Core Curriculum for MOC Exam

MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY CURRICULUM GUIDE

Revised by the Residency and Fellowship Education Committee of the Society of

Skeletal Radiology, 2003-2005

Charles Resnik, M.D. (Chair), Carol Boles, M.D., Kirkland Davis, M.D., Thomas Learch, M.D., Nancy Major, M.D., Douglas Mintz, M.D., Carolyn Sofka, M.D., Michael Tuite, M.D.

Originally Developed by the Education Committee of the American Society of

Musculoskeletal Radiology and the Society of Skeletal Radiology,

1997-1998

Charles Resnik, M.D. (Co-chair), Arthur De Smet, M.D. (Co-chair), Felix Chew, M.D., Mary Kathol, M.D., Mark Kransdorf, M.D., Lynne Steinbach, M.D.

INTRODUCTION

The following curriculum guide is a revision of the original document, published in 19991, comprising a list of subjects that are important to a thorough understanding of disorders that affect the musculoskeletal system. It does not include every musculoskeletal condition, nor is it intended to replace any textbooks, yet it is comprehensive enough to fulfill three basic requirements:

1.) to provide practicing radiologists with a guide to the fundamentals needed to be valuable consultants to orthopedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and other referring physicians,

2.) to provide radiology residency program directors with a guide to subjects that should be covered in a four year teaching curriculum, and

3.) to serve as a “study guide” for diagnostic radiology residents preparing for examination by the American Board of Radiology.

Some sections in this revision have been expanded, and some of the material overlaps with that of other radiology subspecialties, particularly neuroradiology and pediatric radiology. The division into “basic” and “advanced” categories has been maintained, with advanced concepts indicated by an asterisk (*). Basic material includes fundamental information that radiology residents should know, while advanced material includes information that subspecialized musculoskeletal radiologists might expect to master. It is acknowledged again that this division is somewhat arbitrary. It is the authors’ hope that these guidelines will serve as a self-sufficient resource or as a template for a useful curriculum based on local teaching practices.

1 Academic Radiology 1999; 6:360-367

I. Aspects of Basic Science Related to the Musculoskeletal System

A. Histogenesis of developing bone

1. Intramembranous ossification

2. Endochondral ossification

3. Remodeling

B. Bone anatomy

1. Cellular constituents

a. Osteoblasts

b. Osteoclasts

2. Non cellular constituents

a. Organic matrix

b. Inorganic matrix

II. Techniques Relevant to Musculoskeletal Radiology

A. Radiography

1. Routine views

2. Specialized views - Indications for obtaining specialized views

B. Computed tomography

C. Magnetic resonance imaging

D. Fluoroscopy

E. Ultrasonography

F. Densitometry

G. Nuclear scintigraphy

1. Indications

2. Choice of scintigraphic agent

H. Measurement and Evaluation Techniques

1. Scoliosis

2. Leg length

3. Lower extremity mechanical axis determination

4. Anteversion

5. Bone age determination

L. Interventional procedures

1. General considerations

a. Consent

b. Pre-procedure planning

2. Arthrography

a. Shoulder

b. Hip (including prosthesis evaluation)

c. Wrist *

d. Knee

e. Elbow*

f. Ankle*

3. Aspiration and injections

4. Percutaneous biopsy

III. Normal Features and Variants

A. Sequence of ossification

1. Elbow

2. Other*

B. Physiologic radiolucencies

1. Pseudotumor humerus

2. Pseudocyst calcaneus

C. Vascular channels

1. Nutrient canal in phalanx or long bone cortex

2. Vertebral body

3. Scapula

4. Iliac bone

D. Normal sulci

1. Preauricular sulcus (paraglenoid fossa)

2. Rhomboid fossa

E. Supracondylar process

F. Dorsal defect of patella

G. Epiphyseal ossification from multiple centers - Bipartite patella

H. Irregular epiphyseal ossification

1. Femoral condyle

2. Femoral head*

3. Other*

I. Periosteal reaction of infancy

J. Physiologic bowing

K. Transverse (growth) line

L. Vacuum joint

M. Sesamoids and accessory ossicles

N. Accessory muscles*

O. Tug lesions

1. Cortical desmoid

2. Other*

IV. Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Spine

A. Os odontoideum

B. Klippel-Feil

C. VACTERL association

D. Vertebral anomaly

1. Fusion

2. Segmentation

E. Spinal dysraphism

F. Diastematomyelia

G. Caudal regression syndrome

H. Schmorl node

I. Scheuermann disease

J. Limbus vertebra

K. Scoliosis

V. Congenital Anomalies and Dysplasias

A. Lower Extremity:

1. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

2. Blount disease

3. Discoid meniscus

4. Foot deformities

a. Tarsal coalition

b. Talipes equinovarus (clubfoot)

