Ancient Rome

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Social Studies Internet Links Supporting

The World In Ancient Times: The Ancient Roman World

Published by the Oxford University Press
Websites Selected by George F. Sabato

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Gateways    Maps of China    Chapter Support    Activities
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Oxford University Press invites you to further your study of Ancient Rome beyond your studies in The World In Ancient Times:  The Ancient Roman World textbook.   You will be able to utilize the power of the Internet to conduct in-depth study  of the key topics presented in each chapter.The links below will get you started. You are also encouraged to do your own investigations using your favorite search engines.

In the back of your textbook you will find.  “Gateways” connects you to websites which provide numerous links to websites about the Roman Empire.  “Websites” offers sites with in-depth information about Rome.


GATEWAYS: Links suggested by the authors of The Ancient Roman World, listed on page 182.

About's Ancient History - Provides extensive links to websites and materials on ancient Rome; includes reviews of television programs on Rome and access to on-line discussions.

Audio-Visual Resources for Classes - This secton of Dr. Janice Siegel's Illustrated Guide to the Classical World points users to videos, CD-Roms, and video games.

Bill Thayer's Roman Sites - Links to more than 2,300 websites dealing with various aspects of ancient Rome.

The Perseus Digital Library - Works of classical literature and images of classical art; more is available on CD-ROM.

The British Museum - Images of hundreds of British Museum objects with detailed description--particularly good for coinage, Roman Britain, and sculpture. Daily Life in Ancient Rome - Material about topics such as Roman weddings, school, and clothing.

Feminae Romanae: The Women of Ancient Rome - Detailed explanations and images of the experiences of Roman Women.

Illustrated History of the Roman Empire - Historical and visual material, including interactive maps, timelines, and links.

The Internet Classics Archive - Provides access to more than 400 works of classical literaure by 59 authors.

The Roman Empire - Based on the public television series, The Roman Empire, the site includes and extensive timeline, games and a family tree.

The Romans - This exciting site includes weblinks, interactive sites, games, and material from many BBC series. It is primarily concerned with the Romans in Britain.

Smith's Smaller Classical Dictionary - An easy equals to-use, 460-page on-line dictionary of people and places.


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The Seven Hills of Rome – Map of the Seven Hills of Rome.

Basic Rome City Topography – Topographic map of Rome.

Maps of the Roman Empire -  Interactive map of the Roman Empire.  See Provinces and towns close-up, maps of invasions, modern countries borders within the old empire, or compare the Roman Empire to other ancient civilizations.

Map of the Roman Empire At Its Greatest Extent – A large file map of the Roman Empire in the third century.

Maps of Roman Battles and Invasions – Find detailed maps of battles ranging from the campaign against Hannibal to the conquests of Caesar, and the barbarian invasions as well.

Maps for Students--Ancient Rome – An extensive collection of maps associated with the study of Rome.

Rome: Map of the Empire- Clickable Map of the Roman Empire, 120 A.D.

118 Orbis Terrarum (20 A.D.) – Roman map of the world.

Rome: Map Resources – Extensive collection of maps of Rome.

Rome: Map of Trade Routes – Map of trade routes during the Roman Empire.


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Chapter 1      WIVES, WOLVES, AND WILD BOYS:  The Founding of Rome

Romulus and Remus - Legend of Romulus and Remus

The Founding of Rome – The Founding of Rome

The Legend -  The Legend is told from its beginning in Greek mythology.

 Our Young Folks' Plutarch by Rosalie Kaufman – The Baldwin Project brings the classic story of Romulus to children.

Romulus and Remus - WikiPedia Encyclopedia – Interactive text describes the founding of Rome.  Click on the highlighted words to find out more details.

The History of Rome, Vol. I -  The legend as reported by the Roman historian, Livy (Titus Livius, 59 BC-17 CE).


Chapter 2      MIGRATIONS, MYSTERY, AND MASTERY:     Who Were the Etruscans?

The Kings of Rome – The First Etruscan Kings

Rome: The Etruscans – A brief history of the Etruscans with a map of the Etruscan League, 530 B.C.

The Mysterious Etruscans - Pre-Roman Civilisation in Italy – The history of the Etruscans is accompanied with extensive information about their religion, art, lifestyles, engineering, agriculture, language and relationship to the sea. 

Etruscans - History for Kids! – The basics about the Etruscans written for kids.  Text is interactive.

Etruscan Art – Maps, pottery, urns, stone sculptures, bronze, architectural, tombs and language from the University of Oklahoma collection.

