi M, Shorvon PJ, Misra RR. Musculoskeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease. Radiographics 2007; 27(4): 1005–21. doi:10.1148/rg.274065142

● Guglielmi G, Muscarella S, Bazzocchi A. Integrated Imaging Approach to Osteoporosis: State-of-the-Art Review and Update. RadioGraphics. 2011;31(5):1343-64. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.315105712

● Sidhu HS, Venkatanarasimha N, Bhatnagar G, Vardhanabhuti V, Fox BM, Suresh SP. Imaging Features of Therapeutic Drug–induced Musculoskeletal Abnormalities. RadioGraphics. 2012;32(1):105-27. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.321115041

Neoplasm

● Liu PT, Valadez SD, Chivers FS, Roberts CC, Beauchamp CP. Anatomically based guidelines for core needle biopsy of bone tumors: implications for limb-sparing surgery. Radiographics 2007; 27(1): 189-205. doi:10.1148/rg.271065092

● Hillen T, Baker JC, Jennings JW, Wessell DE. Image-guided biopsy and treatment of musculoskeletal tumors. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2013; 17(2): 189-202. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1343096 PMID: 23673550

● Miller TT. Bone tumors and tumorlike conditions: analysis with conventional radiography. Radiology 2008; 246(3): 662-674. doi:10.1148/radiol.2463061038 PMID: 27224836

● Rizer M, Singer A, Edgar M, Jose J, Subhawong T. The histological variants of liposarcoma: predictive MRI findings with prognostic implications, management, follow-up, and differential diagnosis Skeletal Radiol (May 2016) DOI 10.1007/s00256-016-2409-4

● Wu JS, Hochman MG. Soft-tissue tumors and tumorlike lesions: a systematic imaging approach. Radiology 2009; 253(2): 297-316. doi:10.1148/radiol.2532081199

● Ihde LL, Forrester DM, Gottsegen CJ, Masih S, Patel DB, Vachon LA, White EA, Matcuk GR. Sclerosing bone dysplasias: review and differentiation from other causes of osteosclerosis. Radiographics 2011; 31(7): 1865–82. doi:10.1148/rg.317115093

● Adam D. Singer & Abhijit Datir & Jonathan Tresley & Travis Langley & Paul D. Clifford & Jean Jose & Ty K. Subhawong Skeletal Radiol (2016) 45:287–305 DOI10.1007/s00256-015-2278-2.

● MR Imaging of Soft-Tissue Tumors of the Upper Extremity. Nagata S, Nishimura H, Abe T. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2015 Aug;23(3):457-68. doi:10.1016/j.mric.2015.04.002

● Fitzgerald JJ, Roberts CC, Daffner RH, et al. ACR appropriateness criteria on follow-up of malignant or aggressive musculoskeletal tumors. Revised 2011. https://acsearch.acr.org/docs/69428/Narrative/

● Garner HW, Kransdorf MJ, Bancroft LW, Peterson JJ, Berquist TH, Murphey MD. Benign and malignant soft-tissue tumors: posttreatment MR imaging. Radiographics 2009; 29(1): 119-134. doi: 10.1148/rg.291085131

● Zbojniewicz Am, Sorger JI. Posttreatment imaging of pediatric musculoskeletal tumors. Radiographics 2014; 34(3): 724-740. doi: 10.1148/rg.342135069

● Chalian H, Töre HG, Horowitz JM, Salem R, Miller FH, Yaghmai V. Radiologic assessment of response to therapy: comparison of RECIST versions 1.1 and 1.0. Radiographics 2011; 31(7): 2093-105. doi: 10.1148/rg.317115050

Prosthesis

General

● Koff MF, Shah P, Potter HG. Clinical implementation of MRI of joint arthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203(1): 154-161. doi: 10.2214/AJR.13.11991

Hip

● Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts of hip arthroplasty for radiologists: part 1, features and radiographic assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(3): 559-569. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.8843

● Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts of hip arthroplasty for radiologists: part 2, revisions and complication. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(3): 570-580. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.8844

● Carli A, Jerabek S. Principles of design and fixation. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):3-11. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396762

● Chang CY, Huang AJ, Palmer WE. Radiographic evaluation of hip implants. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):12-20. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396763

● Hayter CL, Gold SL, Koff MF, Perino G, Nawabi DH, Miller TT, Potter HG. MRI findings in painful metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(4): 884-893.