c. Pes planus

d. Pes cavus

e. Metatarsus adductus varus

f. Vertical talus

g. Rocker-bottom foot

5. Syndactyly

6. Polydactyly

7. Congenital pseudoarthrosis*

8. Fibular hemimelia*

9. Proximal femoral focal deficiency*

B. Upper Extremity

1. Madelung deformity

2. Congenital dislocation of the radial head

3. Carpal coalition

4. Syndactyly

5. Polydactyly

6. Sprengel deformity

7. Radial clubhand*

8. Thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome (TAR)*

C. Trunk

1. Pectus excavatum

2. Pectus carinatum

3. Poland syndrome*

D. Diffuse or Multifocal Anomalies and Dysplasias

1. Achondroplasia

2. Osteogenesis imperfecta

3. Sclerosing osseous dysplasias

a. Osteopoikilosis

b. Melorheostosis

c. Osteopathia striata

d. Mixed sclerosing bone dystrophy

4. Osteopetrosis

5. Cleidocranial dysplasia (dysostosis)

6. Amniotic band syndrome

7. Pyknodysostosis

8. Syndromic connective tissue disorders

a. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

b. Marfan syndrome

9. Neurofibromatosis

10. Cerebral palsy

11. Muscular dystrophies

12. Congenital insensitivity to pain

13. Mucopolysaccharidosis (general findings)

14. Tuberous sclerosis

15. Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)

16. Turner syndrome

17. Advanced dysplasias*

a. Chondrodysplasia punctata (stippled epiphyses)

b. Diaphyseal dysplasia

c. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica

d. Metaphyseal dysplasia

e. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

f. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia

18. Advanced diffuse disease, other*

a. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

b. Endosteal hyperostosis

c. Fibrodysplasia (myositis) ossificans progressiva

d. Idiopathic osteolysis

e. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa

f. Pachydermoperiostosis

g. Thanatophoric dwarfism

h. Nail-patella syndrome

i. Chondroectodermal dysplasia

Note: the advanced items in these lists are only a representative sample of the entities one may wish to investigate following the basic list. Decisions to include or exclude specific maladies were made based on the authors’ experience, but the reader may need to be familiar with other disease processes based on one’s patient population and practice.

VI. Infection

A. Basic concepts

1. Routes of spread

a. Hematogenous

b. Spread from a contiguous source

c. Direct implantation

2. Pre-disposing factors

B. Osteomyelitis

1. Sites of localization

a. Infants

b. Children

c. Adults

d. Intravenous drug users

2. Terminology

a. Sequestrum

b. Involucrum

c. Cloaca

d. Brodie abscess

e. Sclerosing osteomyelitis

f. Multifocal

C. Septic arthritis

1. Bacterial

2. Tuberculous

3. Lyme disease

D. Soft Tissue

1. Abscess

2. Cellulitis

3. Myositis

4. Gas gangrene

5. Necrotizing fasciitis

E. Organisms

1. Bacterial

2. Tuberculous

3. Fungal

4. Syphilis

5. Rubella

6. Leprosy

7. Lyme disease

8. Bacillary angiomatosis

9. Parasitic infection

10. Hydatid disease

11. Cysticercosis

VII. Neoplasm/Tumor-like Conditions

A. General principles

1. Patient age

2. Description

a. Size

b. Location

c. Aggressiveness/growth pattern

d. Internal characteristics

e. Involvement of adjacent structures

f. Specific to bone lesions

(i) Margin (zone of transition)