Style Etruscan Art – Etruscan art presented in an Italian stamp collection.

 Culinary History - Etruscan Origins Of Tuscan Cuisine -  Find out how the Etruscans made the first pasta and how modern Tuscan (Italian) food originated with the Etruscans.

Etruscan civilization – The basic facts of early Etruscan civilization are clearly presented.


Chapter 3      MORALITY, TYRANNY, HEROES, AND KINGS:  The Beginning of the Roman Republic

Articles - Roman Republic -  Interactive text describe the period of the Early Roman Republic.

Roman Republic Coinage Index – Coinage from the Roman Republic.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus - GrokPedia Encyclopedia -  Interactive text tells of Tarquin the Great (Proud) and the Early Republic.

Ancient Rome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – This is a complete history of the Early Roman Republic with interactive text.  Click on the key words to find our more details on the topic.

The Roman Republic – Timeline and the history of the Early Republic.


Chapter 4      THE REBELLION OF THE POOR:  Class Conflict and the Twelve Tables

Coriolanus by William Shakespeare– Shakespeare’s play  which pivots on the notion of the state (here the city-state) being an organic body in which different classes or vocations of citizens are parts or members, the aristocrats being the "belly" and the lower-class plebians being the "toe."

The Avalon Project : The Twelve Tables – The text of the Twelve Tablets presented by the Yale Law School.

Twelve Tables, Tabularium – This site presents the connection the Twelve Tablet to the U.S. Bill of Rights and provides links to analysis of the tablets.

The XII Tables – A look at the Twelve Tablets in brief.  A nice table outlining the laws is presented along with excerpts from each table.


Chapter 5      FATHERS, GODS, AND GODDESSES:  Religion in Ancient Rome

Roman Gods – The pantheon of Roman gods is presented with descriptions and images.

Romans - Religion – The basics of the Roman religion is explained in simple terms.

Women in Roman Religion – Learn about the Vestil Virgins and other roles played by women in the Roman religion.

Ancient Roman Gods & Goddesses – The gods and goddesses of ancient Rome are presented with an interactive chart.

Religion of Rome – At this comprehensive site find out about the origins of the religion, prayer and sacrifice, omens and superstitions, religion at home, countryside festivals, the religion of the state and more.



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Chapter 6      HANNIBAL, ROME’S WORST ENEMY:  Battle for the Mediterranean

Hannibal's route across the Alps – A map of Hannibal’s route and a day-by-day account of the voyage is presented.  Text has interactive links.

Hannibal Table of Contents Page – Photos from the Hannibal Challenge presents modern day photos of the route likely traveled by Hannibal.

Hannibal - Wikipedia – Text interactive report on Hannibal from Wikipedia. 

Hannibal - a biography – This is a complete biography of Hannibal accompanied with maps and pictures.  It has interactive text.

Mr. Dowling's Punic Wars Page – This is a brief summary of the Punic Wars.

Punic Wars Chart -  Important dates in the Punic Wars are presented in a chart.

Primary Sources:  The War with Carthage -  Accounts of the war with Carthage presented by Herodotus, Cornelius Nepos and Polybius.


Chapter 7      A ROMAN THROUGH AND THROUGH:  Cato and Greek Culture

Our Young Folks' Plutarch by Rosalie Kaufman – The Baldwin Project presents the story of Cato in a format friendly to “young folk”.

Greek Culture and its Influence on Rome -  Find out why Cato wanted to rid Rome of the influence of the Greek philosophers.

Marcus Cato by Plutarch – This is a translation of Plutarch’s biography of Marcus Cato from the MIT Media Lab.

History of Horticulture - Cato, Marcus Porcius 234-149 B.C. – Find out why the great military leader was important in the history of agriculture.


Chapter 8      SPARTACUS THE REBEL:  Slavery in Ancient Rome

Spartacus – This is an history of Spartacus with interactive text and pictures.

Movie Notes: "Spartacus" – Notes on the movie, “Spartacus”, accompanied with photos of major scenes.

Mr. Dowling's Spartacus Page – This is a brief history of Spartacus.

Spartacus - Wikipedia -  An article about Spartacus from the on line encyclopedia, Wikipedia.  It has interactive text.

 Slavery in the Roman Republic – Primary source reports are provided on the treatment of slaves in the Roman Empire.

Historical Background for Spartacus -  The historical background for the movie, “Spartacus” is presented.

Roman Gladiatorial Games -  Learn all about gladiators and the gladiatorial games.