● Fritz J, Lurie B, Miller TT, Potter HG. MR imaging of hip arthroplasty implants. Radiographics. 2014 Jul-Aug;34(4):E106-32. doi: 10.1148/rg.344140010

● Maloney E, Ha AS, Miller TT. Imaging of adverse reactions to metal debris. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):21-30. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396764

● Burge AJ. Total hip arthroplasty: MR imaging of complications unrelated to metal wear. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):31-9. doi:10.1055/s-0034-139676

Knee

● Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts in knee replacement: features and imaging assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013; 201(6): W828-842. doi: 10.2214/AJR.13.11307

● Mulcahy H, Chew FS. Current concepts in knee replacement: complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202(1): W76-86. doi: 10.2214/AJR.13.11308

● Fritz J, Lurie B, Potter HG. MR Imaging of Knee Arthroplasty Implants. Radiographics. 2015 Sep-Oct;35(5):1483-501. doi: 10.1148/rg.2015140216.

● Sneag DB, Bogner EA, Potter HG. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the painful total knee arthroplasty. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):40-8.doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396766.

● Li AE, Sneag DB, Miller TT, Lipman JD, Padgett DE, Potter HG. MRI of Polyethylene Tibial Inserts in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Normal and Abnormal

● Appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun;206(6):1264-71. doi:10.2214/AJR.15.15107.

● Li AE, Sneag DB, Greditzer HG 4th, Johnson CC, Miller TT, Potter HG. Total

● Knee Arthroplasty: Diagnostic Accuracy of Patterns of Synovitis at MR Imaging. Radiology. 2016 May 27:152828

Shoulder

● Petscavage JM, Ha AS, Chew FS. Current concepts of shoulder arthroplasty for radiologists: Part 1—epidemiology, history, preoperative image, and hemiarthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(4): 757-767.

● Ha AS, Petscavage JM, Chew FS. Current concepts of shoulder arthroplasty for radiologists: Part 2—anatomic and reverse total shoulder replacement and nonprosthetic resurfacing. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(4): 768-776.

● Roberts CC, Ekelund AL, Renfree KJ, Liu PT, Chew FS. Radiologic assessment of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographics 2007; 27(1): 223-235.

● Konin GP. Imaging of shoulder arthroplasty. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):49-59. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396767

● Nwawka OK, Konin GP, Sneag DB, Gulotta LV, Potter HG. Magnetic resonance imaging of shoulder arthroplasty: review article. HSS J. 2014 Oct;10(3):213-24. doi: 10.1007/s11420-014-9399-3.

Elbow

● Petscavage JM, Ha AS, Chew FS. Radiologic review of total elbow, radial head, and capitellar resurfacing arthroplasty. Radiographics 2012; 32(1): 129-149.

● Roth E, Chew FS. Imaging of elbow replacement arthroplasty. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):60-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396768

Ankle

● Bestic JM, Peterson JJ, DeOrio JK, Bancroft LW, Berquist TH, Kransdorf MJ. Postoperative evaluation of total ankle arthroplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008; 190(4): 1112-1123. doi: 10.2214/AJR.07.2729

● LiMarzi GM, Fursevich DM, Cole JD, Wasyliw CW, Bancroft LW. Imaging of ankle replacements. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015 Feb;19(1):67-76. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1396769

Trauma

Fractures/Dislocations/Complications General Principles and Technique

● ACR-SPR-SSR Practice parameter for the performance of radiography of the extremities. Revised 2014.

● Harris JH, Pope TL. Chapter 2: General principles of osseous injury. In: Musculoskeletal imaging. Pope TL, Bloem HL, Beltran J, Morrison WB, Wilson DJ. 2nd ed. 2015. Pg 13-20.

● Baker JC, Hillen TJ, Demertzis JL. The role of imaging in musculoskeletal emergencies. Semin Roentgenol 2014; 49(2): 169-185.

Spine

● ACR-ASSR-SPR-SSR Practice parameter for the performance of spine radiography. Revised 2014.)

● Daffner RH, et al. ACR appropriateness criteria on suspected spine trauma. Last review date 2012. (R1)

● Rogers LF, West OC. Chapter 6: the cervical spine. In: Imaging skeletal trauma. Rogers LF, West OC. 4th ed. Elsevier 2015. Pg 43-89.

● Dreizin D, Letzing M, Sliker CW, et al. Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults. Radiographics 2014; 34(7): 1842-1865.