(ii) Pattern of osteolysis

(iii) Periosteal reaction

(iv) Soft tissue mass

(v) Matrix/calcification

3. Biopsy planning/techniques

a. Compartment anatomy

b. Limb salvage approach

c. Specific site to biopsy

B. Osseous lesions (within bone)

1. Benign

a. Cartilaginous

(i) Enchondroma

(a) Multiple (Ollier disease)

(b) Maffucci syndrome

(ii) Osteochondroma - Multiple hereditary exostoses

(iii) Chondromyxoid Fibroma

(iv) Chondroblastoma

(v) Chondroma - Periosteal (surface, juxtacortical)

b. Fibrous

(i) Fibroxanthoma (non-ossifying fibroma)

(a) Fibrous cortical defect

(b) Benign fibrous histiocytoma

(ii) Fibrous dysplasia - McCune-Albright

(iii) Chondromyxoid fibroma

(iv) Desmoplastic fibroma

(v) Osteofibrous dysplasia (ossifying fibroma)*

c. Osteogenic

(i) Enostosis (bone island) - Multiple

(ii) Osteoma - Multiple

(iii) Osteoid osteoma

(iv) Osteoblastoma

d. Lipoid

(i) Lipoma

(ii) Liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor (LSMFT)*

e. Vascular

(i) Hemangioma - Multiple Osler-Weber- Rendu)

(ii) Hemophilic pseudotumor

(iii) Lymphangioma

(iv) Glomus tumor

(v) Hemangiopericytoma*

(vi) Gorham disease*

f. Other

(i) Unicameral bone cyst (simple bone cyst)

(ii) Aneurysmal bone cyst

(a) Primary

(b) Secondary

(ii) Giant cell tumor of bone

(iii) Langerhans cell histiocytosis (eosinophilic granuloma)

(iv) Chordoma

(v) Intraosseous ganglion

(vi) Reactive lesions

(a) Giant cell reparative granuloma

(b) Bizarre parosteal osseous proliferation (BPOP)*

(c) Epidermoid inclusion cyst

2. Malignant

a. Primary

(i) Cartilaginous - Chondrosarcoma

(a) Central

(b) Peripheral

(c) Dedifferentiated

(d) Mesenchymal

(e) Clear cell

(ii) Fibrous

(a) Fibrosarcoma

(b) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

(iii) Osteogenic - Osteosarcoma

(a) Conventional

(b) Surface

- Periosteal

- Parosteal

- High grade surface

(c) Telangiectatic

(d) Low grade central

(iv) Vascular

(a) Angiosarcoma

(b) Hemangioendothelioma

(v) Other

(a) Chordoma

(b) Multiple myeloma (plasmacytoma)

(c) Ewing sarcoma

(d) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)

(e) Adamantinoma

(f) Lymphoma

(g) Leukemia

(1) Chloroma

b. Secondary

(i) Radiation

(ii) Paget disease

(iii) Metastatic

(a) Common primary tumors

(1) Blastic

(2) Lytic

(3) Aneurysmal/expansile

C. Extra-osseous/soft tissue lesions

1. Benign

a. Fibrous

(i) Fibroma

(ii) Fibromatosis

(iii) Desmoid

(iv) Elastofibroma

b. Neural

(i) Neurofibroma

(ii) Schwannoma

(iii) Neurofibromatosis

(iv) Neuroma

(v) Lipomatosis of nerve (fibrolipomatous hamartoma)

(vi) Post-resection neuroma

(vii) Morton neuroma

c. Cartilaginous - soft tissue chondroma

d. Vascular

(i) Hemangioma

(ii) Hemangioendothelioma

(iii) Glomus tumor

(iv) Vascular malformations

(v) Lymphangioma

e. Lipoid

(i) Lipoma

(ii) Angiolipoma

(iii) Hibernoma

(iv) Lipoblastoma

f. Muscle

(i) Rhabdomyoma

(ii) Leiomyoma

g. Dermal/subcutaneous

(i) Sebaceous cyst

(ii) Dermatofibroma

(iii) Granuloma annulare

(iv) Granular cell tumor*

h. Other

(i) Myxoma

(ii) Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath

(iii) Pigmented villonodular synovitis

(iv) Ganglion

2. Malignant

a. Primary

(i) Fibrosarcoma

(ii) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma)

