Professor John Keller - Florida State University Profile
Official Website: http://www.arcsmodel.com/
Bonnie J. Shellnut (1996, 1998). John Keller: A Motivating Influence in the Field of Instructional Systems Design.
Wayne State University
Preface: This biography was written by Dr. Bonnie Shellnut while she was a doctoral student at Wayne State University. It is based on her careful reading of all my publications at the time and several personal interviews which I supported with references that I sent to her, especially for some of the background material. The end result is, I believe, a fair assessment of the development of my work together with its philosophical and theoretical underpinnings. John Keller, June, 2006.http://www.arcsmodel.com/pdf/Biographical%20Information.pdfBACKGROUND
"The ARCS model originated in 1979 and was grounded in expectancy-value theory, which assumed that people will be motivated to engage in the activities if they perceive there is a positive expectancy to be successful and if the activities are linked to the satisfaction of their needs. In its original form, the two categories-expectancy and value-were expanded to interest, relevance, expectancy and outcomes. After several years of research and application, the original model was transited to the ARCS model, which includes four conditions: attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (Keller, 1984, 1987a)."
(Cheng & Yeh, 2009)
- The Instructional Material Motivational Survey (IMMS) (Keller, 1933) contains is a 36 Likert-scale statements. Each statement measures an individual ARCS component.
- Huang et al. (2006), published a modified version, which they claim to be more appropriate for studies in higher education.
ARCS Model of Motivational Design
Small, R V, Zakaria, N, & El-Figuigui, H. (2004). p. 99 Attention
- Perceptual Arousal (A-PA) (e.g., an incongruous or unexpected event, humor, novelty)
- Inquiry Arousal (A-IA) (e.g., questioning, problem-solving activities)
- Variability (A-V) (e.g., change of pace, format, or media)
- Goal Orientation (R-GO) (e.g., specification of learning objectives, present value, and future use of learning)
- Motive Matching (R-MM) (e.g., content and examples that relate to leamers' previous learning and experiences, positive role models, learning choices)
- Familiarity (R-F) (e.g., concrete and familiar language and examples)
- Learning Requirements (C-LR) (e.g., clearly specified criteria for successful learning or performance)
- Success Opportunities (C-SO) (e.g., an attainable challenge, practice opportunities)
- Personal Control (C-PC) (e.g., shared control of the pace or amount of content presented)
- Natural Consequences (S-NC) (e.g.; opportunities to immediately use newly acquired knowledge or skill in a real or simulated setting)
- Positive Consequences (S-PC) (e.g., provide positive feedback and reinforcements that will sustain the desired behavior, unexpected rewards)
- Equity (S-E) (e.g., maintain consistent standards and,consequences for learning accomplishments).
Date Order: Articles / Books by Dr. Keller
- Keller, J.M., & Pugh, R. (1976). Sex similarities and differences in locus of control in relation to
academic adjustment measures. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 9(3), 110-118.
- Keller, J.M., Goldman, J.A. & Sutterer, J.R. (1978). Locus of control in relation to academic attitudes and performance in a PSI course. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 414-421.
- Keller, J.M., Kelly., & Dodge, B. (1978). A practitioners guide to concepts and measures of motivation. Syracuse, New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources. (104 pages)
- Keller, J.M. (1979). Motivation and instructional design: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Instructional Development, 2 (4), 26 - 34.
- Keller, J.M., & Dodge, B. (1982). The ARCS model of motivational strategies for course designers and developers. Training Developments Institute, Fort Monroe, VA, U.S.A.
- Keller, J.M. (1983). Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational design. Enschede, The Netherlands: Toegepaste Onderwijskunde, Technische Hogeshool Twente. (24 pages)
- Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design theories and models. (pp. 383-433). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Keller, J. M. (1984). The use of the ARCS model of motivation in teacher training. In K. Shaw & A. J. Trott (Eds.), Aspects of Educational Technology Volume XVII: staff Development and Career Updating. London: Kogan Page.
- Keller, J. M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2 - 10.
Not sure which title is correct the one above or one below, have to check this out.
- Keller, J.M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of
Instructional Development, 10(3), 2-10.
- Keller, J.M. (1987, Oct.). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. "Performance and Instruction," 26(8), 1-7. (EJ 362 632)
- Keller, J.M. (1987). "IMMS: Instructional materials motivation survey." Florida State University.
- Keller, J.M., & Kopp, T. (1987). Application of the ARCS model of motivational design. In C.M. Reigeluth(Ed.), Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected theories and models. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, U.S.A
- Keller, J. M. (1987). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance & Instruction, 26(8), 1-7.