Possible Female Gladiator Unearthed – Find out about how there were female gladiators and how archaeologists may have made a dramatic discovery.

The Gladiators – Learn about the lives and deaths of gladiators.


Chapter 9      TWO REVOLUTIONARY BROTHERS:  The Gracchi and the Decline of the Roman Republic

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus – The role played by each of the Gracchi brothers are presented.

The Late Roman Republic -  The rise and demise of the Gracchi brothers is presented.

Make an Educated Decision – This is a campaign poster for Tiberius Gracchus designed by a student.


Chapter 10   WORDS VERSUS SWORDS:  Cicero and the Crisis of the Republic

Cicero [Internet Encyclopedia of PhilosophyCicero’s life and philosophy are presented in detail.

Cicero: On the Republic, Book 1 – Excerpts from Cicero’s book, On the Republic.

Cicero: The Online Library of Liberty - The complete writings of Cicero’s writings.


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Chapter 11   “I CAME, I SAW, I CONQURED”:  Julius Caesar and the Roman Triumph

Julius Caesar: The Last Dictator – This is a comprehensive site on the history of Julius Caesar.

Shakespeare's Julius Caesar – This text is accompanied with primary sources of the plot, historical text criticism, and time index.

Success and Murder – Learn about Caesar’s successes and why he was murdered.

Julius Caesar: Historical Background – This is a time referenced background of Julius Caesar.

All Julius Caesar: Map of conquest of Julius Caesar. – See the conquests of Caesar on this map.

Roman women--and Cleopatra -  Meet the key women in Caesar’s life.

I came, I saw, I conquered – Vidi, Veni, Vinci.

Mr. Dowling's Julius Caesar Page -  A brief history of Caesar.



Chapter 12   POWER-MAD OR MADLY IN LOVE?  Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt

Mr. Dowling's Cleopatra Page – A brief history of Cleopatra.

Cleopatra--World History/Ancient History lesson plan – A lesson which focuses on Cleopatra and women.

WIC - History of Women through Art – Learn about Cleopatra from studying a painting.

Cleopatra - What Did Cleopatra Look Like? -  Was Cleopatra as beautiful as claimed?

Ebony: Was Cleopatra Black? – Read the article from Ebony.

 Pictures (Cleopatra on the Web) – Hundreds of pictures of Cleopatra are found at this site.

History of Alexandria: Cleopatra – This is the story of the reign of this queen of Egypt.



Mr. Dowling's Caesar Augustus Page – This is a brief, student friendly biography of Augustus.

The Early Emperors – This is the history of the early emperors, starting with Augustus.

Augustus and Tiberius – This gives the historical background of Augustus and Tiberius.  The text is time referenced, with interactive links.

 The Deeds of the Divine Augustus by Augustus – The deeds of Augustus collected from his journal.

Augustus' achievements – Here are the achievements of Augustus told in his own words, and in summary form. 


Chapter 14  MISERY, MISTRUST, MADNESS, AND MURDER:  The successors of Augustus

Years of Trial – With Augustus’s death the empire was tested under the succeeding emperors.

Augustus and Tiberius – This gives the historical background of Augustus and Tiberius.  The text is time referenced, with interactive links.

Secrets of the Dead . The Great Fire of Rome | PBS – This is a summary of the television show, “The Great Fire of Rome” on PBS’s Secrets of the Dead.  Examine the evidence and clues.

Nero -  See Nero’s image on a coin and read how he murdered his mother.

Caligula – This gives the historical background of Caligula.  The text is time referenced, with interactive links.



Feminae Romanae: Women of Ancient Rome – This is a site dedicated to the women of Rome.

Kids in School – Learn about life in Roman schools.

Roman Clothing--Women – Learn about the clothes women wore in Rome.

Empresses – Find out about the First Ladies of Rome.

Romanae Antiquae – This site provide an in-depth look at the lives of women in Rome.

Roman Children – Learn about the lives of Roman children, from birth on.

Women and Children  -  Learn about women and children in Rome.


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Chapter 16  A CITY TELLS ITS TALE:  Pompeii and the Roman House

Ancient Rome Pictures: Pompeii – See pictures of a surgeons house and other scenes of Pompei.

Ancient Rome Pictures: Herculaneum – See images of “the other city” which was destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius.

Pictures of Pompei – This is a nice collection of pictures of Pompei.

Roman House -  Here are sample plans of a Roman house.

Tour of Pompeii – Use the interactive map to tour Pompei.  Click on map locations and see pictures.