(iii) Synovial sarcoma

(iv) Rhabdomyosarcoma

(v) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

(vi) Epithelioid sarcoma*

(vii) Liposarcoma

(a) Myxoid

(b) Well-differentiated

(c) Dedifferentiated

(viii) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans*

(ix) Alveolar soft part sarcoma*

(x) Myxofibrosarcoma*

(xi) Soft tissue osteosarcoma*

(xii) Kaposi sarcoma*

(xiii) Melanoma

b. Secondary

(i) Metastasis

(ii) Leukemia

(iii) Lymphoma

(iv) Soft tissue extension of bone lesions

VIII. Trauma (Including Sports Injuries)

A. General principles

1. Biomechanics of fractures

a. Relationship of force and deformation

b. Mechanisms of direct and indirect loading

c. Relevant anatomy and terminology

d. Fracture / injury patterns and associated injuries

e. Avulsion fracture locations

2. Fracture description

3. Stress injuries (bone and soft tissue)

a. Mechanisms

b. Pathophysiology

c. Epidemiology

d. Imaging diagnosis

e. Implications for treatment

4. Repetitive trauma

a. Tendinosis

b. Enthesophytes

c. Other

5. Soft tissue injuries

a. Grades of muscle tear

b. Grades of ligament tear

c. Myositis ossificans

6. Thermal trauma

a. Burns

b. Cold injury

7. Open fractures

8. Treatment

a. Indications

b. Principles of treatment

c. Casting

d. Hardware - General types and uses

e. Complications- - Hardware failure

f. Bone grafting

9. Fracture healing

a. Pathophysiology

b. Biomechanics

c. Time course

10. Complications

a. Malunion

b. Nonunion

c. Premature physeal closure

d. Osteonecrosis

(i) Femoral head

(ii) Scaphoid proximal pole

(iii) Talar dome

e. Infection

f. Compartment syndrome

g. Arthritis

11. Foreign bodies

12. Gunshot wounds

13. Traumatic myonecrosis

B. Trauma in adults

1. Hand

a. Phalanx fracture / dislocation

(i) Intra vs. extra articular

(ii) Volar plate fracture

(iii) Tuft fracture

b. Metacarpal fracture

(i) Boxer fracture

(ii) Scaphoid fracture

(a) Significance of blood supply

(b) Osteonecrosis

(c) Non-union

(ii) Triquetral fracture

(iii) Hamate fracture

(iv) Other

e. Complex carpal bone injuries

(i) Perilunate dislocation

(ii) Lunate dislocation

f. Ligament tears

(i) Interosseous ligaments

(ii) Triangular fibrocartilage complex

(iii) Extrinsic ligaments

g. Chronic carpal instability

(i) Dorsal intercalated segment instability

(ii) Volar intercalated segment instability

(iii) Scapholunate advanced collapse

h. Distal radioulnar joint injury

i. Carpal tunnel syndrome

j. Ulnar impaction syndrome

3. Forearm

a. Galeazzi fracture/dislocation

b. Monteggia fracture/dislocation

c. Isolated ulna (nightstick) fracture

4. Elbow

a. Radial head fracture

b. Fracture/dislocation

c. Humeral condyle fractures

d. Extensor tendinosis (tennis elbow/lateral epicondylitis)

e. Flexor tendinosis (pitcher’s elbow/medial epicondylitis)

