Body Systems Project 


 PM School Science Project

 

Intro
The Duodenum Dynamics Ad Agency has contracted you as a travel consultant to design a luxury tour through a Human Body System. Before you can collect your fee from the Anatomy Travel Bureau, you must produce a brochure.
The owner of the travel bureau, Mr. Rynders, has informed you that in order to win the contract you must highlight the trendy spots, the exciting activities, and the imports and exports of the areas. For insurance considerations, you must also discreetly mention any possible dangers or special precautions that tourists might encounter in visiting these systems.
Your body tour should include a visit to all of the following systems: (1) Digestive, (2) Respiratory, (3) Skeletal, (4) Muscle, (5) Nervous, (6) Excretory, (7) Circulatory, or (8) Immune.

Requirements
        The main idea is to give an overall sense of the organization and function of each system. You may use drawings, computer graphics, photographs of actual organs, pictures from magazines, journals, or books to help in your advertisement of each system. Whenever possible, type all written parts of brochure. Let your imagination run WILD!
Each person will orally present their brochure to the class, and we will vote on which team gets the bonus for best brochure.

Biology Tour of Human Systems Rubric

Content 50%
1   2   3   4    Information presented is accurate, factual, and relevant to the specific topic
1   2   3   4    Research is detailed and covers the entire system and required topic area
1   2   3   4    Time, energy, effort, enthusiasm, and commitment to the project are evident
1   2   3   4    Project shows mastery of structure and function of human systems
Visual 30%
1   2   3   4    Visual is neat and shows thought and effort
1   2   3   4    Visual clearly illustrates all structures, functions, and risks of with each system
1   2   3   4    Visual exhibits creativity
Oral presentation 10%
1   2   3   4    Presentation is smooth and shows evidence of preparation
Peer and Self Evaluation 10%
1   2   3   4    Evaluations show thought and effort

___________Total Points
 

Grading:

A= 33-36    B+= 32    B= 29-31    C+= 28
C= 25-27    D+= 24    D= 23-21    F<= 20
 

Systems Objectives
The Immune System
OBJECTIVES:
•    Describe the function of the immune system.
•    Explain how the skin functions as a defense against disease.
•    Distinguish between a specific and nonspecific response.
•    Describe the actions of B cells and T cells in an immune response.
•    Describe the relationship between vaccination and immunity.
•    Describe what happens in an allergic response.
•    Describe at least one immune disorders.
•    Explain (diagram) the antigen-antibody reaction.
VOCABULARY TO INCLUDE IN PAMPHLET:
Immunology, antigen, antibody, lymphocyte, leukocyte, thymus gland, bone marrow, B-cell, T-cell, macrophage, vaccine, antibiotic, inflammatory response, immune response, antihistamine, autoimmune disease, fever, helper T cell, pathogen, killer T cells, interferon

Nervous System
OBJECTIVES:
•    Describe the basic structure and function of the nervous system.
•    Describe the structure of a neuron and explain how it operates. (Diagram)
•    List the parts and discuss the function of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Discuss the structure and control centers of the brain.
•    Describe the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), including the Autonomic branch (involuntary) and the Somatic branch (voluntary). In your discussion of the Autonomic system, distinguish between the Sympathetic branch and the Parasympathetic branch.
•    Explain how a nerve impulse travels
•    Explain what occurs during the reflex arc. (Diagram)
VOCABULARY TO USE IN THE PAMPHLET:
Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, Autonomic N.S., Sympathetic N.S., Parasympathetic N.S., ganglia, neuron, dendrite, cell body, axon, mixed nerve, sensory nerve, motor nerve, resting potential, action potential, nerve impulse, synapse, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, stimulus, response, reflex, brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, meninges

