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Biomes Notes

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The Earths Land Biomes

Biome is a large area characterized by its climate and the plants and animals that live in that area

·         A biome will have similar ecosystems.

·         A biome will have similar animals

·         A biome will have similar climate

·         Some examples of biomes are forests, grasslands, deserts and mountains

Forests

 Have mild temperatures

Lots of rain.

Lots of trees and other plants.

Three main types based on main tree type:

·    

 
Temperate Deciduous,

o   Deciduous trees have leaves that fall off

o   Usually has four seasons

o   Trees create a top layer

o   Bushes, ferns and mosses cover the floor.

o   Birds, bears, deer, turtles, snakes are all very common.

o   Average Yearly Rainfall 75 to 125 cm (29.5 to 49 in.)

o   Average Temperatures Summer: 28ºC (82ºF) Winter: 6ºC (43ºF)

 

·         Coniferous (taiga),

o   Most trees areconifers which are trees with cones and needle shaped leaves.

o   The threes areevergreens which means the leaves stay on the tree all year.

o   Usually dryer than deciduous forest.

o   Usually has harsh cold winters.

o   Average Yearly Rainfall 35 to 75 cm (14 to 29.5 in.)

o   Average Temperatures Summer: 14ºC (57ºF) Winter: −10ºC (14ºF)

o   Large mammals such as moose and elk. Very few reptiles

 

·         Tropical Rain Forest.

o   The most diverse ecosystems on earth.

o   ‘Tall trees that make a Canopy

§   a canopyis a forest ceiling made by trees.

§  Many animals live in the canopy

o   Very thick plant life

o   More rain than anywhere else

o   Famous for colorful frogs, exotic birds, apes and monkey.

o   Average Yearly Rainfall up to 400 cm (157.5 in.)

o   Average Temperatures Daytime: 34ºC (93ºF) Nighttime: 20ºC (68ºF)

 

Grasslands

    • Grasslands are usually warm and dry.
    • More water than a desert but less than a forest.
    • Mostly covered with grass and very few trees.
    • Large herbivores graze on the grass
    • Two main types, prairies and savannas

Prairie (Temperate Grassland)

§  Fires, droughts and grazing prevent trees.

§  Full of small seed eating animals

o   Prairie dogs and mice

§  Also full of large grass eating herbivores.

o   Bison (buffalo)

§  Average Yearly Rainfall 25 to 75 cm (10 to 29.5 in.)

§  Average Temperatures Summer: 30ºC (86ºF) Winter: 0ºC (32ºF)

      Savanna

§  Very hot, very dry 

§  Rain is seasonal

§  Has some clumps of trees

§  Found in Africa, India, and south America

§  Average Yearly Rainfall 150 cm (59 in.)

§  Average Temperatures Dry season: 34ºC (93ºF) Wet season: 16ºC (61ºF)

 

Deserts

§  Almost always Dry

§  Very hot

§  Organisms specially adapted for hot and dry weather.

o   Plants grow far apart

o   Cactus have spread out roots.

o   Many animals only come out at night.

§  Can be very hot in the day and very cool at night. Heat escapes easily

§  Average Yearly Rainfall less than 25 cm (10 in.)

§  Average Temperatures Summer: 38ºC (100ºF) Winter: 7ºC (45ºF)

 

Tundra

§  Too cold for trees to grow

§  Very little rainful

§  Considered an “arctic desert” Because it is very cold and very dry

Polar Tundra (arctic tundra)

§  Found near the north and south poles.

§  Soil is permanently frozen. This is known as Permafrost.

§  Only has plants with small roots.

o   Moss

o   Shrubs

o   Grass

§  Insects, wolves, caribou, and birds

§  Average Yearly Rainfall 30 to 50 cm

§  Average Temperatures Summer: 12ºC (54ºF) Winter: −26ºC (−15ºF)

                    Alpine Tundra

§  Similar biome to arctic tundra

§  Is found on top of mountains, even in the desert.

§  Tops of tall mountains are always too cold and dry for trees.


Aquatic Biomes

Coming soon:. 


Environmental Issues

Endangered and extinct species

Invasive Species

    Fire ants

    Killer bees

    Kudzu

    Asian carp

Succession

Habitat loss

Specific trauma

    habitat. 

    oil spill

    pollution 

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