- Keller, J. M. (1987). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance & Instruction, 26(9), 1-8.
- Keller, J.M., & Suzuki, K. (1988). Application of the ARCS model to courseware design. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Instructional Designs for Microcomputer Courseware (pp. 401-434). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Keller, J.M. & Keller, B.H. (1989). "Motivational delivery checklist." Florida State University.8 , Pages 37 - 47 Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Visser, J., & Keller, J.M. (1990). The clinical user of motivational messages: An inquiry into the validity of the ARCS model of motivational design. Instructional Science, 19, 467 - 500.
- Keller, J. M. & Keller, B.H. (1991). Motivating learners with multimedia instruction. Proceedings of ICOMMET '91, The Japanese Association for Educational Technology and the International Society for Technology in Education.Tokyo, 313-316.
- Keller, J.M. (1992). Enhancing the motivation to learn: Origins and applications of the ARCS model. Reports from the Institute for Education, Tohoku Gakuin Univresity, 11, 45-67
- Keller, J.M. (1992). Motivational Systems. In H. Stolovitch, & E. Keeps (Eds), Handbook of Human Performance Technology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.
- Keller, J.M., & Burkman, E. (1993). Motivation Principles (Chapter 1). In M. Fleming, & W.H.Levie (Eds.), Instructional message design (2nd Ed.). Educational Technology Publications, U.S.A.
- Keller, J.M. (1994). Trends and tactics for employee motivation, HR Horizons, 115(Winter 94), 5-10.
- Astleitner, H., & Keller, J. (1995). A model of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction, Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 27(3), 270-281.
- Kaufman, R., Keller, J., & Watkins, R. (1995). What works and what doesn’t: Evaluation beyond Kirpatrick. Performance and Instruction, (8-12).
- Keller, J.M. (1996). Motivational design and multimedia: Beyond the novelty effect. Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Technologies of Instruction, 1966. Taipei: Taiwan: National Taiwan Teacher's College. (This document is available in English and Chinese.)
- Keller, J. M. (1996). Validation of the ARCS Model of motivational design. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Meeting for Japan Society for Information and Systems in Education, Kanazawa, JAPAN
- Keller, John M.; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Gakuin, Tohoku (1996). Creation and Cross Cultural Validation of an ARCS Motivational Design Matrix. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for Educational Technology, Kanazawa, Japan (July, 1996).
- Suzuki, K., Keller, J. M., & Computer Project Team. (1996.8). Use of the ARCS motivational design matrix in designing units with computers at Sendai Daiichi Junior High School. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Meeting for Japan Society for Information and Systems in Education, Kanazawa, JAPAN
- Keller, J. M. (1997). Motivational design and multimedia. Beyond the novelty effect. Strategic Human Resource Development Review, 1, 188-203.
- Keller, J. M. (1999). Motivational systems. in H.D. Stolovitch & E.J. Keeps (Eds), Handbook of human performance technology (2nd ed. pp. 373-394) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Keller, J. M. (1999). Motivation in cyber learning environments. Educational Technology International, 1(1),
7 - 30.
- To be read: Keller, J. M. (2002).Motivation and performance. In R.A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (pp. 83-98). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.
- To be read: Keller, J. M., & Suzuki, K. (2004). Learner motivation and e-Learning design: A mutinationally validated process. Journal of Educational Media, 29(3), 229-239. October 2004. (See PDF file No.2)
- READ: Keller, J. M., (2006) What Is Motivational Design?
Revised and expanded version of a previously published encyclopedia article. http://www.arcsmodel.com/pdf/Motivational%20Design%20Rev%20060620.pdf
Others Recommended on J. Keller's Website
- Mills, R. J., & Sorensen, N. (no date). Kids CollegeTM 2004: An Implementation of the ARCS Model of Motivational Design. BAD LINK: Manuscript available as of 22 June 2006 at http://www.learningthroughsports.com/img.asp?id=1706.
- Combining Computer Supported Collaborative Argumentation and Problem-Based Learning by Jörg Zumbach and Peter Reimann
- Motivational Constructs in an Online Learning Environment in a UAE University by Marielle Patronis
- Creative Online Learning Environments by Donald G. Perrin
- Visser, L., Plomp, T., Arimault, R., & Kuiper, W. (2002). Motivating Students at a Distance: The Case of an International Audience. Educational Technology Research & Development, 50(2), 94-110.
- Videoconferencing Instructional Strategies
- Chyung, S. Y. (2001). Conducting learner analysis to adjust online instruction for your faceless learners. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on istance Teaching & Learning, (pp. 85-90).
- Motivating Distance Learning Students Using the ARCS Method