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Biomes Notes

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The Earths Land Biomes

Biome is a large area characterized by its climate and the plants and animals that live in that area

·         A biome will have similar ecosystems.

·         A biome will have similar animals

·         A biome will have similar climate

·         Some examples of biomes are forests, grasslands, deserts and mountains


 Have mild temperatures

Lots of rain.

Lots of trees and other plants.

Three main types based on main tree type:


Temperate Deciduous,

o   Deciduous trees have leaves that fall off

o   Usually has four seasons

o   Trees create a top layer

o   Bushes, ferns and mosses cover the floor.

o   Birds, bears, deer, turtles, snakes are all very common.

o   Average Yearly Rainfall 75 to 125 cm (29.5 to 49 in.)

o   Average Temperatures Summer: 28ºC (82ºF) Winter: 6ºC (43ºF)


·         Coniferous (taiga),

o   Most trees areconifers which are trees with cones and needle shaped leaves.

o   The threes areevergreens which means the leaves stay on the tree all year.

o   Usually dryer than deciduous forest.

o   Usually has harsh cold winters.

o   Average Yearly Rainfall 35 to 75 cm (14 to 29.5 in.)

o   Average Temperatures Summer: 14ºC (57ºF) Winter: −10ºC (14ºF)

o   Large mammals such as moose and elk. Very few reptiles


·         Tropical Rain Forest.

o   The most diverse ecosystems on earth.

o   ‘Tall trees that make a Canopy

§   a canopyis a forest ceiling made by trees.

§  Many animals live in the canopy

o   Very thick plant life

o   More rain than anywhere else

o   Famous for colorful frogs, exotic birds, apes and monkey.

o   Average Yearly Rainfall up to 400 cm (157.5 in.)

o   Average Temperatures Daytime: 34ºC (93ºF) Nighttime: 20ºC (68ºF)



    • Grasslands are usually warm and dry.
    • More water than a desert but less than a forest.
    • Mostly covered with grass and very few trees.
    • Large herbivores graze on the grass
    • Two main types, prairies and savannas

Prairie (Temperate Grassland)

§  Fires, droughts and grazing prevent trees.

§  Full of small seed eating animals

o   Prairie dogs and mice

§  Also full of large grass eating herbivores.

o   Bison (buffalo)

§  Average Yearly Rainfall 25 to 75 cm (10 to 29.5 in.)

§  Average Temperatures Summer: 30ºC (86ºF) Winter: 0ºC (32ºF)


§  Very hot, very dry 

§  Rain is seasonal

§  Has some clumps of trees

§  Found in Africa, India, and south America

§  Average Yearly Rainfall 150 cm (59 in.)

§  Average Temperatures Dry season: 34ºC (93ºF) Wet season: 16ºC (61ºF)



§  Almost always Dry

§  Very hot

§  Organisms specially adapted for hot and dry weather.

o   Plants grow far apart

o   Cactus have spread out roots.

o   Many animals only come out at night.

§  Can be very hot in the day and very cool at night. Heat escapes easily

§  Average Yearly Rainfall less than 25 cm (10 in.)

§  Average Temperatures Summer: 38ºC (100ºF) Winter: 7ºC (45ºF)



§  Too cold for trees to grow

§  Very little rainful

§  Considered an “arctic desert” Because it is very cold and very dry

Polar Tundra (arctic tundra)

§  Found near the north and south poles.

§  Soil is permanently frozen. This is known as Permafrost.

§  Only has plants with small roots.

o   Moss

o   Shrubs

o   Grass

§  Insects, wolves, caribou, and birds

§  Average Yearly Rainfall 30 to 50 cm

§  Average Temperatures Summer: 12ºC (54ºF) Winter: −26ºC (−15ºF)

                    Alpine Tundra

§  Similar biome to arctic tundra

§  Is found on top of mountains, even in the desert.

§  Tops of tall mountains are always too cold and dry for trees.

Aquatic Biomes

Coming soon:. 

Environmental Issues

Endangered and extinct species

Invasive Species

    Fire ants

    Killer bees


    Asian carp


Habitat loss

Specific trauma


    oil spill