James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente (1983); Prochaska,
DiClemente, & Norcross (1992); Prochaska & Velicer (1997)
Also referred to as
Transtheoretical Model (TTM); Transtheoretical Model of Intentional Behavior
Change (TTM); Stages of Change Model
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is a theory of behavioral change
processes stating " that intentional behavior change is a process
occurring in a series of stages, rather than a single event ... Motivation is
required for the focus, effort and energy needed to move through the
stages." Note: references to 'self-regulation theory'. (Miller, W.R.,
Rollnick, S., 2002).
Prochaska refers to nine elements pertaining to behavior change: commitment,
consciousness raising, counter conditioning, emotional arousal, environmental
control, helping relationships, reward, self evaluation and social liberation,
The stages of change include:
Transtheoretical Model overview
overview - "The central organizing construct of the model
is the Stages of Change. The model also includes a series of independent
variables, the Processes of
Change, and a series of outcome
measures, including the Decisional Balance and the Temptation scales. The
Processes of Change are ten cognitive and behavior activities that facilitate
Key constructs: pros and cons as part of Decisional
Core constructs: Stages of Change
(organizing framework for the other dimensions)
- Boyd and Myers (1988) - Theory of
- Brug et. al. (2005) - critique and reference
Achievement Theory, Model of Action Phases and cites the Theory of Planned
Behavior (an extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action).
- Consolvo, McDonald,and
Landay (2009) - draw on Goal-Setting
Theory, the Transtheoretical
Model of Behavior Change, Presentation
of Self in Everyday Life ("addresses the social interactions that individuals
manage daily"), and Cognitive
Dissonance Theory ("describes what happens when an individual
realizes that her behaviors and attitudes are inconsistent")
to "propose design
strategies for persuasive technologies that help people who want to change
their everyday behaviors ... technologies that motivate behavior change in
everyday life that specifically account for the intersection of the
technology with the individual’s social world."
- Mezirow (1978) - Transformational Learning
Theory (TLT) see also Transformative Learning Centre
- Moore (2005) - attempts to integrate the
Transtheoretical Model of the Stages of Change with Transformational
Learning Theory (TLT) "to explain the process of transformational, or
Relationship to Other Theories:
Dissonance Theory. "Cognitive Dissonance Theory suggests that a
persuasive technology to encourage lifestyle behavior change should
address whichever factors may prevent the individual from incorporating
the change into her everyday life (i.e., by helping her change her
behavior to match her attitudes)."
- I-Change Model
(Integrated Model) "explaining motivational and
behavioral change is derived from the Attitude – Social influence –
self-Efficacy Model, that can be considered as an integration of ideas of
Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior, Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, Prochaska’s Transtheoretical Model,
the Health Belief Model, and Goal setting theories. Previous versions of
this model (referred to as the ASE-model) have been used to explain a
variety of types of health behaviour."
Theory: According to the TTM:
Self-Efficacy / Situational Temptation - "Self-efficacy (Bandura,
1977) conceptualizes a person's perceived ability to perform on a task as
a mediator of performance on future tasks. A change in the level of
self-efficacy can predict a lasting change in behavior if there are
adequate incentives and skills. The Transtheoretical model employs an
overall confidence score to assess an individual's self-efficacy.
Situational temptations assess how tempted people are to engage in a
problem behavior in a certain situation."
Findings and Implications:
- Challenges to the Model - West (2005)
- Defense of the Model - Prochaska (2006)
Coding Spreadsheet - Web View
- Aziz, Azizi Ab (2008). Ambient agents and behavioral change interventions:
the outreach. Agent Systems Research Group, WAI
(powerpoint presentation) [digital artifacts]
Robert D., and Myers, J. Gordon. (1988). Transformative
Education. International Journal of Lifelong Education 7, no. 4
(October-December 1988): 261-284.
- Brug J, Conner M, Harré N, Kremers S, McKellar
S, Whitelaw S. (2005). The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change: a
critique: observations by five commentators on the paper by Adams, J. and
White, M. (2004) why don't stage-based activity promotion interventions
work? Health Educ Res. 2005 Apr;20(2):244-58.
- Consolvo, Sunny, McDonald, David,
Landay, James L. (2009). Theory-driven design strategies for technologies
that support behavior change in everyday life. Conference on Human Factors in Computing
Systems. Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Human factors
in computing systems. [conference version]
- Hi, Helen Ai, Greenberg, Saul, Huang,
Elaine M. (2010). One size does not fit all: applying the
transtheoretical model to energy feedback technology design. CHI 2010, April
10–15, 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
- Hi, Helen Ai, Greenberg, Saul, Huang,
Elaine M. (2009). One size does not fit all: applying the transtheoretical
model to energy feedback technology design. Report
2009-943-22, Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. September.
- Imel, Susan (1998). Transformative learning in adulthood.
ERIC Digest No. 200.
- Kitchenham, Andrew (2008). The evolution of John Mezirow's Transformative
Learning Theory. [abstract] Journal of Transformative
- Mezirow, Jack. (1981). A critical theory
of adult learning and education. Adult Education 32:3-23.
- Mezirow, Jack. (2000). Learning as
transformation: critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San
Francisco: Jossey Bass.
- Mezirow, Jack. (1978). Perspective
Transformation. Adult Education 28: 100-110.
- Mezirow, Jack. (1991) Transformative
dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1991.
- Mezirow, Jack. (1995). Transformation
Theory of Adult Learning." In In Defense of the lifeworld, edited by
M. R. Welton, pp. 39-70. New York: SUNY Press, 1995.
- Mezirow, Jack. (1997) Transformative Learning:
Theory to Practice. In Transformative learning in action: insights
from practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 74,
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- Mezirow, J. (1994). Understanding transformation theory. Adult
Education Quarterly, 44(4), 222-232.
- Miller, William R., Rollnick, Stephen. (2002).
Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for
Change [preview] (2nd Ed). New York: Guilford Press.
- Moore, Mitchell J. (2005). The Transtheoretical Model of the Stages of Change
and the Phase of Transformative Learning: comparing two theories fo
transformational change. [abstract] Journal of
Transformative Education 3(4):394-415.
- Prochaska J.O. (1979). Systems of psychotherapy: a transtheoretical analysis. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
- Prochaska J.O. and DiClemente C.C. (1982). Trans-theoretical therapy - toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 19(3):276-288.
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J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people
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J. O., & Velicer, W.F. (1997). The Transtheoretical Model of health
behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38-48.
- Prochaska, Janice, M., Prochaska, James O.,
Leveque, Deborah A. (2001). A transtheoretical approach to changing
organizations. [abstract] Administration and Policy in Mental
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(2002). The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In K Glanz,
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the transtheoretical model. Addiction,
- Prochaska, J., Wright, J., & Velicer, W.. (2008).
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