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Language Arts Content Standards

Grade Six

Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.

Word Recognition
1.1          Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing,                                           intonation, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2          Identify and interpret figurative language and words with multiple meanings.
1.3          Recognize the origins and meanings of frequently used foreign words in English and use these   words accurately in speaking and writing.
1.4          Monitor expository text for unknown words or words with novel meanings by using word, sentence,               and paragraph clues to determine meaning.
1.5          Understand and explain "shades of meaning" in related words (e.g., softly and quietly).

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade six, students continue to make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1          Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, online information) and use the features to obtain information.
2.2          Analyze text that uses the compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.3          Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics.
2.4          Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports.
2.5          Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications (e.g., for a public library card, bank savings account, sports club, league membership).

Expository Critique
2.6          Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence for an author's conclusions.
2.7          Make reasonable assertions about a text through accurate, supporting citations.
2.8          Note instances of unsupported inferences, fallacious reasoning, persuasion, and propaganda in                text.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature
3.1          Identify the forms of fiction and describe the major characteristics of each form.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2          Analyze the effect of the qualities of the character (e.g., courage or cowardice, ambition or               laziness) on the plot and the resolution of the conflict.
3.3          Analyze the influence of setting on the problem and its resolution.
3.4          Define how tone or meaning is conveyed in poetry through word choice, figurative language,          sentence structure, line length, punctuation, rhythm, repetition, and rhyme.
3.5          Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first-and third-person narration (e.g.,     autobiography compared with biography).
3.6          Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images.
3.7          Explain the effects of common literary devices (e.g., symbolism, imagery, metaphor) in a variety of                fictional and nonfictional texts.

Literary Criticism
3.8          Critique the credibility of characterization and the degree to which a plot is contrived or realistic      (e.g., compare use of fact and fantasy in historical fiction).

Writing

1.0 Writing Strategies

Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

Organization and Focus
1.1          Choose the form of writing (e.g., personal letter, letter to the editor, review, poem, report, narrative)               that best suits the intended purpose.
1.2          Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions:

a.                   Engage the interest of the reader and state a clear purpose.

b.                   Develop the topic with supporting details and precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives to paint a visual image in the mind of the reader.

c.                    Conclude with a detailed summary linked to the purpose of the composition.

1.3          Use a variety of effective and coherent organizational patterns, including comparison and contrast;               organization by categories; and arrangement by spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order.

Research and Technology
1.4          Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches,               e-mail addresses) to locate information.
1.5          Compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of            design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).

Evaluation and Revision
1.6          Revise writing to improve the organization and consistency of ideas within and between paragraphs.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grade six outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1          Write narratives:

a.                   Establish and develop a plot and setting and present a point of view that is appropriate to the stories.

b.                   Include sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character.

c.                    Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense).

2.2          Write expository compositions (e.g., description, explanation, comparison and contrast, problem and solution):

a.                   State the thesis or purpose.

b.                   Explain the situation.

c.                    Follow an organizational pattern appropriate to the type of composition.

d.                   Offer persuasive evidence to validate arguments and conclusions as needed.

2.3          Write research reports:

a.                   Pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered.

b.                   Support the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches).

c.                    Include a bibliography.

2.4          Write responses to literature:

a.                   Develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.

b.                   Organize the interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.

c.                    Develop and justify the interpretation through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.

2.5          Write persuasive compositions:

a.                   State a clear position on a proposition or proposal.

b.                   Support the position with organized and relevant evidence.

c.                    Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments.

Written and Oral English Language Conventions

The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

Sentence Structure
1.1          Use simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences; use effective coordination and          subordination of ideas to express complete thoughts.

Grammar
1.2          Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns and present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect verb tenses; ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects.

Punctuation
1.3          Use colons after the salutation in business letters, semicolons to connect independent clauses, and         commas when linking two clauses with a conjunction in compound sentences.

Capitalization
1.4          Use correct capitalization.

Spelling
1.5          Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they're, there).

Listening and Speaking

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies

Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. They evaluate the content of oral communication.

Comprehension
1.1          Relate the speaker's verbal communication (e.g., word choice, pitch, feeling, tone) to the nonverbal              message (e.g., posture, gesture).
1.2          Identify the tone, mood, and emotion conveyed in the oral communication.
1.3          Restate and execute multiple-step oral instructions and directions.


Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.4          Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view, matching the purpose, message, occasion, and vocal modulation to the audience.
1.5          Emphasize salient points to assist the listener in following the main ideas and concepts.
1.6          Support opinions with detailed evidence and with visual or media displays that use appropriate    technology.
1.7          Use effective rate, volume, pitch, and tone and align nonverbal elements to sustain audience        interest and attention.

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications
1.8          Analyze the use of rhetorical devices (e.g., cadence, repetitive patterns, use of onomatopoeia) for                 intent and effect.
1.9          Identify persuasive and propaganda techniques used in television and identify false and misleading           information.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grade six outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1          Deliver narrative presentations:

a.                   Establish a context, plot, and point of view.

b.                   Include sensory details and concrete language to develop the plot and character.

c.                    Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, tension, or suspense).

2.2          Deliver informative presentations:

a.                   Pose relevant questions sufficiently limited in scope to be completely and thoroughly answered.

b.                   Develop the topic with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information).

2.3          Deliver oral responses to literature:

a.                   Develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.

b.                   Organize the selected interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.

c.                    Develop and justify the selected interpretation through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.

2.4          Deliver persuasive presentations:

a.                   Provide a clear statement of the position.

b.                   Include relevant evidence.

c.                    Offer a logical sequence of information.

d.                   Engage the listener and foster acceptance of the proposition or proposal.

2.5          Deliver presentations on problems and solutions:

a.                   Theorize on the causes and effects of each problem and establish connections between the defined problem and at least one solution.

b.                   Offer persuasive evidence to validate the definition of the problem and the proposed solutions.


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