Discovery Channel :: Pompeii: The Last Day – Follow the events on the last day before Pompeii was destroyed.

Lady Livia's Roman Villa – Take a virtual tour of Livia’s home.

Vesuvius, Italy – Space Shuttle picture of Mt. Vesuvius.

Pompeii, The Forgotten City – Take a virtual tour of Pompeii.

Learning From Pompeii – This is a report from an urban historian on what we have learned from the work of archaeologists unearthing Pompeii.


Chapter 17  ALL THE EMPEROR’S MEN:  Tragan and the Army

Coloumn of Trajan – See the campaigns of Trajan as depicted on the “Coloumn of Trajan” in Rome.

Coins of Trajan – Coins show the many faces of Trajan.  A history of Trajan accompanies the coin images.

Rome - The Age of Trajan – See images of Trajan’s Rome.

Legion XXIV - Weapons Page – Find examples of Roman weapons as created by Roman soldier re-enactors.

Trajan's Roman Cavalry Site – Learn all about Trajan’s cavalry.  See a living history demonstration.

The Roman Army – Learn how the Roman army was organized.

Roman Army Part I – See reliefs, models, reconstructions, and drawings presenting the details of the Roman legions and legionaires.

Papyrus: Letters of soldiers – Primary source documents—letters from soldiers.

Britannia Roman Sites - The Roman Army and Navy in Britain, its fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots…

Roman Reenactment Groups – Find a reenactment group in your area.  Invite a reenactor to your class.


PLEASING THE ROWDY ROMANS:  Gladiators and Circuses

Roman Gladiatorial Games -  Learn all about gladiators and the gladiatorial games.

Possible Female Gladiator Unearthed – Find out about how there were female gladiators and how archaeologists may have made a dramatic discovery.

The Gladiators – Learn about the lives and deaths of gladiators.

Circus Maximus: Rome's Astrodome – Learn about the entertainment (and the people who watched) at the Circus Maximus.

Ancient Rome - Architecture -  See the Roman Colosseum, Circus Maximus and other architectural marvels.

The  Colosseum – Take a virtual tour of the Colosseum and learn about it history and the games played.

Circuses and Races – Learn about the games played in a ring.

Nova Roma: Ludi – The history of the games is explained.  The dates of the events are presented in a table.

Virtual Walkthrough of the Colosseum and Forum Romanum – Take a trip through the Colosseum.  400 pictures.


Chapter 19  HOW TO GET RICH IN ROME:  Business and Trade

Romans - Roman TradeBy importing goods from other countries they raised their standard of living and were able to have many luxuries.

Rome: Map of Trade Routes – View the trade routes of Rome on this map.

Roman Artifacts – View trade items of the Romans.

Archaeology and Early History: Industry - Roman – Evidence of Roman industry is found by archaeologists in Brittain.

Ancient Roman Economy – Basic information on the Roman economy.

Coins of Time - The Store for Ancient Coins of Greece and Rome – See coins used by Roman trades, up for trade today!

FORVM ANCIENT COINS – Articles about and images of Roman coins.

Silk Road - Wikipedia – Learn about how the Romans used the Silk Route to satisfy their craze for silk.


Chapter 20  THE RESTLESS BUILDER:  The Emperor Hadrian

Hadrian – See a collection of Hadrian’s buildings including the Pantheon and his Villa at Tivoli.

The Construction Of Hadrian's Wall – Find information on how and why Hadrian’s Wall was built.

Hadrian's Wall - Cawfields – View’s Hadrian’s Wall as it it today in Cawfields.

BBC - History - Hadrian's Wall – Views of Hadrian’s wall as it is today.

Hadrian's Wall and Fort – Here’s an article about Hadrian’s Wall, with aerial photo, and interactive text links.

Roman Baths – See the Roman baths at Bath, England.  Find primary source descriptions of Romans using the baths.


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Chapter 21  MAGIC AND THE CULTS OF THE NEAR EAST:  New Religious Ideas

Omens and Superstitions -  Learn about the werewolves, vampirs, and ghosts that “haunted” the Romans.

Superstitions and Omens - No official state business was ever held without the taking of omens.  Find out why.

Cybele – Learn about the Roman worship of Cybele as Magna Mater.

Isis – Find out about Isis, the Egyptian god worshipped by some Romans.

 Mithraism – Learn about the mystic religion which was followed by many Romans.