● Khurana B, Sheehan SE, Sodickson A, Bono CM, Harris MB. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries: what the spine surgeon wants to know. Radiographics 2013; 33(7): 2031-2046.

Upper Extremity

● Sandstrom CK, Kennedy SA, Gross JA. Acute shoulder trauma: what the surgeon wants to know. Radiographics 2015; 35(2): 475-492.

● Sheehan SE, Dyer GS, Sodickson AD, Patel KI, Khurana B. Traumatic elbow injuries: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know. Radiographics 2013; 33(3): 869-888.

● Porrino JA Jr, Maloney E, Scherer K, Mulcahy H, Ha AS, Allan C. Fracture of the distal radius: epidemiology and premanagement radiographic characterization. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203(3): 551-559.

● Scalcione LR, Gimber LH, Ho AM, Johnston SS, Sheppard JE, Taljanovic MS. Spectrum of carpal dislocations and fracture-dislocations: imaging and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203(3): 541-550

● Gyftopoulos S, Chitkara M, Bencardino JT. Misses and errors in upper extremity trauma radiographs. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203(3): 477-491.

Pelvis/Acetabulum

● Khurana B, Sheehan SE, Sodickson AD, Weaver MJ. Pelvic ring fractures: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know. Radiographics 2014; 34(5): 1317-1333.

● Lawrence DA, Menn K, Baumgaertner M, Haims AH. Acetabular fractures: anatomic and clinical considerations. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013; 201(3): W425-36.

Lower Extremity

● Sheehan SE, Shyu JY, Weaver MJ, Sodickson AD, Khurana B. Proximal femoral fractures: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know. Radiographics 2015; 35(5): 1563-1584.

● Gottsegen CJ, Eyer BA, White EA, Learch TJ, Forrester D. Avulsion fractures of the knee: imaging findings and clinical significance. Radiographics 2008; 28(6): 1755–70.

● Markhardt BK, Gross JM, Monu J. Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures: use of CT and MR imaging improves assessment. Radiographics 2009; 29(2): 585-597.

● Okanobo H, Khurana B, Sheehan S, Duran-Mendicuti A, Arianjam A, Ledbetter S. Simplified diagnostic algorithm for Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle injuries. Radiographics 2012; 32(2): E71–84.

● Badillo K, Pacheco JA, Padua SO, Gomez AA, Colon E, Vidal JA. Multidetector CT evaluation of calcaneal fractures. Radiographics 2011; 31(1): 81-92.

● Melenevsky Y, Mackey RA, Abrahams RB, Thomson NB 3rd. Talar fractures and dislocations: a radiologist’s guide to timely diagnosis and classification. Radiographics 2015; 35(3): 765-779.

● Ha AS, Porrino JA, Chew FA. Radiographic pitfalls in lower extremity trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 203(3): 492-500.

Myotendinous Injury

● Morag Y, Jacobson JA, Miller B, De Maeseneer M, Girish G, Jamadar D. MR imaging of rotator cuff injury: what the clinician needs to know. Radiographics 2006; 26(4): 1045–65.

● Hayter CL, Adler RS. Injuries of the elbow and the current treatment of tendon disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(3): 546–57.

● Demertzis JL, Rubin DA. Upper extremity neuromuscular injuries in athletes. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2012; 16(4): 316-330.

● Rubin DA. Imaging diagnosis and prognostication of hamstring injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012; 199(3): 525-33.

Ligament

● Bateni CP, Bartolotta RJ, Richardson ML, Mulcahy H, Allan CH. Imaging key wrist ligaments: what the surgeon needs the radiologist to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013; 200(5): 1089–95.

● Perrich KD, Goodwin DW, Hecht PJ, Cheung Y. Ankle ligaments on MRI: appearance of normal and injured ligaments. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193(3): 687-695.

Neurovascular

● Kim SJ, Hong SH, Jun WS, et al. MR imaging mapping of skeletal muscle denervation in entrapment and compressive neuropathies. Radiographics 2011; 31(2): 319-332.

● Andreisek G, Crook DW, Burg D, Marincek B, Weishaupt D. Peripheral neuropathies of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves: MR imaging features. Radiographics 2006; 26(5): 1267-1287.

