Progress toward understanding human behavior has been hindered by disciplinebound theories, dividing our efforts. Fortunately, these separate endeavors are converging and can be effectively integrated. Focusing on the fundamental features of picoeconomics, expectancy theory, cumulative prospect theory, and need theory, we construct a temporal motivational theory (TMT). TMT appears consistent with the major findings from many other investigations, including psychobiology and behaviorism.The potential implications of TMT are numerous, affecting our understanding on a wide range of topics, including group behavior, job design, stock market behavior, and goal setting. (Steel & Konig 2006: Abstract)
TMT is derived from the core elements of the above-described four well-established theories of motivation: picoeconomics, expectancy theory, CPT, and need theory. TMT indicates that motivation can be understood by the effects of expectancy and value, weakened by delay, with differences for rewards and losses. The theory is represented by Equation 5,,,,(Steel & Konig 2006: 897)
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- Steel, P, & Konig, C J. (2006). Integrating theories of motivation. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 31(4), 889.
- Thakkar, Neal. (2009)
Why Procrastinate: An Investigation of the Root Causes behind
Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal.
This paper examines different theories on the reasons why students procrastinate on their academic assignments. Although the fear of failure, self-regulatory failures and low self-efficacy have been linked to procrastination among students, recent research suggests these theories aren't complete because they don't account for task aversiveness or the hyperbolic discounting of time. The Temporal Motivation Theory is the most valid theory of procrastination today because it incorporates the self-regulatory and self-efficacy theories and accounts for task aversiveness and the hyperbolic discounting of time. By understanding the root causes behind procrastination, effective solutions can be invented, researched and spread to stem the tide of procrastination among students and in society.