f. Ulnar collateral ligament tear

g. Radial collateral ligament tear

h. Biceps avulsion

i. Triceps avulsion

5. Shoulder and scapula

a. Anatomic vs. surgical neck humerus fracture

b. Greater tuberosity humerus fracture

c. Scapular fracture

(i) Body

(ii) Glenoid

d. Dislocation

(i) Anterior

(a) Hill Sachs fracture

(b) Bankart fracture

(c) Recurrence

(ii) Posterior

(a) Reverse Bankart

(b) Neurovascular injuries

(iii) Other - scapulothoracic dissociation*

e. Rotator cuff tear

f. Labral injury

(i) Patterns of instability

(ii) SLAP tear

g. Proximal biceps tear or dislocation

h. Impingement syndrome

(i) Anterior

(ii) Posterior

(iii) Coracoid

i. Adhesive capsulitis

6. Clavicle and acromioclavicular joint

a. Grades of acromioclavicular joint separation

b. Clavicle fracture

c. Sternoclavicular fracture / dislocation

d. Post-traumatic osteolysis

7. Skull/face

a. Skull fracture

(i) Base of skull

(ii) Temporal bone

(iii) Sinus fracture

b. Facial bone fracture

(i) Orbit fracture

(a) Blow-out fracture

(b) Blow-in fracture

(c) Rim fracture

(d) Floor fracture

(e) Medial wall fracture

(ii) Zygomaticomaxillary fracture

(iii) Complex (LeFort classification)