The Excretory System
OBJECTIVES:
•    Define excretion.
•    Describe the function of the skin, kidneys, lungs and liver in the excretory process.
•    Describe the structure and function of the kidney and its parts.
•    Explain how the nephron functions.
•    Explain the difference between filtration and reabsorption
VOCABULARY TO BE INCLUDED IN PAMPHLET
excretion, kidney, nephron, Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, filtration, reabsorption, ureter, urethra, urine, bladder, aorta, renal artery, renal vein, adrenal glands, metabolic wastes, sweat glands, active transport

Respiratory System
OBJECTIVES:
•    Identify the structure and function of the parts of the respiratory system.
•    Explain the function of the ribs and diaphragm in the breathing process.
•    Explain how breathing rate is controlled.
•    Describe what happens between the alveoli and the capillaries.
•    Describe the effects of smoking on respiration.
VOCABULARY TO BE INCLUDED IN THE PAMPHLET:
alveoli, gas exchange, epiglottis, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole, larynx, lung, anaerobic respiration, oxygen debt, pharynx, respiration, trachea, vital capacity, inhalation, exhalation, pleural membrane, cilia, CPR, respiratory control center, diaphragm

The Circulatory System
OBJECTIVES:
•    List the functions of the human circulatory system.
•    Trace a drop of blood through the heart from right atrium to the aorta.
•    Locate and label the parts of a heart on a diagram.
•    Compare the blood on the right side of the heart with that on the left side.
•    Describe the components of blood.(red blood cells, white b.c., platelets and plasma)
•    Identify and describe the function of the different types of circulation: pulmonary and systemic circuits.
•    Explain how the heart beats.
•    Explain what is meant by blood pressure.
•    Explain how blood is produced in the body. Describe the role of the spleen and marrow.
•    Discuss diseases of the heart (hypertension and atherosclerosis)
VOCABULARY TO BE INCLUDED IN PAMPHLET
aorta, artery, arteriole, capillary, vein, vena cava, atrium, valve, ventricle, circulatory system, pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, coronary circulation, red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, platelets, plasma, pacemaker, blood transfusion, lymph, deoxygenated blood, pacemaker

The Digestive System
OBJECTIVES:
•    List the parts of the digestive system and give their functions.
•    Compare mechanical digestion to chemical digestion.
•    Explain the function of the digestive enzymes amylase, protease and lipase.
•    Explain the results of the chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and discuss if this digestion occurs in the mouth, stomach and/or small intestines.
•    Discuss the importance of the liver and pancreas in digestion. List the substances they produce and explain their function.
•    Describe the structure of the villi and explain how its function is related to its structure.
VOCABULARY TO BE INCLUDED IN THE PAMPHLET:
digestion, salivary glands, epiglottis, esophagus, stomach, pyloric sphincter valve, duodenum, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestines, mesentery, villi, large intestines, rectum, mucous, feces, peristalsis, amylase, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, lipase, bile, E. coli, essential amino acids, neutral pH, acidic pH
Skeletal System (A Lesson To Bone Up On)
OBJECTIVES:
•    Identify twenty major bones in the body.
•    State the functions of the skeletal system.
•    Describe the composition of bone.
•    Explain the differences in structure and function between the 4 major kinds of moveable joints: ball and socket, hinge, pivot, gliding
•    Discuss some injuries or disorders of the skeletal system.
VOCABULARY
osteology, endoskeleton, appendicular skeleton, axial skeleton, ligaments, tendons, periosteum, Haversian canals, marrow, ossification, joints, arthritis, synovial fluid, fontanels, cartilage, bursa


Muscular System
OBJECTIVES:
•    Compare the structure and function of three types of muscles and give examples of where these muscles would be found in the body.
•    Explain the mechanism of muscle contractions.
•    Explain the function of flexors and extensors.
•    Explain how muscles fatigue.
•    Explain how muscles, bones, and tendons are related.
•    Explain the `all or none' response.
•    Identify 10 major muscles of the body.
VOCABULARY TO INCLUDE IN YOUR PAMPHLET:
belly, muscle fiber, myofibril, actin, myosin, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, tendon, ligament, extensor, flexor, fatigue, myology, acetylcholine, cholinesterase