PHONEMIC AWARENESS
ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sound (phonemes) in spoken words.

What can you do to help with Phonemic Awareness:
a) Help your child think of a number of words that start with the /m/ or /ch/ sound, or other beginning sounds.
b) Make up silly sentences with word that begin with the same sound, such as "Nobody was nice to Nancy's neighbor".
c) Play simple rhyming or blending games with your child, such as taking turns coming up with words that rhyme (go-no) or blending simple words (/d/, /o/, /g/ =
dog).
d) Read books with rhymes. Teach your child rhymes, short poems, and songs.
e) Practice the alphabet by pointing out letters wherever you see them and by reading alphabet books.

PHONICS
relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language.

What you can do to help with Phonics:
a) Make letter-sounds and have your children write the letter or letters that match the sound.
b) Play word games that connect sounds with syllables and words (for example, if the letters "p-e-n" spell pen, how do you spell hen?)
c) Write letters on cards. Hold up the cards one at a time and have your children say the sounds (for example, the /d/ sound for the letter d).
d) Use alphabet books and guessing games to give your children practice in matching letters and sounds. A good example is the game "I am thinking of something that starts with /t/."
e) Write letters on pieces of paper and put them in a paper bag.  Let your children reach into the bag an take out letters.  Have them say the sounds that match the letters.
f) Take a letter and hide it in your hand.  Let your children guess in which hand is the letter.  Then show the letter name and make the sound (for example, the letter M matches the /m/ sound as in man0.
g) Make letter-sounds and ask your children to draw the matching letters in cornmeal or sand.
h) Take egg cartons and put a paper letter in each slot until you have all the letters of the alphabet in order.  Say letter-sounds and ask your children to pick out the letters that match those sounds.






Source:
http://www.readingrockets.org/

FLUENCY
ability to read a text accurately, effortlessly, automatically with expression.  Fluency is important to provide a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.

What you can do to help with fluency:
Partner Read
    a) You read a word then they read a word.
    b) You read a sentence and then they read a 
         sentence.
    c) They read along with you.
    d) You start a sentence and then they finish the
         sentence. 
    e) You read a sentence and let them echo the
         sentence.
    f) Have students read a story/section three times.
Have your child create an audio book.

VOCABULARY
plays an important part in learning to read.  Beginning readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they see in print.  Kids who hear more words spoken at home learn more words and enter school with better vocabularies. 

What you can do to help with Vocabulary:
a) Talk about the things you see in your neighborhood, on trips around town, or on television. These conversations help build a child's understanding of her world.
b) When reading, pause to ask questions or comment on the story. Ask, "Why do you think he did that?" or "What do you think is going to happen next?"
c) Use interesting and new words with your child. For example, "This cookie is scrumptious! It is really good! or "I can see you're reluctant to leave, but we can come back tomorrow."

COMPREHENSION
is the reason for reading.  If readers can read the words but do not understand or connect to what they are reading, they ware not really reading.  Good readers are both purposeful and active, and have the skills to absorb what they read, analyze it, make sense of it, and make it their own.

What you can do to help with Comprehension:
Talk and discuss what they have read or what you have read to them.
    a) Talk about the story elements. Characters
         Setting, Events, Problem, Solution, etc.
    b) Retell the story.
    c) Discuss VOCABULARY words they may not
        know.
    d) Recall facts in a nonfiction book.