● Petchprapa CN, Rosenberg ZS, Sconfienza LM, Cavalcanti CF, Vieira RL, Zember JS. MR imaging of entrapment neuropathies of the lower extremity. Part 1. The pelvis and hip. Radiographics 2010; 30(4): 983-1000

● Donovan A, Rosenberg ZS, Cavalcanti DF. MR imaging of entrapment neuropathies of the lower extremity. Part 2. The knee, leg, ankle, and foot. Radiographics 2010; 30(4) 1001-1019.

● Yablon CM, Hammer MR, Morag Y, Brandon CJ, Fessell DP, Jacobson JA. US of the Peripheral Nerves of the Lower Extremity: A Landmark Approach. Radiographics. 2016 Mar-Apr;36(2):464-78.

● Brown JM, Yablon CM, Morag Y, Brandon CJ, Jacobson JA. US of the Peripheral Nerves of the Upper Extremity: A Landmark Approach. Radiographics. 2016 Mar-Apr;36(2):452-63

● Nwawka OK, Miller TT. Common US-guided Peripheral Nerve Injections. AJR (in press)

Articular

● Huang M, Schweitzer ME. The role of radiology in the evolution of the understanding of articular disease. Radiology 2014; 273(2 Suppl): S1-22.

● Chundru U, Riley GM, Steinbach LS. Magnetic resonance arthrography. Radiol Clin N Am 2009; 47: 471-494.

● Hodler J. Technical errors in MR arthrography. Skeletal Radiol 2008; 37: 9-18.

● Crema MD, Roemer FW, Marra MD, et al. Articular cartilage in the knee: current MR imaging techniques and applications in clinical practice and research. Radiographics 2011; 31(1): 37-61.

● Kijowski R. Clinical cartilage imaging of the knee and hip joints. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010; 195(3): 618-28.

Stress

● Berger FH, Milko CdJ, Maas M. Stress fractures in the lower extremity: the importance of increasing awareness amongst radiologists. Eur J Radiol 2007; 62(1): 16-26.

● Jaimes C, Mauricio J, Shabshin N, Laor T, Jaramillo D. Taking the stress out of evaluating stress injuries in children. Radiographics 2012; 32: 537-555.

Arthritis

Osteoarthritis

● Jacobson JA, Girish G, Jiang Y, Sabb BJ. Radiographic evaluation of arthritis: degenerative joint disease and variations. Radiology 2008; 248(3): 737–47.

Inflammatory

● Jacobson JA, Girish G, Jiang Y, Resnick D. Radiographic evaluation of arthritis: inflammatory conditions. Radiology 2008; 248(2): 378–89.

● Sommer OJ, Kladosek A, Weiler V, Czembirek H, Boeck M, Stiskal M. Rheumatoid arthritis: a practical guide to state-of-the-art imaging, image interpretation, and clinical implications. Radiographics 2005; 25(2): 381–98.

● Demertzis JL, Rubin DA. MR imaging assessment of inflammatory, crystalline-induced, and infectious arthritides. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2011; 19(2): 339–63.

● Sheybani EF, Khanna G, White AJ, Demertzis JL. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a multimodality approach. Radiographics 2013; 33(5): 1253-1273.

● Taljanovic MS, Melville DM, Gimber LH, Scalcione LR, Miller MD, Kwoh CK, Klauser AS. High-resolution US of rheumatologic diseases. Radiographics 2015; 35(7): 2026-2048.

Crystal

● Roberts CC, Braunstein EM. Chapter 26: crystal diseases. In: Imaging of arthritis and metabolic bone disease. Weissman BN. 1st ed. Elsevier. Pg 506-519.

● Desai MA, Peterson JJ, Garner HW, Kransdorf MJ. Clinical utility of dual-energy CT for evaluation of tophaceous gout. Radiographics 2011; 31(5) 1365-1375.

Neuropathic

● Baker JC, Demertzis JL, Rhodes NG, Wessell DE, Rubin DA. Diabetic musculoskeletal complications and their imaging mimics. Radiographics 2012; 32(7): 1959-1974.

● Schweitzer ME, Birnbaum M. Chapter 10: imaging of diabetes mellitus and neuropathic arthropathy. In: Imaging of arthritis and metabolic bone disease. Weissman, BN. 1st ed. Elsevier. Pg. 146-165.

PVNS

● Garner HW, Ortiguera CJ, Nakhleh RE. Pigmented villonodular synovitis. Radiographics 2008; 28(5): 1519-1523.