After completing their study of this chapter, students should be able to:
- Describe AtkinsonShiffrin’s classic threestage processing model of memory, and explain how the concept ofworking memory clarifies the processing that occurs in shortterm memory.
- Describe the types of information we encode automatically, and contrast effortful processing with automatic processing, giving examples of each.
- Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe some memoryenhancing encoding strategies.
- Contrast two types of sensory memory, and describe the duration and capacity of working/shortterm memory.
- Describe the capacity and duration of longterm memory, and discuss the biological changes that may underlie memory formation and storage.
- Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain structure associated with each.
- Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory, and explain how retrieval cues can help us access stored memories.
- Describe the impact of environmental contexts and internal emotional states on retrieval.
- Explain why we should value our ability to forget, and discuss the roles of encoding failure and storage decay in the process of forgetting.
- Explain what is meant by retrieval failure, and discuss the effects of interference and motivated forgetting on retrieval.
- Explain how misinformation, imagination, and source amnesia can distort our memory of an event, and discuss why it is difficult to distinguish between true and false memories.
- Discuss whether young children’s eyewitness reports are reliable and the controversy over reports of repressed and recovered memories.
- Explain how an understanding of memory can contribute to effective study techniques.