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Classifying Konyak and other Naga languages

Andrew Hsiu
June 2018

Northern Naga (Konyakian)
  1. Makyam
    1. Kuku Nokkone
    2. Makyam, Khale, Santung
  2. Nuclear Northern Naga
    1. Khiamniungic group
      1. Lainong
        1. Anbaw, Hwi Thaik
        2. Wan Ton Tha Mai
        3. Nok Nyo Kha Shang
        4. Lahe cluster (Lahe, Khamti, Long Kyan Nok Kone)
      2. Ponyo-Gongwan
        1. Ponyo: Ponyo Nok Inn, Lang Kheng
        2. Gongwan
      3. Khiamniungan
    2. Konyak-Wancho-Tangsa
      1. Konyak-Wancho
        1. Lao
        2. Konyak
        3. Kyan
        4. Wancho
          1. Wancho (Lower Wancho Hill)
          2. Wancho (Upper Wancho Hill), Karyaw
          3. Chuyo, Gaqkat
        5. Phom
        6. Chang (?)
      2. Tangsa
        1. Tikhak cluster: Tikhak, Longchang, Yongkuk, Muklom
        2. Jugli
        3. Shangvan cluster: Shangvan, Meitei, Haqcyeng, Ngaimong
        4. Pangwa cluster: Kyahi, Mungre, Shanke, Chamchang, Lochang, Dunghi, Moshang, Rera, Lungri, Cholim
        5. Halang cluster: Lama, Halang, Haqkhi, Bote
        6. Ringkhu cluster: Gaqyi, Shokrang, Henching, Rasa, Lakki, Ringkhu, Khalak, Shangti, Lungkhi, Kochung
        7. Gaqha
        8. Kotlum cluster: Kotlum, Raqnu, Aasen, Drancyi, Gaqlun
        9. Kon-Pingku cluster: Kon, Pingku, Nyinshao
        10. Sansik
        11. Champhang cluster: Nahen, Thamkok, Lumnu, Champhang
        12. Nocte-Tutsa cluster: Haqkhun, Tutsa, Ponthai, Hawi, Nocte, Haqsik, Haqchum, Yangno, Haqman
Note: Phom has not been included in the computational phylogenetic analysis, but my analysis of the Phom word list in Burling & Phom (1998) indicates that it belongs to the Konyak-Wancho branch. Chang is difficult to classify, but my guess is that is was originally a Konyak-Wancho language that has been heavily influenced by Ponyo-Khiamniungan-Lainong.

OTHERS
  1. "Greater Tangkhulic"
    1. Koki (?)
    2. Tangkhulic
      1. Akyaung Ari
      2. Tangkhul
        1. Phaphok
        2. Konkailon, Somra
  2. "Greater Central Naga"
    1. Para
    2. Makury, Long Phuri
    3. Central Naga?

Homelands
Northern Naga: Lahe Township
Central Naga: Northern Leshi Township
Greater Tangkhulic: Southern Leshi Township

Phylogram

54 words; 96 taxa; Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm; based on phonological and lexical isoglosses








NeighborNet figures










Maps
The following maps have been adapted from Lann (2018:7) and Saul (2005:25).




References
Burling, Robbins and Amon Phom, L. 1998. Phom Phonology and Word List. LTBA 21.2:13-42.

Lann, Khan. 2018. A Phonological Comparison of Shecyü and Mungre and its Contribution to a Common Tangshang Naga Orthography. Master’s thesis. Chiang Mai: Payap University.

Language and Social Development Organization (LSDO). 2006. A sociolinguistic survey of Makuri, Para, and Long Phuri Naga in Layshi Township, Myanmar. Unpublished manuscript.

LSDO. n.d. Northern Naga survey. m.s.

Saul, Jamie D. 2005. The Naga of Burma: Their festivals, customs and way of life. Bangkok, Thailand: Orchid Press.

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