Chapter 22  TAXES AND TACTICS IN THE PROVINCES:  Administering the Empire

Can You Save the Roman Republic? – An activity in which students develop strategies to see that taxes raised by the Romans go to running the empire instead of going to the rich.

Character profile --Tax Collector – Find out why the Jews hated Roman tax collectors.

Roman Dress -  See how the Romans dressed.

Make it! Stola – Find out how to make a stola.

Daily Life in Ancient Rome – Many topics of daily life are presented, from food and clothing to entertainment and weddings.


Chapter 23  ONE GOD OR MANY?:  The Jews of the Roman Empire

Masada – View Masada and read the history of Jewish resistance to Roman rule.

Vespasian – Find out how and why Vespasian put an end to the Jewish revolt.

The Jewish Diaspora: Rome -  Find out about the treatment of Jews by the Romans, and how the Jews survived the Roman rule.

Judaism 101: Table of Contents – Find out the basics of Judaism.

King Herod the Great – Why was King Herod, the Jewish king, a pro-Roman king?


Chapter 24  FROM JESUS TO CONSTANTINE:  The Rise of Christianity

Roman Empire--Christianity – Learn about the rise of Christianity within the Roman Empire.

From Jesus to Christ – The comprehensive story of the first Christians is presented.

The Christian Catacombs – Visit the catacombs in Rome in a virtual tour.

Arch of Constantine, Rome -  See the Arch of Constantine as it stands today in Rome.

First Council of Nicaea – The account of the First Council of Nicaea which established the foundations of the Christian faith.

Constantine I – Here is an interactive on line encyclopedia report on Constantine.


Chapter 25  ROME’S POWER SLIPS AWAY:  The Barbarians

The Barbarians – This site presents a chronology of the barbarian invasions of Europe.

Barbarians – Meet the barbarians who were feared by the Romans.

Mr. Dowling's Barbarians Page – Get the basics about the barbarians who destroyed Rome.

Barbarians at the Gate – Find out details of the various barbarians who attacked Rome.



The Fall of Rome? – Some (sometimes silly) explanations for the fall of Rome.

 Odoacer – Learn about the half Hunnish, half Scririan chieftan of the Germanic who conquered Rome.

The Collapse of the Roman Empire – Read about the fading moments of the Roman Empire.


EPILOGUE:  The Legacies of Ancient Rome

The Influence of Roman Engineering and Architecture – See how the Romans influenced our modern building and technology.

List of Latin Words with English Derivatives – Find out the influence of the Romans on our vocabulary.

The History of Plumbing - Roman and English Legacy – You are plumb right, we got our plumbing from the Romans!

BBC - Romans - Roman Remains – The influence of the Romans on Brittain.

Roman Legacy – The Roman legacy ranges from our letters, to the arch, from medicine to our laws.  Here a set of legacy links.


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BBC - Romans - Activities -  Topics include Dressing for Battle, Festival Fashion, Problem Pots, Shopping and Spending, Terrible Tombstones, Create A Dice, and Pocket Money Pouch.

 Create a Fresco – Guide to help a student make a Roman style fresco.

Student Projects - Example of Rome projects made by students.  Project plan is include.

Roman Baths Game -  Help Claudius get through the Roman baths so he can relax in the Notatio.

 Death in Rome Game - Be a Roman sleuth - use your detective skills to unravel the events behind a mysterious death.

All Roads Lead to Rome – This is a webquest in which a student creates a product to showcase the aspect of Roman life chosen by your group and discover the connections between this ancient culture and our own time.

Ancient Rome Projects for Students – An extensive set of investigations, activities and projects for students studying Rome.

Roman Makeover – See how to do a Roman make-over for a “Roman Lady” in your classroom.

PBS: The Roman Empire in the First Century - Classroom Resources – A collection of lessons supported with resources on Roman life.

Let's Journey Back in Time to Ancient Rome! – In this webquest students use teamwork and the Internet to explore Ancient Rome and learn about their daily life, myths, and government.

A Webquest on Roman Life--Theme Park Design - This webquest  gives  students the challenge of  designing a  theme  park  that is based  on life  in  ancient  Rome.  Student  teams  research  aspects  of  daily life in  Rome and prepare a  proposal to present  to the City Council.   

Did Rome Fall Or Was It Pushed? – The webquest team is assigned the task of researching the reasons for the fall of Rome and coming to a conclusion as to why it did.

WebQuests – This is a guide for teachers on how to create their own webquests.

Quia - Roman Empire – Matching, Concentration, Word Search, Flash Cards on the Roman Empire


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