Preliminary Reports

Mothers’ Voices Japan ~ A Japanese version of “Listening to MothersR” surveys ~


This survey questionnaire is a Japanese translation of the U.S. "Listening to MothersR" by Childbirth Connection ( No additional reproduction may be made, whether in whole or in part, without prior written authorization.

Pretesting Survey AFrom Pregnancy & Childbirth, Through One Month Postpartum

Link to Research Methodology

  1. Demographic Data [A]
  2. Before Pregnancy
  3. During Pregnancy [1] --- weight gain, drinking and smoking, perinatal visits
  4. During Pregnancy [2] --- symptoms during pregnancy, childbirth education class
  5. Pre-Labor --- labor induction
  6. During Labor [1] --- non-medical support
  7. During Labor [2] --- medical interventions, walking/eating/drinking
  8. During Labor [3] --- drug use and non-drug measures for labor pain
  9. Delivery
  10. Cesarean Delivery
  11. In Hospital After Birth
  12. Feeding the Baby [A]
  13. First Month After Birth [1] --- co-sleeping, postpartum visit
  14. First Month After Birth [2] --- postpartum symptoms
  15. First Month After Birth [3] --- sexuality
  16. First Month After Birth [4] --- emotional and mental well-being
  17. First Month After Birth [5] --- child care support
  18. Cost
  19. Values regarding Childbirth, Maternity Care, and Women's Rights [A1] --- satisfaction with care, attitudes toward medical interventions, co-sleeping
  20. Values regarding Childbirth, Maternity Care, and Women's Rights [A2] --- informed choice, gender role
  21. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC)
  22. Employment During Pregnancy and Maternity Leave [A]
  23. Messages for Society [A] (Slide Show [Japanese])
  24. Effects of Intrapartum Non-Medical Support on Women's Postpartum Mental Health [1]
  25. Effects of Intrapartum Non-Medical Support on Women's Postpartum Mental Health [2]
  26. Effects of Intrapartum Non-Medical Support on Women's Satisfaction with Maternity Health Care Received

Pretesting Survey B: Postpartum, Child Care, and Employment

Japan-U.S. Comparisons
  • The U.S. survey results are cited from the "Listening to MothersR" Report (2006; 2013) and the "New Mothers Speak Out" Report (2008;2013). 
  • Caution is needed when looking at the cross-cultural comparisons due to the following differences between the "Mothers' Voices Japan" and the original U.S. "Listening to MothersR" surveys.

 "Mothers' Voices Japan"

Pretesting Surveys

 "Listening to Mothers-II/PP" 

U.S. National Surveys

 "Listening to Mothers-III/PP" 

U.S. National Surveys NEW!

Dates AdministeredA: October 2010- February 2011
B: January 2011-March 2011
LtM-II: January to February 2006
LtM-II/pp: July to August 2006
LtM-II: November to December 2012
LtM-II/pp: January to April 2013
Sample SizesA: 220 women
B: 130 women
Representativeness is unknown
LtM-II: 1573 women
LtM-II/pp: 903 women
Representative for the US population
LtM-II: 2400 women
LtM-II/pp: 1072 women (45%)
Representative for the US population
Postpartum Months 
at the Time of Survey
A: 0-24 months after birth
B: 1-26 months after birth
LtM-II: 1-12 months after birth
LtM-II/pp: 7-18 months after birth
LtM-III: 3-17 months after birth
LtM-III/pp: 7-21 months after birth
Survey DesignIndependent, cross-sectional (x2)Longitudinal (6 months apart)Longitudinal
Modes of Data CollectionPaper-and-pencilComputer-based & PhoneComputer-based

What do the A~D at the end of some questions stand for??

Some of the questions were asked of only 1/4 of the participants in order to decrease response burden. The four groups (A-D) were randomly assigned to each 1/4 of the participants, and correspondent questionnaires were distributed at recruitment.