(iiv) Mandible fracture

(v) Nasal bone fracture

8. Thoracic cage

9. Spine

a. Mechanism of injury

(i) Flexion

(ii) Extension

(iii) Axial load/burst

(iv) Distraction

(v) Translation

b. Fracture/ligament injury patterns

c. Column concept/stability

(i) Cervical

(ii) Thoracic

(iii) Lumbar

(iv) Sacrum/coccyx

d. Associated neurologic injury

e. Acute disc herniation

10. Pelvis and hip

a. Pelvic fracture patterns

(i) Lateral compression

(ii) Anterior-posterior compression

(iii) Vertical shear

(iv) Complex

b. Acetabular fracture - fracture patterns

c. Hip dislocation - risk of osteonecrosis

d. Femoral neck fracture

e. Intertrochanteric fracture

f. Femoral head fracture

g. Labral injury

11. Femur fracture

12. Knee

a. Femoral condyle fracture

b. Tibial plateau fracture

c. Patella fracture

d. Knee dislocation

e. Patella dislocation

f. Meniscal injury

(i) Bucket handle tear

(ii) Parrot-beak tear

(iii) Horizontal oblique tear

(iv) Horizontal cleavage tear

(v) Vertical longitudinal tear

(vi) Radial tear

(vii) Complex tear

(viii) Root tear

(ix) Meniscocapsular separation

(x) Fraying and degeneration

(xi) Displaced fragments

(xii) Meniscal cyst

g. Ligament injury

(i) Anterior cruciate

(ii) Posterior cruciate

(iii) Medial collateral

(iv) Lateral collateral

h. Extensor mechanism injury

(i) Quadriceps tear

(ii) Patellar tendon (ligament) tear

(iii) Retinaculum injury

i. Posterolateral corner injury

(i) Popliteus muscle/tendon

(ii) Arcuate ligament*

(iii) Popliteofibular ligament*

(iv) Fabellofibular ligament*

j. Articular cartilage injury

k. Overuse injuries

(i) Plica syndrome

(ii) Iliotibial band friction syndrome

(iii) Pes anserine bursitis

13. Ankle

a. Mechanisms of injury

b. Pilon fracture

c. Tilleaux fracture

d. Maisonneuve fracture

e. Ligament injury

(i) Anterior talofibular ligament

(ii) Deltoid ligament

(iii) Syndesmotic/anterior tibiofibular ligament

f. Talar fracture

(i) Dome fracture

(ii) Neck fracture

(iii) Lateral process fracture

14. Foot

a. Calcaneal fracture - anterior process fracture

b. Fifth metatarsal base fracture

c. Metatarsal fracture

d. Lisfranc fracture/dislocation

e. Phalanx fracture

f. Cuboid fracture

g. Navicular fracture

C. Trauma in children (unique features)

1. Biomechanics of the immature skeleton

2. Growth plate injuries

3. Hand, wrist, and forearm

a. Torus fracture

b. Greenstick fracture

c. Plastic bowing

4. Elbow

a. Radial head subluxation/dislocation

b. Supracondylar fracture

c. Entrapped epicondyle

d. Little leaguer elbow

5. Shoulder - little leaguer shoulder

6. Spine - spondylolysis

7. Hip - slipped capital femoral epiphysis

8. Knee - osteochondritis dissecans

9. Tibia, ankle, and foot

a. Toddler fracture

b. Triplane fracture

c. Juvenile Tilleaux fracture

l0. Battered child

a. Reporting statutes

b. Metaphyseal corner fracture

c. Fracture location and patterns

IX. Metabolic, Systemic, and Hematologic Disorders

A. Bone physiology

1. Mineralization of bone

2. Calcium homeostasis

3. Bone resorption

4. Bone formation

5. Humoral regulation

a. Parathyroid hormone

b. Calcitonin

c. Vitamin D

B. Osteoporosis

1. Disuse

2. Related to aging (postmenopausal, senile)

3. Bone marrow edema (transient, migratory)

4. Complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy

5. Drug induced

a. Steroid

b. Other

6. Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis *

C. Hyperparathyroidism

1. Subperiosteal resorption, acroosteolysis

2. Brown tumor (primary)

D. Rickets and osteomalacia

1. Vitamin D dependent

2. Vitamin D resistant

3. Dietary

4. Gastrointestinal malabsorption

a. Liver disease

b. Anticonvulsant therapy

5. Tumor induced

E. Renal osteodystrophy

1. Secondary hyperparathyroidism

2. Osteomalacia

3. Osteosclerosis

4. Tumoral calcinosis

F. Systemic and congenital muscular disorders

1. Muscular dystrophy

2. Cerebral palsy

3. Other*

G. Pituitary disorder

1. Gigantism

2. Acromegaly

H. Thyroid disorder

1. Hypothyroidism (cretinism) *

2. Hyperthyroidism *

3. Thyroid acropachy *

I. Intoxication, poisoning

1. Heavy metal (lead)

2. Fluorine

3. Hypervitaminosis A

4. Hypervitaminosis D

J. Bone infarction

1. Causes

2. Osteonecrosis (AVN: end of bones) vs. medullary infarction (shaft)

3. Spontaneous at specific sites:

a. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

b. Other *

K. Hematologic disorders

1. Anemia

a. Sickle cell

b. Thalassemia

c. Other *

2. Hemophilia

3. Idiopathic myelofibrosis

4. Marrow reconversion

5. Extramedullary hematopoiesis *

L. Multifocal soft tissue calcification

1. Calcification/ossification/periosteal reaction secondary to venous stasis

2. Calcification/ossification secondary to paraplegia

3. Milk-alkali syndrome

M. Multifocal periosteal reaction

1. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

a. Primary (pachydermoperiostosis)

b. Secondary (pulmonary, non-pulmonary)

2. Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease)

3. Prostaglandin

N. Miscellaneous

1. Paget disease

2. Amyloidosis

3. Effect of pregnancy

4. Sarcoidosis

5. Radiation induced marrow changes

6. Scurvy *

7. Hypophosphatasia *

8. Mastocytosis *

9. Lipid storage diseases

a. Gaucher

b. Xanthoma

X. Joint Disorders

A. Normal anatomy

l. Types of joints

a. Fibrous

b. Cartilaginous

c. Synovial

2. Intervertebral discs

3. Entheses

B. General features

1. Distribution of involvement

2. Soft tissue changes

3. Joint space width

4. Bone density

5. Osteophytes

6. Subchondral cysts

7. Osseous erosions

8. Proliferative new bone

9. Joint deformity

10. Calcification

C. Specific diseases

1. Osteoarthritis

a. Primary

b. Secondary

c. Erosive (inflammatory)

2. Inflammatory joint diseases

a. Rheumatoid arthritis

b. Psoriatic arthritis

c. Reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome)

d. Ankylosing spondylitis

e. Enteropathic spondyloarthropathy

f. Juvenile chronic arthritis

g. SAPHO*

3. Connective tissue diseases

a. Systemic lupus erythematosus

b. Scleroderma

c. Dermatomyositis and polymyositis

4. Crystal-associated arthropathies

a. Gout

b. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease

c. Calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease

5. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy

a. Diabetes mellitus

b. Syringomyelia

c. Other*

6. Miscellaneous

a. Hemochromatosis

b. Alkaptonuria (ochronosis)

c. Hemophilic arthropathy

d. Pigmented villonodular synovitis

e. Synovial chondromatosis

f. Osteitis condensans ilii

g. Degenerative disc disease

h. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

i. Jaccoud arthropathy*

j. Arthropathy associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome*

k. Lipoma arborescens

l. Tumoral calcinosis